CHEAT  欺騙

CRIME of CAUSING OTHERS TO BELIEVE to be TRUE what one KNOWS is NOT TRUE AND TYPICALLY to CAUSE THEM THEREFORE TO SUFFER DAMAGE.
SWINDLEDEFRAUDDECEIVETRICKSCAMDUPEHOODWINKDOUBLE-CROSSGULLRIP OFFCONFLEECESHAFTHOSESTINGBILKDIDDLEROOKGYPFINAGLEBAMBOOZLEFLIMFLAMPUT ONE OVER ONPULL A FAST ONE ONSUCKERSTIFFHORNSWOGGLE
Taxonoymy

PRETENDSELF-DECEPTION

See also

EXAGGERATECRIME

Kind Of

CRIME

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠 ) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception.

2. Zhà 詐 (ant. què 愨 "honest") is a fraudulent act of cheating designed to harm the interests of others.

3. Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "true, unfaked") is dissumulation and pretense, not necessarily with an intent to harm others.

4. Guǐ 詭 and jué 譎 (all ant. zhèng 正 "straight and not deceitful") are dishonesty with an intent to deceive and harm others.

5. Wū 誣 is to deliberately mislead someone through lying.

6. Dàn 誕 is to deceive through boastful exaggeration. See EXAGGERATE

7. Mán 謾 refers primarily to the speaking without being serious about what one says.

NB: There is an extraordinary wealth of rare vocabulary of possibly colloquial origin within this field.

Modern Chinese Criteria

欺騙 is the current modern word for cheating.

蒙騙 focusses on keeping the other person in the dark about a range of facts.

瞞騙 typically focusses on keeping the other person in the dark about specific details.

誆騙 "dupe" focusses on practical deceit.

詐騙 focusses on artful deceit.

哄騙 focusses on comprehensive deceit.

局騙 refers to swindling or fraud.

騙局 refers nominally to fraud.

誘騙 focusses on misleading someone by pandering to his or her desires.

瞞哄 "pull the wool over someone's eyes" refers to systematic deceit.

欺詐 (lit) refers reprehensively to deceitful behaviour.

欺哄 "fool someone" refers to misleading someone in a comprehensive way.

爾虞我詐 (prov) refers generally to deceitful behaviour.

招搖撞騙 (prov) refers specifically to fraud through pretending that one is an important personality.

掩人耳目 (prov) refers figuratively or periphrastically to deceitful behaviour.

仗勢欺人

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.68

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 114

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 189

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

DOLUS "guile, deception"

FALLACIA

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

FRAUS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 128

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache II.89

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.861

BETRUGSTHEORIE (HISTORY OF RELIGION)

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 299

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

SELF-DECEPTION

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.276.232

SURPRENDRE.TROMPER.LEURRER.DUPER

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 366

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms no.80

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 145A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 91
  • nab : 32
  • vi : 29
  • NPab : 18
  • vadV : 17
  • vadN : 15
  • VPtoN : 5
  • v[adN] : 4
  • VP[adN] : 3
  • vt[oN] : 3
  • nab : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • vttoN.+VtoS : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 93
  • 春秋左傳 : 25
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 論語 : 9
  • 戰國策 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 6
  • 史記 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

欺 / 諆   qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ 44 Attributions

The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception. The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception.

  • vtoNcheat through word or action; treat dishonestly, deceive; perpetrate fraud against 欺於
  • vtoNpassiveget cheated
  • vadNdeceitful, given to cheating
  • viactengage in cheating; be fraudulent
  • vtoNpsychdeceive (oneself)
  • nabactbeing cheated
  • vt[oN]stativecheat others> be deceitfuld, be fraudulent
   zhà OC: tsraaɡs MC: ʈʂɣɛ 40 Attributions

Zhà 詐 (ant. què 愨 "honest") is a fraudulent act of cheating designed to harm the interests of others.

  • nabactdeceitfulness; fraudulence, deceit; acts of deceit
  • v[adN]one who engages in fraud
  • vadNfraudulent, pretended, faked
  • vadVfraudulently; deceitfully, with an intent to deceive [by deceit][CA]
  • viactbe deceitful, be fraudulent; break promises
  • vtoNcheat; 詐於 be deceitful towards deceit
   wū OC: ma MC: mi̯o 21 Attributions

Wū 誣 is to deliberately mislead someone through lying.

  • nabactcheating, error, mistake, aberration; lie
  • vadNdeceitful, dishonest
  • viactbe dishonest, tell a lie; commit an aberration
  • vtoNdistort, lie about; mislead (mostly superiors)
  • vtoNpsychdeceive (oneself)
  • vtoNpassivebe cheated
   mán OC: moon MC: mʷɑn 10 Attributions

Mán 謾 refers primarily to the speaking without being serious about what one says.

  • vadNdeceptive, deceitful
  • vadVdeceitfully; idly
  • viactdisguise the facts; be deceptive; be less than open
  • vt+prep+Nhoodwink
  • vtoNcheat, deceive
  • vtoNpassivebe deceived
詐偽   zhà wěi OC: tsraaɡs ŋgʷals MC: ʈʂɣɛ ŋiɛ 10 Attributions
  • NPabactfraudulence of any kind
  • VPiengage in fraudulence
   wěi OC: ŋgʷals MC: ŋiɛ 9 Attributions

Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "true, unfaked") is dissumulation and pretense, not necessarily with an intent to harm others.

  • nabact(deceitful action>) deceit, deceitfulness
  • v[adN]nonreferentialone who deceives> the deceitful and pretending persons
   huàn OC: ɢʷreens MC: ɦɣɛn 8 Attributions
  • nabBUDDH: ?? illusion
  • vadNBUDDH: ?? illusionary, magic
  • vadVBUDDH: ?? through illusion, by illusion
   wù OC: ŋʷaas MC: ŋuo̝ 7 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecheat, delude, mislead
  • vtoNcausativecause somebody to be mistaken> cheat; delude; mislead
   kuáng OC: kʷaŋs MC: ki̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • viactbe deceitful, be fraudulent, be a cheater
  • vtoNdeceive
  • nabdeceit
  • vibe fraudulent
  • vttoN.+VtoSconativetry to cheat N by saying S
   yòu OC: luʔ MC: jɨu 6 Attributions
  • vtoNdeceive, cheat; delude
   jué OC: kʷliid MC: ket 6 Attributions
  • vadNdeceitful
  • viactcommit political fraud
  • vtoNcheat with; deceive; cheat
  • vibe deceitful
   xuán OC: ɡʷeen MC: ɦen 5 Attributions
  • vtoNdeceive, delude; confuse
  • vtoNpassivebe blinded (and deceived) by
   guǐ OC: krolʔ MC: kiɛ 5 Attributions

Guǐ 詭 and jué 譎 (all ant. zhèng 正 "straight and not deceitful") are dishonesty with an intent to deceive and harm others.

  • nabactcheating
  • vadNdeceitful, cheating
  • vadVMENG, HANSHU: (e.g. speak, or treat someone) dishonestly
  • viactbe dishonest, swindle
  • vtoNcheat about
狙詐   jū zhà OC: skha tsraaɡs MC: tshi̯ɤ ʈʂɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • NPabactscheming fraud
  • VPiactcommit scheming fraud
  • VP[adN]N=humcheaters, frauds
   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vadVfraudulently
  • vibe a fraud
   méng OC: mooŋ MC: muŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNkeep in the dark
   qū OC: khoɡ MC: khi̯ok 3 Attributions
  • nabactdevious course of action, warped way of behaving
  • vtoNfigurativebe devious in relation to
   mài OC: mrees MC: mɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNbetray
  • vtoNpassivebe cheated, get cheated
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2betray N1 to N2
巧詐   qiǎo zhà OC: khruuʔ tsraaɡs MC: khɣɛu ʈʂɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPabactclever deceitfulness; clever cheating
  • VPibe given to clever fraud; cheat cleverly
欺誑   qī kuáng OC: khɯ ɡʷaŋ MC: khɨ gi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNcheat and mislead
  • VPtoNreflexive.自mislead oneself, deceive oneself
   màn OC: mroons MC: mɣan 2 Attributions
  • vtoNrudely hoodwink, rudely deceive
   wǎng OC: maŋʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vichangebe mislead, lose one's way
  • vtoNfigurativeensnare and mislead
    OC:  MC:  2 Attributions
  • viactrare: be deceitful [graphic variant of dàn 誕)
  • vtoNcheat
姦詐   jiān zhà OC: kraan tsraaɡs MC: kɣan ʈʂɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • vt[oN]be wickedly deceitful
  • NPabdeceit
諂誑   chǎn kuáng OC: khrlomʔ kʷaŋs MC: ʈhiɛm ki̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPadNcharacterised by deceit (and flattery?)
   yú OC: ŋʷa MC: ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcheat, deceive
詿   guà OC: kʷrees MC: kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdeceive
   zhuàn OC: ɡrleems MC: ɖɣɛm 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcolloquialTang vernacular: to deceive, mislead read zuàn
偽佞   wěi nìng OC: ŋgʷals neeŋs MC: ŋiɛ neŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychhypocrisy
偽詐   wěi zhà OC: ŋgʷals tsraaɡs MC: ŋiɛ ʈʂɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactpretense and cheating
欺惑   qī huò OC: khɯ ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: khɨ ɦək 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativecheat so as to make confused
欺詐   qī zhà OC: khɯ tsraaɡs MC: khɨ ʈʂɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcheating, deception
  • VPiactbe deceitful and treacherous in all sorts of ways
虛欺   xū qī OC: qhla khɯ MC: hi̯ɤ khɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]cheat others> be dishonest
詿誤   guà wù OC: kʷrees ŋʷaas MC: kɣɛ ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpsychcheat (oneself)
   nòng OC: ɡ-rooŋs MC: luŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmock and cheat
迷罔   mí wǎng  MC: mej mjangX  OC: mii maŋʔ  1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]pluralpeople who mislead others
埶詐   yì zhà MC: ngjiejH tsraeH OC: -- tsraaɡs 1 Attribution
  • VPi= shi4zha4 勢詐: be deceitful
   mèi OC: mɯɯds MC: muo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcheat by keeping in the dark
   mán OC: mboon MC: mʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause to be blind > cheat, dupe (also:) cause not to become aware of things; keep ignorant
紿 / 詒   dài OC: lɯɯʔ MC: dəi dài OC: lɯɯʔ MC: dəi 0 Attributions
  • viactGU be craftily untruthful, not speak the truth SW: 相欺詒也
  • vtoNHANSHU, Dongfang Shuo 3 cheat
   miù OC: mɢrus MC: mi̯u 0 Attributions
  • vadNdeceitlful; GUAN: subtle
  • videceitful; SJ: devious, subtle
  • vt+V[0]pretend to VERB
  • vtoNSJ: cheat, pretend
   kuāng OC: khʷaŋ MC: khi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpost-Han, Hongloumeng: hoax, deceive
   dàn OC: laanʔ MC: dɑn 0 Attributions

Dàn 誕 is to deceive through boastful exaggeration. See EXAGGERATE

       qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
    • viactSHUOWEN: cheat; this is a variant graph for 欺 which is well attested in bronze literature. 欺也。從言其聲。
       lán OC: ɡ-raan MC: lɑn 0 Attributions
    • vtoNcheat
       guàng OC: kʷaŋʔ MC: ki̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNdeceive
       piàn OC: phens MC: phiɛn 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpost-Han, late baihua, Pipaji: cheat
    詐紿   zhà dài OC: tsraaɡs lɯɯʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛ dəi 0 Attributions
    • VPiactengage in fraudulent behaviour
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VP[adN]pluralpeople who mislead others

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: