CRIME of CAUSING OTHERS TO BELIEVE to be TRUE what one KNOWS is NOT TRUE AND TYPICALLY to CAUSE THEM THEREFORE TO SUFFER DAMAGE.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠 ) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception.
2. Zhà 詐 (ant. què 愨 "honest") is a fraudulent act of cheating designed to harm the interests of others.
3. Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "true, unfaked") is dissumulation and pretense, not necessarily with an intent to harm others.
4. Guǐ 詭 and jué 譎 (all ant. zhèng 正 "straight and not deceitful") are dishonesty with an intent to deceive and harm others.
5. Wū 誣 is to deliberately mislead someone through lying.
6. Dàn 誕 is to deceive through boastful exaggeration. See EXAGGERATE
7. Mán 謾 refers primarily to the speaking without being serious about what one says.
NB: There is an extraordinary wealth of rare vocabulary of possibly colloquial origin within this field.
Modern Chinese Criteria
欺騙 is the current modern word for cheating.
蒙騙 focusses on keeping the other person in the dark about a range of facts.
瞞騙 typically focusses on keeping the other person in the dark about specific details.
誆騙 "dupe" focusses on practical deceit.
詐騙 focusses on artful deceit.
哄騙 focusses on comprehensive deceit.
局騙 refers to swindling or fraud.
騙局 refers nominally to fraud.
誘騙 focusses on misleading someone by pandering to his or her desires.
瞞哄 "pull the wool over someone's eyes" refers to systematic deceit.
欺詐 (lit) refers reprehensively to deceitful behaviour.
欺哄 "fool someone" refers to misleading someone in a comprehensive way.
爾虞我詐 (prov) refers generally to deceitful behaviour.
招搖撞騙 (prov) refers specifically to fraud through pretending that one is an important personality.
掩人耳目 (prov) refers figuratively or periphrastically to deceitful behaviour.
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH ／
DOLUS "guile, deception"
BETRUGSTHEORIE (HISTORY OF RELIGION)
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 韓非子 : 93
- 春秋左傳 : 25
- 祖堂集 : 14
- 百喻經 : 10
- 論語 : 9
- 戰國策 : 7
- 阮籍集四卷 : 6
- 史記 : 6
- 說苑 : 5
- 法言 : 5
- 韓詩外傳 : 5
- 禮記 : 4
- 荀子 : 4
- 賢愚經 : 3
- 妙法蓮華經 : 3
- 新論-漢-桓譚 : 3
- 楚辭 : 3
- 陸機集十一卷 : 2
- 呂氏春秋 : 2
- 管子 : 2
- 莊子 : 2
- 臨濟錄 : 2
- 孟子 : 2
- 淮南子 : 2
- 列子 : 1
- 孫子 : 1
- 論衡 : 1
- 太平經 : 1
- 六祖壇經 : 1
- 文子 : 1
欺 / 諆 qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ 44 Attributions
The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception. The standard common word for cheating is qī 欺 (ant. chéng 誠) and it refers to any deliberate act of deception, self-interested or not, even occasionally self-deception.
- vtoNcheat through word or action; treat dishonestly, deceive; perpetrate fraud against 欺於
- vtoNpassiveget cheated
- vadNdeceitful, given to cheating
- viactengage in cheating; be fraudulent
- vtoNpsychdeceive (oneself)
- nabactbeing cheated
- vt[oN]stativecheat others> be deceitfuld, be fraudulent
詐 zhà OC: tsraaɡs MC: ʈʂɣɛ 40 Attributions
Zhà 詐 (ant. què 愨 "honest") is a fraudulent act of cheating designed to harm the interests of others.
- nabactdeceitfulness; fraudulence, deceit; acts of deceit
- v[adN]one who engages in fraud
- vadNfraudulent, pretended, faked
- vadVfraudulently; deceitfully, with an intent to deceive [by deceit][CA]
- viactbe deceitful, be fraudulent; break promises
- vtoNcheat; 詐於 be deceitful towards deceit
誣 wū OC: ma MC: mi̯o 21 Attributions
Wū 誣 is to deliberately mislead someone through lying.
- nabactcheating, error, mistake, aberration; lie
- vadNdeceitful, dishonest
- viactbe dishonest, tell a lie; commit an aberration
- vtoNdistort, lie about; mislead (mostly superiors)
- vtoNpsychdeceive (oneself)
- vtoNpassivebe cheated
謾 mán OC: moon MC: mʷɑn 10 Attributions
Mán 謾 refers primarily to the speaking without being serious about what one says.
- vadNdeceptive, deceitful
- vadVdeceitfully; idly
- viactdisguise the facts; be deceptive; be less than open
- vtoNcheat, deceive
- vtoNpassivebe deceived
詐偽 zhà wěi OC: tsraaɡs ŋgʷals MC: ʈʂɣɛ ŋiɛ 10 Attributions
- NPabactfraudulence of any kind
- VPiengage in fraudulence
偽 wěi OC: ŋgʷals MC: ŋiɛ 9 Attributions
Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "true, unfaked") is dissumulation and pretense, not necessarily with an intent to harm others.
- nabact(deceitful action>) deceit, deceitfulness
- v[adN]nonreferentialone who deceives> the deceitful and pretending persons
幻 huàn OC: ɢʷreens MC: ɦɣɛn 8 Attributions
- nabBUDDH: ?? illusion
- vadNBUDDH: ?? illusionary, magic
- vadVBUDDH: ?? through illusion, by illusion
誤 wù OC: ŋʷaas MC: ŋuo̝ 7 Attributions
- vtoNcausativecheat, delude, mislead
- vtoNcausativecause somebody to be mistaken> cheat; delude; mislead
誑 kuáng OC: kʷaŋs MC: ki̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
- viactbe deceitful, be fraudulent, be a cheater
- vibe fraudulent
- vttoN.+VtoSconativetry to cheat N by saying S
誘 yòu OC: luʔ MC: jɨu 6 Attributions
- vtoNdeceive, cheat; delude
譎 jué OC: kʷliid MC: ket 6 Attributions
- viactcommit political fraud
- vtoNcheat with; deceive; cheat
- vibe deceitful
眩 xuán OC: ɡʷeen MC: ɦen 5 Attributions
- vtoNdeceive, delude; confuse
- vtoNpassivebe blinded (and deceived) by
詭 guǐ OC: krolʔ MC: kiɛ 5 Attributions
Guǐ 詭 and jué 譎 (all ant. zhèng 正 "straight and not deceitful") are dishonesty with an intent to deceive and harm others.
- vadNdeceitful, cheating
- vadVMENG, HANSHU: (e.g. speak, or treat someone) dishonestly
- viactbe dishonest, swindle
- vtoNcheat about
狙詐 jū zhà OC: skha tsraaɡs MC: tshi̯ɤ ʈʂɣɛ 5 Attributions
- NPabactscheming fraud
- VPiactcommit scheming fraud
- VP[adN]N=humcheaters, frauds
妄 wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
- vibe a fraud
蒙 méng OC: mooŋ MC: muŋ 4 Attributions
- vtoNkeep in the dark
曲 qū OC: khoɡ MC: khi̯ok 3 Attributions
- nabactdevious course of action, warped way of behaving
- vtoNfigurativebe devious in relation to
賣 mài OC: mrees MC: mɣɛ 3 Attributions
- vtoNpassivebe cheated, get cheated
- vttoN1.+prep+N2betray N1 to N2
巧詐 qiǎo zhà OC: khruuʔ tsraaɡs MC: khɣɛu ʈʂɣɛ 3 Attributions
- NPabactclever deceitfulness; clever cheating
- VPibe given to clever fraud; cheat cleverly
欺誑 qī kuáng OC: khɯ ɡʷaŋ MC: khɨ gi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
- VPtoNcheat and mislead
- VPtoNreflexive.自mislead oneself, deceive oneself
慢 màn OC: mroons MC: mɣan 2 Attributions
- vtoNrudely hoodwink, rudely deceive
罔 wǎng OC: maŋʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
- vichangebe mislead, lose one's way
- vtoNfigurativeensnare and mislead
訑 OC: MC: 2 Attributions
- viactrare: be deceitful [graphic variant of dàn 誕)
姦詐 jiān zhà OC: kraan tsraaɡs MC: kɣan ʈʂɣɛ 2 Attributions
- vt[oN]be wickedly deceitful
諂誑 chǎn kuáng OC: khrlomʔ kʷaŋs MC: ʈhiɛm ki̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
- VPadNcharacterised by deceit (and flattery?)
虞 yú OC: ŋʷa MC: ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
- vtoNcheat, deceive
詿 guà OC: kʷrees MC: kɣɛ 1 Attribution
賺 zhuàn OC: ɡrleems MC: ɖɣɛm 1 Attribution
- vtoNcolloquialTang vernacular: to deceive, mislead read zuàn
偽佞 wěi nìng OC: ŋgʷals neeŋs MC: ŋiɛ neŋ 1 Attribution
偽詐 wěi zhà OC: ŋgʷals tsraaɡs MC: ŋiɛ ʈʂɣɛ 1 Attribution
- NPabactpretense and cheating
欺惑 qī huò OC: khɯ ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: khɨ ɦək 1 Attribution
- VPtoNresultativecheat so as to make confused
欺詐 qī zhà OC: khɯ tsraaɡs MC: khɨ ʈʂɣɛ 1 Attribution
- NPabactcheating, deception
- VPiactbe deceitful and treacherous in all sorts of ways
虛欺 xū qī OC: qhla khɯ MC: hi̯ɤ khɨ 1 Attribution
- VPt[oN]cheat others> be dishonest
詿誤 guà wù OC: kʷrees ŋʷaas MC: kɣɛ ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
- VPtoNpsychcheat (oneself)
弄 nòng OC: ɡ-rooŋs MC: luŋ 1 Attribution
- vtoNmock and cheat
迷罔 mí wǎng MC: mej mjangX OC: mii maŋʔ 1 Attribution
- VP[adN]pluralpeople who mislead others
埶詐 yì zhà MC: ngjiejH tsraeH OC: -- tsraaɡs 1 Attribution
- VPi= shi4zha4 勢詐: be deceitful
昧 mèi OC: mɯɯds MC: muo̝i 0 Attributions
- vtoNcheat by keeping in the dark
瞞 mán OC: mboon MC: mʷɑn 0 Attributions
- vtoNcausativecause to be blind > cheat, dupe (also:) cause not to become aware of things; keep ignorant
紿 / 詒 dài OC: lɯɯʔ MC: dəi dài OC: lɯɯʔ MC: dəi 0 Attributions
- viactGU be craftily untruthful, not speak the truth SW: 相欺詒也
- vtoNHANSHU, Dongfang Shuo 3 cheat
繆 miù OC: mɢrus MC: mi̯u 0 Attributions
- vadNdeceitlful; GUAN: subtle
- videceitful; SJ: devious, subtle
- vt+Vpretend to VERB
- vtoNSJ: cheat, pretend
誆 kuāng OC: khʷaŋ MC: khi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
- vtoNpost-Han, Hongloumeng: hoax, deceive
誕 dàn OC: laanʔ MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
Dàn 誕 is to deceive through boastful exaggeration. See EXAGGERATE
諆 qī OC: khɯ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
- viactSHUOWEN: cheat; this is a variant graph for 欺 which is well attested in bronze literature. 欺也。從言其聲。
讕 lán OC: ɡ-raan MC: lɑn 0 Attributions
迋 guàng OC: kʷaŋʔ MC: ki̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
騙 piàn OC: phens MC: phiɛn 0 Attributions
- vtoNpost-Han, late baihua, Pipaji: cheat
詐紿 zhà dài OC: tsraaɡs lɯɯʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛ dəi 0 Attributions
- VPiactengage in fraudulent behaviour
MC: OC: 0 Attributions
- VP[adN]pluralpeople who mislead others
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: