PRETEND  假裝

CHEAT so as to CAUSE OTHERS to BELIEVE one COPULA:is RESEMBLING:as one SEEMS WHEN one is NOT.
MAKE AS IFPROFESSAFFECTDISSIMULATEDISSEMBLEPUT IT ONPUT ON A FALSE FRONTGO THROUGH THE MOTIONSSHAMFAKE ITPUT ON AN ACT ASMAKE BELIEVE ONE ISPLAY AT BEINGACT (THE PART OF)PLAY-ACT (THE PART OF)IMPERSONATE
Hypernym

CHEAT -> CRIME -> ACT -> MOVE -> CHANGE -> EVENT -> REALITY -> EXIST -> BE IN -> RELATION -> FEATURE -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for pretending to be what one is not is yáng 佯 (ant.* zhēn xiàng 真相 "real shape").

2. Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "genuine") refers to the deliberate production of something artificial, and by extension the word comes to mean "pretend".

3. Shì 飾 (ant. pǔ 樸 "basic and genuine, unadorned") refers to ostentatious pretence.

4. Wū 誣 (ant. xìn 信 "trusty") emphaises the fraudulent aspect of pretense.

5. Wēi fú 微服 and wēi xíng 微行 refer specifically to a notorious person going out and pretending to be an ordinary citizen of some kind or another.

6. Jiǎ 假 (ant. zhēn 真 "genuine") is rare in pre-Buddhist times and refers to pretending to do something.

Modern Chinese Criteria

假裝 is the current modern word for pretending.

偽裝 focusses on the artificiality of the pretence.

裝作 focusses on the creativeness of act of pretending.

作偽 focusses on the act of dissimulating pretence itself rather than its result.

裝假 "feign, make pretences" is often intransitive.

假充 "pose as" is always transitive.

佯裝 (lit) focusses on the dissimulation involved in pretending.

弄虛作假 (prov) refers generally to acts of pretense.

做作

扭捏

裝蒜

裝腔

妝��

裝相

裝樣子

裝腔作勢

裝模作樣

惺惺作態

東施效顰

故作姿態

拿腔作勢

拿腔拿調

矯揉造作

無病呻吟

像煞有介事

一本正經

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 873

  • “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 ( HUANG XIAODONG 2003) p. 175

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    DISSIMULATIO

    HYPOCRISIS

    SIMULATIO

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 32

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 11.938

    VERSTELLUNG

  • Theophrast, Charaktere ( THEOPHRASTUS 1960) p. no. 1

    EIRON

  • Ästhetische Grundbegriffe ( BARCK 2010) p. 5.509

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt+V[0] : 23
  • vtoN : 8
  • nab : 7
  • vadV : 5
  • vt+prep+N : 5
  • vttoN1.postvtoN2 : 3
  • vtoNPab{S} : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 2
  • vi : 2
  • vtoV(0) : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • NP{v1&v2(.adN)} : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 31
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 長短經 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

偽 / 為   wěi OC: ŋgʷals MC: ŋiɛ wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 20 Attributions

Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "genuine") refers to the deliberate production of something artificial, and by extension the word comes to mean "pretend". Wěi 偽 (ant. zhēn 真 "genuine") refers to the deliberate production of something artificial, and by extension the word comes to mean "pretend".

  • nabactdissimulation, artifice, pretense
  • vadNdishonest, dissimulating
  • vadVthrough dissimulation; under false pretenses
  • viactdissimulate
  • vt+V[0]fake; pretend to
  • vttoN1.postvtoN2treat N1 as if he was N2
  • vttoN1.postvtoN2以主為父 "treat the ruler as (if he were) one's father "treat N2 as if he was N1
佯 / 陽   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 12 Attributions

The current general word for pretending to be what one is not is yáng 佯 (ant.* zhēn xiàng 真相 "real shape"). The current general word for pretending to be what one is not is yáng 佯 (ant.* zhēn xiàng 真相 "real shape").

  • vt+V[0]pretend to
  • viactmake pretenses
  • vadVmaking a false pretense, using false pretenses
   jiǎo OC: krewʔ MC: kiɛu 7 Attributions
  • vadVthrough pretense, by pretending, on false pretenses
  • vt+prep+Npretend to (fame)
  • vt+V[0]pretend to V
  • vtoNmake pretenses for (the outsiders)
  • vtoNbe pretentious about
   shì OC: qhljɯɡ MC: ɕɨk 7 Attributions

Shì 飾 (ant. pǔ 樸 "basic and genuine, unadorned") refers to ostentatious pretence.

  • nabactpretense
  • viactbe pretentious, put on a pretentious show
  • vt+prep+Nmake a pretentious show of; affect 飾於
  • vtoNput on an attractive show of
  • vtoNPab{S}make an artificial pretence that S
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNpretend to (abilities); pretend to be (the Buddha)
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • vadVwith false pretense, under false pretenses
  • vt+prep+Npretend that; pretend to 假於
  • vtoN以A假B: use A instead of B pretending that A is B
  • vtoV(0)pretend to V
   jiè OC: skjaags MC: tsɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • nabtextpretext
  • vtoNmake pretentions at, pretend to have
微服   wēi fú OC: mɯl bɯɡ MC: mɨi buk 2 Attributions

Wēi fú 微服 and wēi xíng 微行 refer specifically to a notorious person going out and pretending to be an ordinary citizen of some kind or another.

  • VPt[oN](of Confucius (MENG) and later standardly emperors or kings:) go out incognito
鄉原   xiāng yuán OC: qhaŋ ŋɡon MC: hi̯ɐŋ ŋi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • NP{v1&v2(.adN)}hypocrites 鄉愿
  • NPadNhypocritical
   shì OC: ɢljils MC: ʑi 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]pretend that
   xiáng OC: sɢlaŋ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]read yáng: to pretend to V see 佯
   wū OC: ma MC: mi̯o 1 Attribution

Wū 誣 (ant. xìn 信 "trusty") emphaises the fraudulent aspect of pretense.

  • vt+V[0]pretend to by making untruthful statements (be able to, having an ability etc)
偽匿   wěi nì OC: ŋgʷals nɯɡ MC: ŋiɛ ɳɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsych/actfraudulent pretense; hypocrisy, dissimulation
矯舉   jiǎo jǔ OC: krewʔ klaʔ MC: kiɛu ki̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake pretentious speeches
詐現   zhà xiàn OC: tsraaɡs ɡeens MC: ʈʂɣɛ ɦen 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpretend to a quality
   zhuāng OC: skraŋ MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpost-Han: pretend, put on a show of
   tuō OC: ph-laaɡ MC: thɑk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpretend to
   chěng OC: theŋʔ MC: ʈhiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]pretend that one V-s
借以   jiè yǐ OC: skjaags k-lɯʔ MC: tsɣɛ jɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNpretend to
微行   wēi xíng OC: mɯl ɢraaŋ MC: mɨi ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions

Wēi fú 微服 and wēi xíng 微行 refer specifically to a notorious person going out and pretending to be an ordinary citizen of some kind or another.

       wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
    • vt+V[0]pretend to V; dissimulate
    詳為   yáng wéi MC: yang hjweH OC: k-laŋ ɢʷal 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNread yángwěi: pretend something

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: