CRUEL  殘酷

VIOLENT AND WICKED so as to DELIGHT in INJURING OR DAMAGING OTHERS.
BRUTALSAVAGEINHUMANBARBARICBARBAROUSBRUTISHBLOODTHIRSTYMURDEROUSVICIOUSSADISTICWICKEDEVILFIENDISHDIABOLICALMONSTROUSABOMINABLECALLOUSRUTHLESSMERCILESSPITILESSREMORSELESSUNCARINGHEARTLESSSTONY-HEARTEDHARD-HEARTEDCOLD-BLOODEDCOLD-HEARTEDUNFEELINGUNKINDINHUMANEDATED DASTARDLYLITERARY FELL
Antonymy

BENEVOLENCESYMPATHY

Kind Of

VIOLENT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for psychological cruelty is rěn 忍 (ant. cí 慈 "show kind loving concern"), and the current general word for cruelty in action is cán 殘 (ant. rén 仁 "kind-heartedness").

2. NŸè 虐 (ant. fǔ 撫 "take good care of, show proper concern for subordinates or subjects") refers to wanton cruelty in the exercise of political authority.

3. Lì 戾 typically refers to deliberate cruelty for its own sake, typically by those in political authority, viewed as a political mistake. See SEVERE

4. Bào 暴 refers to a propensity towards public violence by those in authority, viewed as a character defect. See VIOLENT

Modern Chinese Criteria

凶殘

殘酷

殘暴

殘忍

暴虐

酷虐

暴戾

暴戾恣睢

殘酷無情

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 67

DIRUS, ATROX

141. Indignatus; f., natus, ut Festus. Vide Serv., ad illud II Aen.: Quae mens tam dira.

--Fest., dictione Atroces.

Ibid. Pantinus pro in id adactus indicat ex var. lect. indignatus, et ex conjectura natus. Barthius, lib. XXXVIII Adversar., cap. 2, legit neque suasibilis, et exponit consultus, ratione utens, ut apud Apicium, et Phoebadium. [AREV.]

]

141. Inter Dirum et atrocem. Dirus immisericors, quasi divina ira in id adactus. Atrox, crudelis, hoc est, crudus, neque suavis [ Al., suasibilis].

SAEVUS, CRUDELIS

501. Inter Saevum et crudelem. Saevus in ira, crudelis in sanguine.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CRUEL

saevitia refers to the blood-thirsty cruelty of the tyrant who acts like a ravenous beast.

crudelitas refers to the reckless cruelty e.g. of a judge who enforces the utmost rigour of the law.

atrocitas

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CRUDELITAS

INHUMANITAS

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.755

WILDHEIT; GRAUSAMKEIT; ROHHEIT

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 65A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 20
  • vtoN : 20
  • VPi : 8
  • NPab : 7
  • vadN : 7
  • NP : 6
  • nab : 6
  • vt+V[0] : 5
  • NPab : 3
  • vadV : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • VP[adNab] : 3
  • VPtoN : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • VP[adN] : 2
  • vt prep N : 1
  • v[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 27
  • 孟子 : 14
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 管子 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   nǜe OC: ŋawɡ MC: ŋi̯ɐk 25 Attributions

Nyè 虐 (ant. fǔ 撫 "take good care of, show proper concern for subordinates or subjects") refers to wanton cruelty in the exercise of political authority.

  • nabactcruel oppression; cruelty
  • v[adN]nonreferentialsomebody who is cruel; oppressor; tyrant
  • vadNcruel; tyrannical (government etc.)
  • vadVoppressively; cruelly
  • vibe cruel
  • vtoNbe ruthlessly harmful to
  • vtoNcausativecause to become cruel, callous, unfeeling
  • vt prep Ndeal with cruelly, maltreat, mistreat
   rěn OC: njinʔ MC: ȵin 22 Attributions

The current general word for psychological cruelty is rěn 忍 (ant. cí 慈 "show kind loving concern"), and the current general word for cruelty in action is cán 殘 (ant. rén 仁 "kind-heartedness").

  • nsubject=humanthose who are callous
  • vadNpitiless, callous, insensitive
  • vibe insensitive, hard-hearted, callous 殘忍。 漢 賈誼 《新書·道術》:"惻隱憐人謂之慈,反慈為忍。"
  • vt(oN)be callous enough to put up or bear with a contextually determinate situation
  • vt+V[0]be callous or hard-hearted enough to be able to (live with cruelty by others); be able to bear with cruel behaviour (on one's own part); NB: THE TWO IDENTICAL LEXEMES MUST BE CONFLATED
  • vtoNbe callous and unfeeling with respect to
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat heartlessly; be callous towards
  • vtoNcausativecause to become callous
不仁   bù rén OC: pɯʔ njin MC: pi̯ut ȵin 19 Attributions
  • VP[adN]litotesunfeeling person; cruel person
  • VP[adNab]actwicked behaviour or acting, cruelty
  • VPilitotesbe not benevolent> be devoid of goodness of heart, be cruel
  • VPt+prep+Ngradedbe more unfeeling (then somebody)
  • NPabactact of unkindness
  • VPadNwicked
   lì OC: rɯɯds MC: lei 8 Attributions

Lì 戾 typically refers to deliberate cruelty for its own sake, typically by those in political authority, viewed as a political mistake. See SEVERE

  • nabactcallousness, heartlessness
  • vadNcruel
  • viactbe reckless, be callous and cruel; be violent; make violent and abrupt movements
   cán OC: dzaan MC: dzɑn 7 Attributions

The current general word for psychological cruelty is rěn 忍 (ant. cí 慈 "show kind loving concern"), and the current general word for cruelty in action is cán 殘 (ant. rén 仁 "kind-heartedness").

  • nabdispositioncruelty
  • vadNcruel
  • vadVcruelly, recklessly
  • viactbe cruel
  • vtoNattitudinalto be cruel (to somebody); play a cruel trick on
不仁者   bù rén zhě OC: pɯʔ njin kljaʔ MC: pi̯ut ȵin tɕɣɛ 6 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialabstractly: "the cruel people" (in any place and at any time)
  • NPdefinitethe cruel people
  • NPindefinitea cruel person
暴虐   bào nǜe OC: boowɡs ŋawɡ MC: bɑu ŋi̯ɐk 4 Attributions
  • NPabactcruelty
  • VPiintensitivebe cruel and violent; 甚暴虐
  • VPtoNresultativebe violent so as to tyrannise
   jié OC: ɡrad MC: giɛt 2 Attributions
  • viactbehave recklessly
   dài OC: daads MC: dɑi 2 Attributions
  • vibe reckless
  • nabpsychrecklessness
陵虐   líng nǜe OC: b-rɯŋ ŋawɡ MC: lɨŋ ŋi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNtreat with cruelty
  • VPt+prep+Ntreat N with cruel arrogance
不慈   bù cí MC: pjut dzi OC: pɯʔ dzɯ 2 Attributions
  • NPabsocialcallousness, unfeeling cruelty
   kù OC: khuuɡ MC: khuok 1 Attribution
  • vibe cruel and violent
汏虐   dài nǜe OC: daads ŋawɡ MC: dɑi ŋi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcruel recklessnes of all kinds
   bào OC: boowɡs MC: bɑu 0 Attributions

Bào 暴 refers to a propensity towards public violence by those in authority, viewed as a character defect. See VIOLENT

       yàng OC: k-laŋs MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • vicruel
       yán OC: - MC: ŋɣɛn 0 Attributions
    • vadNvicious, reckless
    • viGY: vicious
    忍人   rěn rén OC: njinʔ njin MC: ȵin ȵin 0 Attributions
    • VPibe insensitive to the suffering of others
       è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 0 Attributions
    • vt+prep+NGUOYU: 大惡於民
    • vibe cruel YIJING: 不惡而嚴 "not cruel but strict"
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • NPabsocialcallousness, unfeeling cruelty

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: