SYMPATHY  同情

SOCIAL-EMOTION IN THE FORM OF DESIRE to HELP someone who is SUFFERING what is not JUST, OR who is IN DISTRESS.
COMPASSIONCARINGCONCERNSOLICITUDEEMPATHYCOMMISERATIONPITYCONDOLENCECOMFORTSOLACESUPPORTENCOURAGEMENTCONSIDERATIONKINDNESS
Antonym

CRUELVIOLENT AND WICKED so as to DELIGHT in INJURING OR DAMAGING OTHERS.SCHADENFREUDEDELIGHT in the DISASTERS of OTHERS.SEVERESERIOUS AND NOT TENDING to PARDON.

Hypernym

DESIREGOOD FEELING IN-RELATION-TO ONESELF concerning the FUTURE HAVING, CONTROLLING, or ACTING:doing SOMETHING DEFINED. -> FEELINGNATURAL REACTION IN one's MIND. -> REACTCHANGE one's THINKING OR ACTING BECAUSE one is PERCEIVING something. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

SADDISTRESS ARISING from BAD THOUGHTS NOW IN ONE'S MIND which CAUSE one to LACK DELIGHT:joy.NB: The words I have chosen to include in this group pose special problems of contrastive analysis. There is something irretrievably diffuse about their usage, in many cases, and in many others the number of relevant examples in the early literature is so small that it is impossible to get anything like a firm grip on their precise semantics. Under these circumstances I have tried to compensate for lack of neat analysis with more quotation, especially from Chǔcí. Throughout this section I quote my teacher David Hawkes' translations, mindful of the fact that many of these were written in the third year of his study of Chinese...EMPATHYABILITY to IMAGINE INTENSELY BEING a DIFFERENT PERSON one INTERACTS with.LOVEINTENSE AND OFTEN PARTIAL DESIRE to be INTIMATE with a PERSON OR to POSSESS a THING.

Hyponym
  • LENIENT SYMPATHETIC so as NOT TO BE SEVERE.
    • SOLIDARITY GENERAL SYMPATHY, SHOWING ITSELF IN ACTION AND FEELINGS, FOR A WHOLE GROUP OF HUMANS OR A PEOPLE.
    Old Chinese Criteria

    1. The standard word for sympathy and commiseration in psychological attitude as well as in action is xù 恤 / 卹 (ant. rěn 忍 "heartless").

    2. Mǐn 閔/憫 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel and heartless") is a purely psychological word referring to feelings of deep concern and sympathy, often coupled with sadness and a desire to act to improve things. See also SADNESS

    3. Jīn 矜 expresses, apparently, a somewhat higher intensity in the purely psychological feelings of sympathy.

    4. Āi 哀 refers to passive concern for what one unfortunately can do little about.

    5. Lián 憐 refers to sympathy as loving warm concern and a wish to show this loving concern in action.

    Modern Chinese Criteria

    關心

    關懷

    同情

    憐憫

    可憐

    哀憐

    愛憐

    憐恤

    矜恤

    體恤

    矜憫

    哀矜

    憐惜

    惜老憐貧

    憐貧惜老

    rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

    • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 317; 327

    • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 16.35

    • De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione ( COMENIUS 1665) p. 488©

      COMPASSIO est duorum similium similis passio, excitata alterius in malum prolapsu.

      Reqv. 1. Duo qvaedam Subjecta. 2. Similitudo inter eos naturae aut affectus. 3. Infortunium alteri obveniens, altero conscio.

      Ax. 1. Inter dissimiles compassio aegre producitur.

      2. Inter contraria impossibile est: gaudet potius natura Contrarij sui interitu dolet prosperitatem omne Ens.

      Modus in bonis: Congaudium Gratulatio

      Modus in malis: Tristitia, Sympathia, Misericordia.

    • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 25

      MISERICORDIA, MISERATIO

      350. Inter Misericordiam et miserationem. Bene velle misericordiae est; bene facere, miserationis. Dicitur enim miseratio, quasi misericordiae actio. Nam misericordia affectus tantum cordis est quo compellimur ut miseris subveniamus. Quapropter misericordia condolere misero novit, etsi non sit unde tribuatur; miseratio autem ex opere comprobatur.

    • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

      COMPASSION

      misereri refers to feelings of pity in the heart.

      miserari refers to the expression of feelings of compassion or pity in words.

      miseret me tui refers to a passive feeling of sympathy "I can't help feeling sorry for you".

      misereor tui refers to an active feeling, an emotional act of commiseration or compassion.

    • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 140

    • Semantica del Griego Antiguo ( HERNANDEZ 2000) p. 42n170

      Mitleid bei Auschylos und Sophokles

    • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

      COMMISERATIO

      ELEEMOSYNA

      MISERICORDIA

    • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 1.1429

    • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 10.752

    • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 148

    • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

    • Ästhetische Grundbegriffe ( BARCK 2010) p. 2.121

    • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.206

    • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.392

    • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 48A

      WOHLWOLLEN

    • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 50A

    Attributions by syntactic funtion

    • vtoN : 27
    • VPtoN : 14
    • NPab : 13
    • nab : 8
    • VPt[oN] : 6
    • VPi : 5
    • VPadV : 5
    • VPadN : 4
    • VPt(oN) : 2
    • vt[oN] : 2
    • vtoNPab{S} : 2
    • vt NPab{S} : 1
    • v-V1.adV2 : 1
    • vt+prep+N : 1
    • vt(oN) : 1
    • vtoNab{S} : 1
    • vtoS : 1

    Attributions by text

    • 賢愚經 : 28
    • 祖堂集 : 8
    • 孟子 : 8
    • 禮記 : 7
    • 史記 : 5
    • 說苑 : 4
    • 六祖壇經 : 4
    • 尚書 : 4
    • 管子 : 4
    • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
    • 韓詩外傳 : 2
    • 楚辭 : 2
    • 呂氏春秋 : 2
    • 論衡 : 2
    • 鹽鐵論 : 2
    • 百喻經 : 2
    • 天中記 : 1
    • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
    • 淮南子 : 1
    • 法集要頌經 : 1
    • 莊子 : 1
    • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
    • 孝經 : 1
    • 臨濟錄 : 1

    Words

    慈悲   cí bēi OC: dzɯ prɯl MC: dzɨ pi 15 Attributions
    • NPabpsychBUDDH: compassion, mercy
    • VPt[oN]be compassionate, be merciful towards others
    閔 / 憫 / 愍 / 湣   mǐn OC: mrɯnʔ MC: min mǐn OC: mrɯnʔ MC: min mǐn OC: mrinʔ MC: min mǐn OC: mrɯnʔ MC: min 11 Attributions

    Mǐn 閔/憫 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel and heartless") is a purely psychological word referring to feelings of deep concern and sympathy, often coupled with sadness and a desire to act to improve things. See also SADNESS Mǐn 閔/憫 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel and heartless") is a purely psychological word referring to feelings of deep concern and sympathy, often coupled with sadness and a desire to act to improve things. See also SADNESS Mǐn 閔/憫 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel and heartless") is a purely psychological word referring to feelings of deep concern and sympathy, often coupled with sadness and a desire to act to improve things. See also SADNESS Mǐn 閔/憫 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel and heartless") is a purely psychological word referring to feelings of deep concern and sympathy, often coupled with sadness and a desire to act to improve things. See also SADNESS

    • vtoNPab{S}stativefeel pity about the fact that S
    • vadNpitiful
    • nabpsychcommiseration, feelings of sympathy for those in distress
    • vt[oN]actfeel sympathy for others
    • DELETEdeserve sympathy> be miserable, be pitiful
    • v-V1.adV2pitifully
    • vtoNab{S}feel sympathy in the face of the situation that S
    • vtoNbe compassionate with; feel compassion for
    • vt(oN)feel sympathy for the contextually determinate N
    • vtoNgradedbe sympathised with 甚可愍
       āi OC: qɯɯl MC: ʔəi 10 Attributions

    Āi 哀 refers to passive concern for what one unfortunately can do little about.

    • nabpsychsympathy
    • vt(oN)show compassion for the contextually determinate N
    • vtoNstativefeel sympathy and compassion for; feel deep concern for
    • vtoNPab{S}have sympathy in connection with the fact that S
       jīn OC: klɯŋ MC: kɨŋ 8 Attributions

    Jīn 矜 expresses, apparently, a somewhat higher intensity in the purely psychological feelings of sympathy.

    • nabactcompassionate active concern
    • nabpsychsympathy, compassion
    • vt[oN]feel compassion
    • vt+prep+Nfeel compassionate for
    • vtoNpsychfeel empathy for, sympathise with; feel pity for
    • vtoNstativefeel great sympathy for
       lián OC: riin MC: len 7 Attributions

    Lián 憐 refers to sympathy as loving warm concern and a wish to show this loving concern in action.

    • nabpity, sympathy, affection
    • vtoNpassivebe pitied
    • vtoNpsychfeel self-pity
    • vtoNstativefeel sympathy and commiserations as well as affection for; show sympathetic care for
    不忍   bù rěn OC: pɯʔ njinʔ MC: pi̯ut ȵin 5 Attributions
    • NPabpsychsympathy; warm feelings for others; inability to bear other's misfortune
    • VPibe softhearted
    • VPt(oN)be soft-hearted towards the contextually determinate N
    • VPt[+V[0]]be unable to bear [committing cruel acts]> be soft-hearted
    • VPt+prep+Nbe sympathetic towards; feel sympathy with the sufferings of
    • VPt+V[0]be unable to bear
    • VPtoNto be soft-hearted (towards somebody); to have compassion (for somebody)
    哀以   āi yǐ OC: qɯɯl k-lɯʔ MC: ʔəi jɨ 5 Attributions
    • VPadVfull of sympathetic grief, full of saddened sympathy [???SURELY 以 GOES WITH WHAT FOLLOWS!!!CH]
    恤 / 卹   xù OC: sqʷiɡ MC: sʷit xù OC: sqʷiɡ MC: sʷit 4 Attributions

    The standard word for sympathy and commiseration in psychological attitude as well as in action is xù 恤/卹 (ant. rěn 忍"heartless"). The standard word for sympathy and commiseration in psychological attitude as well as in action is xù 恤/卹 (ant. rěn 忍"heartless").

    • vtoNstativefeel and show proper concern for; feel pity for and show compassion through action
    • vtoNactshow caring sympathy for N in action
    • vtoNpsychpity (oneself)
    • nab.tsympathy with; care for; engagement for
    惻隱   cè yǐn OC: skhrɯɡ qɯnʔ MC: ʈʂhɨk ʔɨn 4 Attributions
    • NPabpsychsympathy for others
    • VPadNfeeling deep sympathy for
    • VPt[oN]be given to sympathising with others
    哀憐   āi lián OC: qɯɯl riin MC: ʔəi len 3 Attributions
    • VPtoNintensitivefeel intense and constant sympathy for
    • VPtoNpassivebe comiserated with, be sympathised with
       jīn OC: klɯŋ MC: kɨŋ 3 Attributions
    • NPabsympathy extended to younger generations
    • VPtoNextend one's compassion to
    憐愍   lián mǐn OC: riin mrinʔ MC: len min 3 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)feel sympathy with a contextually determinate person N
    • VPtoNshow compassion for
    • VPtoNpassivebe sympathised with
       bēi OC: prɯl MC: pi 2 Attributions
    • nabpsychcompassion
    • vtoNcontemplate with sad sympathy
    哀矜   āi jīn OC: qɯɯl klɯŋ MC: ʔəi kɨŋ 2 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)sympathise intensely with a contextually determinate object
    • VPtoNfeel intense sympathy with
    愍傷   mǐn shāng OC: mrinʔ lʰaŋ MC: min ɕi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
    • VPifeel moved to sympathy and commiseration
    慈矜   cí jīn OC: dzɯ klɯŋ MC: dzɨ kɨŋ 2 Attributions
    • VPadNcharacterised by deep sympathy
    • VPt[oN]show charitable concern; feel sympathy [with others]
    悲愍   bēi mǐn OC: prɯl mrinʔ MC: pi min 1 Attribution
    • VPtoNshow compassion for
    慈愍   cí mǐn OC: dzɯ mrinʔ MC: dzɨ min 1 Attribution
    • VPibe compassionate
    • VPtoNshow loving compassion for
    憐憫   lián mǐn OC: riin mrɯnʔ MC: len min 1 Attribution
    • VPt(oN)feel sympathy or compassion for the contextually determinate N
    • VPtoNfeel pity for
    矜傷   jīn shāng OC: klɯŋ lʰaŋ MC: kɨŋ ɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
    • VPipsychfeel compassion and sadness regarding the misfortune of others> feel compassion
    可憐生   kě lián shēng OC: khlaalʔ riin sraaŋ MC: khɑ len ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
    • VPibe pitiful
       yǐn OC: qɯnʔ MC: ʔɨn 1 Attribution
    • vtoSfeel sympathy for the involved on the occasion of S
       lián MC: len OC: ɡ-riiŋ 1 Attribution
    • vt NPab{S}=憐 took pity on the situation S
       xī  MC: sjek  OC: sqaɡ  1 Attribution
    • vtoNpassivebe sympathised with, be felt sorry for
    勤恤   qín xù OC: ɡlɯn sqʷiɡ MC: gɨn sʷit 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNtreat with compassion
    可憐   kě lián OC: khlaalʔ riin MC: khɑ len 0 Attributions
    • VPiworth to be pitied > be pitiful The compound word kělián appeared in certain Tang texts with the semantically very weak verbal suffixes shēng 生 or xǔ 許 attached to it: kěliánshēng 可憐生; kěliánxǔ 可憐許.
    哀湣   āi mǐn OC: qɯɯl mrɯnʔ MC: ʔəi min 0 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)show compassion for the contextually determinate N
    • VPtoNshow compassion for
    懷柔   huái róu OC: ɡruul mlju MC: ɦɣɛi ȵɨu 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNshow empathetic care for
    撫恤   fǔ xù OC: mʰaʔ sqʷiɡ MC: phi̯o sʷit 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNfeel and care for
    矜愍   jīn mǐn OC: klɯŋ mrinʔ MC: kɨŋ min 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNtreat with loving compassion
    藹然   ǎi rán OC: qaads njen MC: ʔɑi ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
    • VPadVkindly, warm-heartedly
       yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNfeel sorry for, feel sympathy with

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: