BENEVOLENCE  仁慈

VIRTUE in the form of an ENDURING LOVE for OTHERS AND a DESIRE to HELP OTHERS.
CHARITYKINDNESSKINDHEARTEDNESSBIGHEARTEDNESSGOODNESSGOODWILLCHARITYALTRUISMHUMANITARIANISMCOMPASSIONPHILANTHROPYGENEROSITYMAGNANIMITYMUNIFICENCEUNSELFISHNESSOPENHANDEDNESSBENEFICENCE
Taxonoymy

GENTLE

Antonymy

CRUEL

See also

GENEROUSTENDER

Kind Of

VIRTUE

Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSOLUTE/GRADED]

[[CURRENT/RARE]]

[ELEVATED/FAMILIAR]

[ETHICAL/FACTUAL]

[EMOTIONAL/UNEMOTIONAL]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[PRACTICAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL]

1. Rén 仁 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel" and perhaps ant.* rěn 忍 "be callous, unfeeling") which refers to kind-heartedness and deep human sensibility as a constitutive feature of man as a moral being, is the standard word since Confucius.

[ETHICAL], [HIGH-DEGREE]

2. Cí 慈 (ant. rěn 忍 "callous, unfeeling") is primarily the intimate emotional concern of mothers/parents for their children, and by extension such concern of a fatherly ruler for his people. (See LOVE)

[EMOTIONAL], [PRACTICAL]

3. Xiào 孝 refers to caring love for one's parents and one's ancestors. SEE LOVE.

4. Huì 惠 "kind generosity" (ant. sè 嗇 "stinginess") is kind-heartedness in generous action of various kinds and displayed towards inferiors. See GENEROUS

[PRACTICAL]

5. Shàn 善 "goodness in action" (ant. è 惡 "wicked") belongs more properly into the group GOOD, but the word does come to refer to altruistic moral concern for others and thus relates to the present group.

[ETHICAL], [GRADED], [MARGINAL]; [[RARE]]

6. Mín 旻 refers in a ritual elevated manner to the beneficence and compassion of Heaven and of the sky (in CC).

[ARCHAIC], [ELEVATED], [HIGH-DEGREE]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

仁慈

仁愛

慈善

慈祥

慈悲

臉軟

手軟

心慈面軟

慈眉善目

大發慈悲

大慈大悲

菩薩心腸

菩薩低眉

佛口佛心

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 30

BENIGNITAS, BONITAS

71. Inter Benignitatem et bonitatem. Stoici ita definiunt [ Al., distinguunt]: quod benignitas sit virtus ad benefaciendum exposita, lenis, blanda, dulcis alloquio, ad omnium bonorum familiaritatem invitans, bonitas autem bene quidem facere et praestare quod poscitur parata est; non tamen novit suavis esse consortio, et sua cunctos invitare dulcedine

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BENEVOLENCE

studium is the attachment and feeling of dependence of the lower towards the higher.

favor is the, typically temporary, love and favour of the higher towards the lower.

benevolentia is, typically temorary, love and good-will towards one of equal rank.

amor is, subjectively, love deeply rooted in the soul, bordering on passion.

gratia is, objectively, the favour in which one person stands with another.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 63

GUETE, FREUNDLICHKEIT;

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 100

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 3.1063-1128

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CHARITAS

HUMANITAS

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.976

UNGER 2000 Grundbegriffe der altchinesischen Philosophie 39

jen

WILLIAMS 1976 Keywords. A Vocabulary of Culture and Society

HUMANITY

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 326

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.198.78

BENIN.DOUX.HUMAIN

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 63A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 122
  • nab : 69
  • vi : 53
  • vadN : 20
  • NP{PRED} : 13
  • NPab : 10
  • vtoN : 10
  • v[adN] : 6
  • VPi : 4
  • n : 3
  • vi : 2
  • NPpost-N : 2
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 2
  • vi0 : 1
  • NP{N1adN2} : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論語 : 76
  • 孟子 : 43
  • 荀子 : 41
  • 韓非子 : 26
  • 春秋左傳 : 25
  • 禮記 : 19
  • 韓詩外傳 : 16
  • 晏子春秋 : 12
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 春秋繁露 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 申鑒 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 新序 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 五行 : 1

Words

   rén OC: njin MC: ȵin 157 Attributions

Rén 仁 (ant. cán 殘 "cruel" and perhaps ant.* rěn 忍 "be callous, unfeeling") which refers to kind-heartedness and deep human sensibility as a constitutive feature of man as a moral being, is the standard word since Confucius. [ETHICAL], [HIGH-DEGREE]

  • nsubjecta kind-hearted person; those who are show kind empathy
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe kind-hearted
  • nabacthumaneness, kind empathy; kindliness, kind-heartedness; benevolence, Goodness as a moral value
  • nabconceptkind-heartedness and kindliness as an abstract ethical value
  • nabmetaphysicalkind-heartedness as an agent
  • nabmethodkind-heartedness as a moral rule or method of proper human behaviour
  • nabmoralthe psychological attitude of kindliness, the psychological principle of kind-heartedness
  • v[adN]pluralkind-hearted persons
  • vadNhumane, kind; benevolent (person)
  • vadNN=nonhureferring to humane behaviour, characterised by humane behaviour
  • vadVout of the goodness of one's heart
  • vibe kind-hearted in disposition, be humane in disposition, be of kindly disposition
  • viactto act with accordance to kind-heartedness; have kind-hearted behaviour
  • vigradedbe more kind-hearted; be comparatively kind-hearted
  • viinchoativebecome kind-hearted
  • visubject=action(of behaviour or actions) be good
  • vi0there is goodness; Goodness prevails
  • vt+prep+Nbe kind to
  • vtoNshow kind-heartedness towards, treat with kindness, be kind to; be lenient towards
  • visubject=ladybe human-hearted
  • vimake a show of Goodness/benevolence
  • nababstractpsychological, graded, high or low degree as the case may be: degree of kind-heartedness
仁者   rén zhě OC: njin kljaʔ MC: ȵin tɕɣɛ 74 Attributions
  • NPabconceptthe concept of human-heartedness
  • NPnonreferentialabstractly: "the benevolent person; the human-hearted person" at any time and in any place
  • NPdefinitethose who are human-hearted
  • NP{PRED}be a human-hearted person
  • NPpost-Ndefinitebe the most human-hearted
  • NPabactthe enacting of benevolence/human-heartedness
仁人   rén rén OC: njin njin MC: ȵin ȵin 72 Attributions
  • NPpost-Nsuperlativethe most benevolent person in N
  • NPdefinitethe kind-hearted men; my my kind-hearted men; our kind-hearted men
  • NPnonreferentiala man of human-heartedness
  • NP{PRED}be a case of human-heartedness
  • NPindefinitea human-hearted person; any kind-hearted person
   mín OC: mrɯn MC: min 6 Attributions

Mín 旻refers in a ritual elevated manner to the beneficence and compassion of Heaven and of the sky (in CC). [ARCHAIC], [ELEVATED], [HIGH-DEGREE]; [[RARE]]

  • vadNkindly 旻天 "compassionate Heaven"
慈仁   cí rén OC: dzɯ njin MC: dzɨ ȵin 4 Attributions
  • NPab{N1&N2}psychwarm-hearted kind-heartedness
  • VPiactbe generous and good
   shàn OC: ɡjenʔ MC: dʑiɛn 2 Attributions

Shàn 善 "goodness as a disposition or in action" (ant. è 惡 "wicked") belongs more properly into the group GOOD, but the word does come to refer to altruistic moral concern for others and thus relates to the present group. [ETHICAL], [GRADED], [MARGINAL]; [[RARE]]

  • nabdispositiondisposition to be good in relation to others
不忍人   bù rěn rén OC: pɯʔ njinʔ njin MC: pi̯ut ȵin ȵin 2 Attributions
  • VPigradedbe so benevolent as not to be able to suffer cruelty to others
   huì OC: ɢʷiids MC: ɦei 1 Attribution

Huì 惠 "kind generosity" (ant. sè 嗇 "stinginess") is kind-heartedness in generous action of various kinds and displayed towards inferiors. See GENEROUS. [PRACTICAL]

  • nabactbenevolent generosity
  • vibe kind
  • vtoNshow generous benevolence towards
人情   rén qíng OC: njin dzeŋ MC: ȵin dziɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}humaneness
仁厚   rén hòu OC: njin ɡooʔ MC: ȵin ɦu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactgenerous benevolence
  • NPabsubject=ladybenevolence
寬仁   kuān rén OC: khoon njin MC: khʷɑn ȵin 0 Attributions
  • VPisubject=ladygenerous human-heartedness
敦仁   dūn rén OC: tuun njin MC: tuo̝n ȵin 0 Attributions
  • VPisubject=ladyhuman-hearted (of lady)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: