ATTACK  攻擊

TRY to DESTROY OR DAMAGE USING WARFARE OR FIGHT.
ASSAULTONSLAUGHTOFFENSIVESTRIKEBLITZRAIDCHARGERUSHINVASIONINCURSIONINVADE
Taxonoymy

ANNEXREVOLTCONQUERAMBUSH

Antonymy

DEFEND

See also

STRIKE

Kind Of

DAMAGE

Old Chinese Criteria

[ASCENDING/DESCENDING]

[CIVIL/MILITARY]

[COMMENDATORY/DEROGATORY]

[COVERT/OVERT]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[LARGE-SCALE/SMALL-SCALE]

1. The general word for any attack is gōng 攻 (ant. shǒu 守 "defend"; success kè 克 ) which can be used in a general sense referring to all kinds of attack, although that word does also have the specific meaning of a pointed campaign against a certain locality. (Note 戰必勝,攻必克。 )

[GENERAL]

2. Fá 伐 refers to a large-scale typically destructive formal attack by one state on another, typically formally announced, and with much beating of drums.

[DESCENDING], [MILITARY!], [LARGE-SCALE!], [OVERT]

3. Qīn 侵 refers to a less formal attack, typically unannounced beforehand, and typically aimed at taking the enemy's territory.

[COVERT!], [DEROGATORY], [MILITARY], [SPECIFIC]

4. Xí 襲 refers to a surreptitious attack, on the sly, without any self-righteous pomp.

[COVERT+], [MILITARY], [SPECIFIC]

5. Zhēng 征 refers to a typically punitive campain of some size against a state, construed as being of lower status.

[COMMENDATORY], [DESCENDING], [MILITARY], [LARGE-SCALE], [OVERT]

6. Tǎo 討 refers to a an extended explicitly punitive campaign by someone who construes himself as being in moral authority and entitled to uphold rectitude and morality through warfare. (Also figurative as in 天討有罪 "Heaven punishes those who are guilty". See PUNISH)

[COMMENDATORY], [DESCENDING+], [MILITARY], [OVERT]

7. Wéi 圍 refers specifically to military attack by surrouding the enemy.

[MILITARY], [OVERT], [SPECIFIC]

8. Kòu 寇 refers derogatorily to a wanton enemy attack.

[DEROGATORY+], [MILITARY]

Modern Chinese Criteria

進攻

攻擊

出擊

進擊

攻打

強攻

圍攻

圍擊

夾攻

夾擊

合擊

回擊

還擊

反擊

反攻

反撲

殺回馬槍

反戈一擊

抨擊

掊擊 (rare) refers to a literary attack only.

攻訐 (rare) refers to a literary attack on someone's character.

抨彈

鞭撻 refers periphrastically to a literary attack.

大張撻伐

口誅筆伐

群起而攻之

鳴鼓而攻之

興問罪之師

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

2. Some modes of attack are part of declared war and constitute regular and military campaigns (fá 伐, zhēng 征, tǎo 討 ), other modes of attack are explicitly secretive and certainly never formally involve declarations of war (fàn 犯, xí 襲, qīn 侵 ).

3. Some words express specific modalities of attack or forms of attack (xūn 燻 fumigation", guàn 灌 "flooding", wò 沃 "flooding", wéi 圍 "encirclement", fén 焚 "setting fire to", mén 門 "to attack the city gate").

4. Some words describe successful attacks without specifying whether they are open attacks or not, and without specifying any specific method of attack used (rù 入 "enter successfully", yǒu 有 "take possession of", jù 據 "occupy", lŸè 略 "take control of through violent attack")

5. Some words are prejorative or vituperative and refer to attacks that are not considered as morally justified by the user of the word (fàn 犯 "launch an attack against", qīn 侵 "invade"), others are positive in connotation (fá 伐, zhēng 征, tǎo 討 ); still others are neutral in the relevant respect (gōng 攻, gǔ 鼓 "beat the drums of attack against", jí 擊 "strike out against", xí 襲 "launch a surprise attack against).

6. Some verbs can take individual persons as subjects (gōng 攻, jí 擊 ), the others cannot normally be used in that way.

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 20.43

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

INVADE

irruere refers to rushing on hastily and inconsiderately.

irrumpere is to force one's way with violence.

invadere is to fall upon with boldness, and without regard to consequences.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 166/7

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 114ff

agressivnyj

agressija

agressor

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 60 AND 77

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.577

EPICHIREM (RHETORISCH)

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 19

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 308
  • nab : 26
  • vt[oN] : 13
  • vt(oN) : 13
  • vt+prep+N : 12
  • VPtoN : 11
  • vi : 6
  • vadN : 5
  • VPi : 4
  • nab.t:post-N : 3
  • VPt(oN) : 2
  • vt(oN.)[adN] : 2
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 2
  • nab.t : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 2
  • NP[adN] : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • vt(+prep+N) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 165
  • 韓非子 : 89
  • 戰國策 : 25
  • 孟子 : 20
  • 說苑 : 20
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 18
  • 史記 : 13
  • 論語 : 9
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 法集要頌經 : 6
  • 墨子 : 5
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 春秋公羊傳 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 國語 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   fá OC: bod MC: bi̯ɐt 62 Attributions

Fá 伐 refers to a large-scale typically destructive formal attack by one state on another, typically formally announced, and with much beating of drums. [DESCENDING], [MILITARY], [LARGE-SCALE!], [OVERT]

  • nabactmilitary campaign against an enemy construed as being of inferior political status
  • nabautonymthe word 伐
  • vt(oN)launch a formal attack on a contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]launch a formal attack
  • vt[oN]personal(of an individual rather than a state:) attack
  • vt+prep+Nattack Npl, launch formal attack on Npl
  • vtoNOBI: lauch an overt large-scale destructive military campaign against what is construed as an enemy of inferior political status
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be attacked
  • vtoNfigurativeattack 伐孔子之說
  • vtoNpassiveget attacked; be attacked
  • vtoNderivedlaunch a campaign against
  • vt(oN)launch a punitive attack against the contextually determinate N
   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 60 Attributions

The generalword for any attack is gōng 攻 (ant. shǒu 守 "defend") which can be used in a general sense referring to all kinds of attack, although that word does also have the specific meaning of a pointed campaign against a certain locality. [GENERAL]

  • nab.tactattack against N
  • vadNoffensive, attacking; given to attacking people 攻戰 "aggressive wars; aggressive warfare"
  • vt(oN)attack the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]launch an attack, undertake a military attack
  • vtoNlaunch an attack (which is not necessarily successful) against; direct attack; assault, personally attack (a person); sometimes used very generally: attack (an opponent, in any way) [The examples have to be distributed into the subcategories below.]
  • vtoNderivedattack morally; launch a strong verbal personal attack atainst 小子鳴鼓而攻之; 攻人之短
  • vtoNfigurativeattack intellectually, attack with words
  • vtoNN=humanattack
  • vtoNpassivebe attacked
  • vtoNreflexive.己attack (oneself)
  • vtoNreflexive.自attack (oneself)
  • vttoN1.+N2N2=placeattack N1 at N2
   wéi OC: ɢul MC: ɦɨi 47 Attributions

Wéi 圍refers specifically to military attack by surrouding the enemy. [MILITARY], [OVERT], [SPECIFIC]

  • nab.t:post-Npassivea siege 宋之衛"the siege against Sòng" ("siege" in "the siege by Sòng" would be ntab or, more explicitly, ntab - act)
  • nabactsiege
  • vtoNbesiege (typically a city); lay siege to
  • vtoNpassivebe besieged
   qīn OC: skhim MC: tshim 32 Attributions

Qīn 侵 refers to less formal attack, typically unannounced beforehand, and typically aimed at taking the enemy's territory. [COVERT!], [MILITARY], [SPECIFIC]

  • nabactinfringement
  • vadNinvading
  • vt(oN)attack the contextually determinate person
  • vtoNinvade, make an incursion into; invasion, incursion; sometimes generally: attack (place or persons, eg 侵我 "attacked us"
  • vtoNpassivebe attacked by, suffer an attack from 侵於敵
  • vtoNfigurativeattack intellectually
  • vadNpassiveinvaded; occupied
   rù OC: njub MC: ȵip 23 Attributions
  • nabactattack
  • nabautonymthe word 入
  • vtoN入者何也?得而不居也。enter and gain typically temprorary possession of (a city)
  • vt+prep+Nenter by force (without necessarily occupying)
   xí OC: zɯb MC: zip 22 Attributions

Xí 襲 refers to a surreptitious attack, on the sly, without any self-righteous pomp. [COVERT+], [MILITARY], [SPECIFIC]

  • vadNattacking, raiding
  • vtoNlauch a surprise invasion, launch a surprise attack; launch a stealthy attack
   jī OC: keeɡ MC: kek 18 Attributions
  • nabactattack
  • vadNgiven to attacking people
  • vtoNlaunch a vigorous attack on; strike out against
   mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 15 Attributions
  • vtoNto attack the gate of a city, storm the gate
  • vt+prep+Nlaunch an attack directed at the gate of N
  • vtoNpassivebe attacked
  • vt(+prep+N)attack the gate; lead the attack on the gate
   zhēng OC: tjeŋ MC: tɕiɛŋ 12 Attributions

Zhēng 征 refers to a typically punitive campain of some size against a state construed as being of lower status. [DESCENDING], [LARGE-SCALE]

  • nabactpunitive attack; punitive campaign; military campaign
  • vadNon the punitive campaign
  • vt[oN]to set out for a righteous military campaign
  • vtoNlaunch a punitive military campaign against; chastise, go on a punitive expedition against
  • vtoNcontinuousbe engaged in a formal military campaign against the enemy
   tǎo OC: thuuʔ MC: thɑu 12 Attributions

Tǎo 討 refers to a an extended punitive campaign by someone who construes himself as being in moral authority and entitled to uphold rectitude and morality through warfare. (Also figurative as in 天討有罪"Heaven punishes those who are guilty". See PUNISH) [DESCENDING+], [MILITARY], [OVERT]

  • vt(oN)launch a punitive expedition
  • vtoNlaunch an official or overt punitive expedition against
  • nabactattack
   jūn OC: kun MC: ki̯un 11 Attributions
  • vt(oN)engage the enemy militarily
  • vtoNengage militarily, attack
   fàn OC: bomʔ MC: bi̯ɐm 9 Attributions
  • vtoNattack suddenly and violently; attack unjustly
  • vtoNfigurativelaunch an attack against (oneself)
   guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 7 Attributions
  • vtoNattack by inundation
   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 7 Attributions
  • vtoNbeat the drums to attack (the enemy); attack
   shī OC: sril MC: ʂi 6 Attributions
  • nabactmilitary campaign
  • viactdeploy one's troops, lead one's troops into the field; field an army; take the field
   xíng OC: ɢraaŋs MC: ɦɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • nabactcampaign, march (of an army); journey, travelling
  • viactto march in a campaign; march on
   chéng OC: ɢjɯŋ MC: ʑɨŋ 5 Attributions
  • vtoNswoop down on; press an attack against, press in on
  • vt(oN.)[adN]fierce attackers of each other
伐取   fá qǔ OC: bod skhoʔ MC: bi̯ɐt tshi̯o 5 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativeattack and take (a city etc)
   sì OC: sqlɯs MC: sɨ 4 Attributions
  • vt(oN)waylay the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNwaylay
   bīng OC: praŋ MC: pɣaŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivelaunch an armed attack on
  • vtoNlauch an armed attack on; attack with arms
   fén OC: bun MC: bi̯un 4 Attributions
  • vtoNattack by setting fire to, sack with the use of fire
   kè OC: khɯɯɡ MC: khək 3 Attributions

refers to a psychological disposition to attack (apart from its normal meaning "to conquer"). One is tempted to create a synonym group aggressiveness, but should one?

  • nabpsychaggressiveness
  • vt[oN]stativeshow aggressiveness; be (successfully) aggressive
  • vtoNbe aggressive and insensitive towards
   jié OC: kab MC: ki̯ɐp 3 Attributions
  • vtoNattack somebody by grabbing him violently
  • vtoNpassivebe attacked; be hijacked; be brought violently under control
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2attack N1 in relation to N2
   kòu OC: khoos MC: khu 3 Attributions

Kòu 寇 refers derogatorily to a wanton enemy attack. [DEROGATORY+], [MILITARY]

  • vt[oN]start invasions; act as an invader
  • vtoNfigurativeseek to harm (themselves); act as one's own enemy
  • nabactenemy attack
   xūn OC: qhun MC: hi̯un 3 Attributions
  • vadNbeing smoked out
  • vtoNfumigate, smoke out; attack by fumigation
   xiàn OC: ɡrooms MC: ɦɣɛm 3 Attributions
  • vadN(piercing>) crack attacking (troops)
  • vtoNattack; burst through
攻取   gōng qǔ OC: kooŋ skhoʔ MC: kuŋ tshi̯o 3 Attributions
  • VPiresultativeattack so as to take, attack successfully
   chōng OC: thjoŋ MC: tɕhi̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • nkind of military device used in the attack of a city; "assault engine"
  • vtoNattack; assault; rush against; charge ahead; collide with
  • vt(oN)launch a fierce attack
寇暴   kòu bào OC: khoos boowɡs MC: khu bɑu 2 Attributions
  • NPabactviolent incursions; violent invasions; violent attacks
  • NP[adN]the violent attackers
征伐   zhēng fá OC: tjeŋ bod MC: tɕiɛŋ bi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actformal military campaigns
  • VPtoNattack
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstrike out at and attack
   fǎn OC: panʔ MC: pi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcounterattack
   tóng OC: looŋ MC: duŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgang up against; combine forces so as to attack
   cú OC: sɡaa MC: dzuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto march with army against (somebody)
   wù OC: qaaɡs MC: ʔuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstart hostilities against
   yǎn OC: qromʔ MC: ʔiɛm 1 Attribution
  • vtoNlaunch a surprise attack (typically for taking booty)
   wò OC: qowɡ MC: ʔuok 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto attack by flooding; to inundate; attack by inundation
   liú OC: ru MC: lɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNflood out by way of military attack
   lǜe OC: ɡ-raɡ MC: li̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNlaunch a sudden attack
   qí OC: ɡri MC: gi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNattack
   jiǎo OC: krooɡ MC: kɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNattack in a pincer attack, attack from both sides
侵掠   qīn lǜe OC: skhim ɡ-raɡ MC: tshim li̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactaggressive military moves of any kind
加兵   jiā bīng OC: kraal praŋ MC: kɣɛ pɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNapply military force to so as to attack
振旅   zhèn lǚ OC: kljɯns raʔ MC: tɕin li̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactactivate one's army> conduct an aggressive military campaign
擊定   jī dìng OC: keeɡ deeŋs MC: kek deŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeattack so as bring under proper control
攻伐   gōng fá OC: kuuŋ bod MC: kuo̝ŋ bi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)launch an attack
攻擊   gōng jī OC: kooŋ keeɡ MC: kuŋ kek 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNattack
攻殺   gōng shā OC: kooŋ sreed MC: kuŋ ʂɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeattack so as to kill
誅伐   zhū fá OC: to bod MC: ʈi̯o bi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNlaunch a punitive formal attack against (another state)
馮陵   píng líng OC: brɯŋ b-rɯŋ MC: bɨŋ lɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpress in on, attack
衝冒   chōng mào MC: -- mawH OC: thjoŋ muuɡs 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)launch an attack on the contextually determiate N
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativeattack intellectually LH
   róng OC: njuŋ MC: ȵuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNattack with military force
   huán OC: ɡʷraan MC: ɦɣan 0 Attributions
       xūn OC: qhun MC: hi̯un 0 Attributions
    • vtoNattack by an attempt to smoke someone out, attack through fumigation
    伐敗   fá bài OC: bod praads MC: bi̯ɐt pɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNresultativeattack formally and defeat
    征誅   zhēng zhū OC: tjeŋ to MC: tɕiɛŋ ʈi̯o 0 Attributions
    • NPabactpunitive campaigns
    招討   zhāo tǎo OC: kljew thuuʔ MC: tɕiɛu thɑu 0 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)launch an official military campaign against the contextually determinate N
    用師   yòng shī OC: k-loŋs sril MC: ji̯oŋ ʂi 0 Attributions
    • VPt+prep+Nuse one's army against
    討伐   tǎo fá OC: thuuʔ bod MC: thɑu bi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNlaunch a formal punitive attack against (an offender)
    語侵   yǔ qīn OC: ŋaʔ skhim MC: ŋi̯ɤ tshim 0 Attributions
         chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 0 Attributions
      • viactsally forth and attack
      侵伐   qīn fá MC: tshim bjot OC: skhim bod 0 Attributions
      • VPtoNlaunch military attack on
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • VPtoNlaunch aggressive attacks against
      侵陵   qīn líng MC: tshim ling OC: skhim b-rɯŋ 0 Attributions
      • VPtoNlaunch aggressive attacks against

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: