ANNEX  吞併

ATTACK TERRITORY AND THEREUPON GOVERN IT.
TAKE OVERTAKE POSSESSION OFAPPROPRIATESEIZECONQUEROCCUPY
Kind Of

ATTACK

Old Chinese Criteria

[BASIC/DERIVED]

[CURRENT/RARE]

[DEROGATORY/COMMENDATORY]

[DRAMATIC/UNDRAMATIC]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

[FORMAL/INFORMAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[TRANSITORY/LASTING]

1. Jiān 兼 "annex" (ant. gē 割 (incidentally, anciently homophone of modern English "cut"!!!) "to cut off") is the neutral word used by the historian to record the facts without bias.

[FORMAL], [GENERAL]

2. Tūn 吞 "gulp up and annex" is metaphorical in nature, and pejorative as well as dramatic in force.

[DERIVED], [DEROGATORY], [DRAMATIC], [INFORMAL]; [[RARE]]

3. Bìng 并 "annex" (ant. fēn 分 "separate into two") is less formal, and is the commonest of the three.

[GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

4. Bìng 並 "annex" (ant. fēn 分 "separate into two") is sometimes used synonymously with bìng 并 but is not anciently homophonous with it, and the word is particularly current in the meaning of "together". See TOGETHER [NB: what confuses the situation is a great deal of printer's confusion in entering these different words, greatly exacerbatged by the problem of computerisation.]

[GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

5. Yǒu 有 can come to refer to the more or less lasting result of the process of annexation. See GOVERN(INCHOATIVE)

[COMMENDATORY], [FORMAL], [INCHOATIVE], [LASTING], [STATE]

6. Jù 據 can refer to the more or less lasting the result of the process of annexation.

[LASTING], [RESULT], [STATE]; [[RARE]]

7. Qǔ 取 refers to successful annexation, typically of a city.

Modern Chinese Criteria

吞併 is the most current word for annexation and refers in a dramatising way to gobbling up what one annexes.

兼併 is a fairly formal common word for annexation.

併吞 refers in a dramatising way to gobbling up what one annexes.

侵吞 focusses on the invasion of what one annexes.

侵佔 focusses on the invasion of what one comes to occupy.

侵占 focusses on the invasion of what one comes to occupy.

吞滅 focusses on the destruction of what one gobbles up.

吞噬 refers figuratively and dramtically to annexaction.

蠶食 focusses on the comparison of annexation with the eating of greedy silkworms.

鯨吞 focusses on the comparison with the supposedly greedy whale.

蠶食鯨吞

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 25

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 87
  • VPtoN : 6
  • NPab : 4
  • VPi : 3
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 史記 : 29
  • 春秋左傳 : 14
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 管子 : 10
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 6
  • 鹽鐵論 : 5
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   bìng OC: peŋs MC: piɛŋ 31 Attributions

Bìng 并 "annex" (ant. fēn 分 "separate into two") is less formal, and is the commonest of the three. [GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

  • vtoNbring equally under one's control; annex; add to what one has;
  • vtoNpassivebe annexed by
  • nabactannexation by others
   qǔ OC: skhoʔ MC: tshi̯o 25 Attributions

Qǔ 取 refers to successful annexation, typically of a city.

  • vtoNtake possession of (a place); annex a state or city; confiscate
  • vttoN1.+N2annex (a territory N1) from (a territory N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2annex the place N1 one from the state N2
   jiān OC: kleem MC: kem 16 Attributions

Jiān 兼 "annex" (ant. gē 割(anciently homophone of modern English "cut"!!!) "to cut off") is the neutral word used by the historian to record the facts without bias. [FORMAL], [GENERAL]

  • vtoNactunite under one's unified control; annex;
  • nabactannexation by others
  • vtoNfigurativeappropriate something illegally; misappropriate
   tūn OC: lʰɯɯn MC: thən 12 Attributions

Tūn 吞 "gulp up and annex" is metaphorical in nature, and pejorative as well as dramatic in force. [DERIVED], [DEROGATORY], [DRAMATIC], [INFORMAL]; [[RARE]]

  • vtoNfigurative[BE GULPED UP>] get annexed [NO EX SO FAR!]
  • vtoNfigurative[GULP UP>] annex
并兼   bìng jiān OC: peŋs kleem MC: piɛŋ kem 11 Attributions
  • NPabactannexation
  • VPtoNannex (each other etc)
  • VPiactengage in activities of annexation of others
   bìng OC: beeŋʔ MC: beŋ 3 Attributions

Bìng 並 "annex" (ant. fēn 分 "separate into two") is sometimes used synonymously with bìng 并 but is not anciently homophonous with it, and the word is particularly current in the meaning of "together". See TOGETHER [NB: what confuses the situation is a great deal of printer's confusion in entering these different words, greatly exacerbatged by the problem of computerisation.] [GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

  • vt[oN]commit an act of annexation
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe annexed by
  • vtoNannex
   jù OC: klas MC: ki̯ɤ 3 Attributions

Jù 據 can refer to the more or less lasting the result of the process of annexation. [LASTING], [RESULT], [STATE]; [[RARE]]

  • vtoNperfectiveoccupy (territory), take possession of
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions

Yǒu 有 can come to refer to the more or less lasting result of the process of annexation. See GOVERN. [COMMENDATORY], [FORMAL], [INCHOATIVE], [LASTING], [STATE] >>INCHOATIVE, STATE, LASTING, COMMENDATORY, FORMAL

  • vtoNperfectivetake possession of
  • vt(oN)occupy the contextually determinate place N
包舉   bāo jǔ OC: pruu klaʔ MC: pɣɛu ki̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNget to encompass and occupy
囊括   náng kuò OC: naaŋ kood MC: nɑŋ kʷɑt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNto "bag" and occupy
   bāo OC: pruu MC: pɣɛu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurative[WRAP UP>] get to encompass as one's own territory, come to embrace as one's own territory

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: