DEFEND  保衛

SAFEGUARD so as to CAUSE NOT TO be DEFEATED WHEN ATTACKED OR ACCUSED.
PROTECTGUARDSAFEGUARDSECURESHIELDFORTIFYGARRISONBARRICADEUPHOLDSUPPORTWATCH OVER
Taxonoymy

RESCUE

Antonymy

ATTACK

Kind Of

SAFEGUARD

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard general word for defending a community is wèi 衛 (ant. gōng 攻 "attack").

2. The standard word for defending a place is shǒu 守 (ant. gōng 攻 "attack").

3. Yù 禦 is to hinder attack effectively and successfully. See HINDER

4. Fáng 防 refers to defending a concrete or abstract thing successfully.

5. Hàn 扞 / 捍 is to try to resist an outside attack successfully.

6. Bǎo 保 is to try to ensure the safety of one's place against a threat from outside.

7. Shù 戍 put up a (not necessarily successful) military defense.

8. Bèi 備 is to make defensive arrangements.

9. Yù 豫 is to make defensive arrangements well ahead in time or in good time. [See also PREPARE][CA]

10. Kàng 亢 typically refers to the mounting of a vigorous and energetic offensive defence against a violent attack.

Modern Chinese Criteria

保衛

捍衛

護衛

衛護

侍衛

防守

守候

守御

防御

捍御

防衛

把守

看守

扼守

鎮守

守衛

守留

守護

布防

設防

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 20.44

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DEFEND [MIXED BAG!]

prohibere is to keep at a distance and to prevent the approach of something.

arcere is to bar the entry of something and to defend oneself against something.

defendere is to guard systematically against possible recurrent attack or approach.

DEFEND

tueri refers to a defense against a danger which is only possible, as "protect".

defendere refers to a defense against an actual attack, as the English "defend".

EXPEL Schulz 112

depellere is to defend oneself successfully against something by expelling it from where it already has made inroads.

propulsare is to defend oneself by expelling something by violent means.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 47

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 124

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 75 cf also 13

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 94

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 151B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 68
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 8
  • nab : 5
  • vt[oN] : 5
  • vadN : 4
  • n : 3
  • NP : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vi : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • vt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 37
  • 春秋左傳 : 27
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 鹽鐵論 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 管子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   bèi OC: brɯɡs MC: bi 28 Attributions

Bèi 備 is to make defensive arrangements.

  • ndefensive/protective contraptions of any kind
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actdefensive preparations; necessary precautions, cautionary measures
  • vtoNguard against; guard properly against; prepare against, put up defences against
  • vtoNpassivebe guarded against
  • vtoNreflexive.自defend (oneself)
   shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 22 Attributions

The standard word for defending a place is shǒu 守 (ant. gōng 攻 "attack").

  • nabactdefensive warfare, defense
  • vadNdefensive; guard- 守狗
  • viactundertake defensive tasks; be in charge of the defence of the state
  • vt(oN)defend the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNdefend; guard; protect
  • vtoNpassivebe effectively defended
  • vtoNreflexive.自defend (oneself)
捍 / 扞   hàn OC: ɡaans MC: ɦɑn hàn OC: ɡaans MC: ɦɑn 8 Attributions

Hàn 扞/捍 is to try to resist an outside attack successfully. Hàn 扞/捍 is to try to resist an outside attack successfully.

  • vtoNprotect against, fend off, ward off; defend somebody; guard
  • vadNdefensive
殿   diàn OC: dɯɯns MC: den 8 Attributions
  • nagentrear guard
  • vt[oN]to defend the rear; guard the rear
  • vtoNcausativeuse as rearguard
  • vtoNserve as rear guard for
   fáng OC: baŋ MC: bi̯ɐŋ 5 Attributions

Fáng 防 refers to defending a concrete or abstract thing successfully.

  • vtoNguard against; put a stop to
   fáng OC: baŋ MC: bi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNdike > protect; defend
   kàng OC: khaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 3 Attributions

Kàng亢 typically refers to the mounting of a vigorous and energetic offensive defence against a violent attack.

  • vtoNto protect; to defend vigorously
  • vtoNreflexive.身defend (oneself)
屯 / 屯   zhūn OC: tun MC: ʈʷin tún OC: duun MC: duo̝n 3 Attributions
  • vtoNN=placeencamp at to defend the place; establish a garrison at
  • viestablish a defensive military camp
   wèi OC: ɢods MC: ɦiɛi 3 Attributions

The standard general word for defending a community is wèi 衛(ant. gōng 攻 "attack").

  • vtoNfend for and defend, take good professional care of (superiors); guard militarily
  • vtoNreflexive.自defend oneself
   bǎo OC: puuʔ MC: pɑu 2 Attributions

Bǎo 保 is to try to ensure the safety of one's place against a threat from outside.

  • vadNdefended> fortified
  • vtoNdefend against enemies and keep secure
  • viactdefend oneself, make defensive arrangements
   bǐng OC: peŋʔ MC: piɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • nscreen; protection
  • vtoNto screen; to protect; to safeguard; be a fence for
守備   shǒu bèi OC: qhjuʔ brɯɡs MC: ɕɨu bi 2 Attributions

Refers generally to various defensive arrangements of all sorts.

  • nabdefensive arrangements
障塞   zhàng sāi OC: kjaŋs sɯɯɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ sək 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialdefenses; blockages; impediments; defensive arrangements
   shù OC: qhjos MC: ɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdefend as a garrison
   yíng OC: ɢʷleŋ MC: jiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdefend, protect (prototypically by surrounding and forming a defensive ring)
   jiān OC: kraam MC: kɣam 1 Attribution
  • vtoNguard (a gate)
   biǎo OC: prawʔ MC: piɛu 1 Attribution
  • nouter defense
豫 / 預   yù OC: las MC: ji̯ɤ yù OC: las MC: ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution

Yù 豫 is to make defensive arrangements well ahead in time or in good time. See also PREPARE Yù 豫 is to make defensive arrangements well ahead in time or in good time. See also PREPARE

  • vtoNtake precautions against
   zhàng OC: kjaŋs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNreflexive.自defend (oneself)
守固   shǒu gù OC: qhjuʔ kaas MC: ɕɨu kuo̝ 1 Attribution

Refers to effective defense.

  • VPiresultativeestablish defenses so as to make things secure
守圉   shǒu yǔ OC: qhjuʔ ŋaʔ MC: ɕɨu ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdefense
守衛   shǒu wèi OC: qhjuʔ ɢods MC: ɕɨu ɦiɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自defend (oneself)
捍蔽   hàn bì OC: ɡaans peds MC: ɦɑn piɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdefense
警守   jǐng shǒu OC: kreŋʔ qhjuʔ MC: kɣaŋ ɕɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake cautious defensive preparations
防禦   fáng yù OC: baŋ ŋaʔ MC: bi̯ɐŋ ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdefend (something) in every way
  • VPtoNreflexive.自defend (oneself)
   yù OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

Yù 禦 is to hinder attack effectively and successfully. See HINDER

       xián OC: ɢreen MC: ɦɣɛn 0 Attributions
    • nsubject=humanprotector (GULIANG) ????
    • vtoNto protect (MENG)
       mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 0 Attributions
    • viactdefend the gate
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • NPdefensive guard, garrison
    營衛   yíng wèi MC: yweng -- OC: ɢʷleŋ ɢods 0 Attributions
    • NPdefensive guard, garrison

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: