STATE  國家

TERRITORY GOVERNED by an INDEPENDENT RULER.[[STAAT]]
POLITYCOUNTRYNATIONLANDSOVEREIGN STATENATION STATEKINGDOMREALMPOWERREPUBLICCONFEDERATIONFEDERATION
Hypernym

TERRITORYPLACE INSIDE DEFINED BOUNDARIES. -> PLACEPART of SPACE that THINGS BE-IN:are-in. -> PARTOBJECT which COMBINES with OTHER OBJECTS to BECOME ONE LARGER WHOLE OBJECT. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

BORDER AREAPLACE NEAR a BORDER AND TYPICALLY INSIDE ONE STATE.

See also

POLITICSLEGITIMATE CONCRETE PUBLIC DISCUSSION of DIFFERENT METHODS to GOVERN a DEFINITE STATE.

Hyponym
  • CHINA MOST LARGE STATE in East Asia. [GEOGRPAHY]
    • STATES An individual STATE, names of major states in the Warring States period.
      • NATION STATE THOUGHT of an ABSTRACT INSTITUTION.
        • FEDERATION STATE ESTABLISHED by FREE DECISION by the LEADERS of its PARTS.
          • FATHERLAND STATE WHERE ONE HAS ONE'S HOME.
            • REPUBLIC STATE LACKING A KING OR HEREDITARY RULER
              • RECHTSSTAAT STATE in which the FREEDOMS AND the ACTS of GOVERNMENT are LIMITED by OR BASED on LAW.
                • EMPIRE VERY LARGE STATE CONTROLLING SEVERAL SMALL STATES
                  Old Chinese Criteria

                  1. The dominant word is guó 國, and the word naturally focusses on the capital which defines the identity of the state, but from Warring States times the word does refer to the whole of the territory, as the term guó xiāo 國削 "the state was truncated" shows.

                  2. Bāng 邦 is an area-orientated old word referring to an extended state (see the early 大邦 ) without emphasising the leading role of a capital in that state, and the word was increasingly replaced by guó 國 even before taboo rules related to the name of Liú Bāng had their impact.

                  3. Tǔ 土 refers to territory as such, and occasionally comes to refer to the territory of a certain state, including one's own.

                  4. Fāng 方 refers to a region other than one's own state, and note particularly the old phrase 方國.

                  5. Tiān xià 天下 refers to the inhabited earth construed as dominated by the emperor or Son of Heaven, but by extension the expression also refers collectively to the the central states governed by the zhū hóu 諸侯. (NOTE THAT THE EMPIRE OF CHINA WAS NOT REGARDED AS A STATE.)

                  6. Guó jiā 國家 refers to the nation as a social institution dominated by a certain clan. See NATION.

                  7. Yì 邑 "capital" occasionally comes to refer to the state dominated by a certain city, its capital.

                  黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

                  HUANG JINGUI 2006

                  GOVERNMENT/LAW 29. 從商代起,隨著國家的發展先後出現國家的通稱 “ 方、邦、國 ” 。

                  書面文獻中, “ 國 ” 使用最廣,有泛指與許多專指用法。

                  “ 邦 ” 次之,有古雅、莊重色彩,

                  “ 方 ” 主要用於追述古史,或用作引申、比附義。

                  Modern Chinese Criteria

                  國家

                  邦 (lit)

                  rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 19.12

                  • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 329

                    587. Ex Serv. ad ill. II Aen.: Festa velamus fronde per Urbem. Vid. Non. dictionibus. Inter Urbem, et Civitatem. Al. Ut urbe moenia civitatis significet, civitate incolas urbis.

                    -- Urbem autem. Serv. ad ill. I En., Urbs antiqua fuit: et Donat. ad ill. V Urbem designat aratro.

                    [col. 68C] -- Aratrum, vel. Pars aratri non aratrum, neque sulcus, sed quod sulcus fit, melius distinctiusque ipse lib. Etymolog. XV, cap. 2.

                    [col. 68D] -- Ab orbe. Servius, loco citato, ab orbe, quod antiquae civitates in orbem fiebant.

                    ]

                    587. Inter Urbem et civitatem ita distinguit Cicero, ut urbem moenia civitatis significent, civitas incolas urbis. Nam ad Dolabellam sic scripsit: Liberasti urbem a periculo, civitatem a metu. Urbem autem ab urbo, quem aratrum vel sulcum veteres dicebant, aut ab orbe dictam putant, cujus in se imaginem respublica contineret. Porro oppidum ad habitantes pertinet, civitas ad leges, urbs ad utrumque.

                  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 134B

                  • L'intelligence de la China. Le social et le mental ( GERNET 1994) p. 31-44

                  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 69

                  • Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe ( KOSELLECK 1972-97) p. 5.549-652

                  • Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe ( KOSELLECK 1972-97) p. 6.1-154

                  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

                    CIVITAS

                    RES PUBLICA

                  • 老子古今 ( LIU XIAOGAN 2006) p. 221

                  • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 5

                  • Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache ( MAUTHNER WP 1924) p. 50

                  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 214

                  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 2.693

                  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 3.1473

                  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 10.1

                    STAAT

                  • Das grosse China-Lexikon ( STAIGER 2003) p. 709

                  • "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China" ( UNGER SACH) p.

                    KRONSTAATEN 畿內

                    STAAT

                  • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 409

                    This is an exceptionally useful survey of the semantic field.

                    Wang links 邦 a territorial early phase of Chinese political organisation, and he notes the combination 邦畿 "land and royal territory".

                    He takes 國家 to refer to the state as a political organisation involving various institutions of state.

                  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1464

                    國,邦

                    1. WL claims that guo2 國 was not originally a territorial concept.No, there isn't in jiaguwen.

                  • 周代國家形態研究 ( ZHAO BOXIONG 1990) p.

                    邦實際上是由家組成的,邦就是家所佔據的地方. (p. 71)

                  • 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci ( WU SANXING 2008) p. 253ff

                  • Enzyklopaedie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie ( MITTELSTRASS 1996) p. 4.71

                  • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

                    STATE

                  • Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology ( BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002) p.

                  • Democritus Ridens ( WEBER 1857) p. 7.93

                  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 159

                  • Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae ( DIVISIONES 1906) p. no 3

                  • New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols. ( HOROWITZ 2005) p.

                  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 134B

                  Attributions by syntactic funtion

                  • n[post-N] : 27
                  • NP : 27
                  • n : 24
                  • ncc : 17
                  • n(post-N) : 13
                  • npost=Npr : 9
                  • n : 4
                  • nadN : 4
                  • npost-N : 3
                  • npost-N{PLACE} : 2
                  • NP{N1adN2} : 2
                  • NP{vadN} : 2
                  • n(adN) : 1
                  • n[adN] : 1
                  • nab : 1
                  • n S : 1
                  • NPc : 1

                  Attributions by text

                  • 孟子 : 29
                  • 說苑 : 29
                  • 戰國策 : 9
                  • 孝經 : 7
                  • 莊子 : 7
                  • 禮記 : 6
                  • 墨子 : 6
                  • 尚書 : 6
                  • 晏子春秋 : 5
                  • 韓非子 : 4
                  • 荀子 : 4
                  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
                  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
                  • 管子 : 3
                  • 祖堂集 : 2
                  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
                  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
                  • 百喻經 : 2
                  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
                  • 淮南子 : 1
                  • 史記 : 1
                  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
                  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
                  • 楚辭 : 1
                  • 孫子 : 1
                  • 論衡 : 1
                  • 毛詩 : 1

                  Words

                     guó OC: kʷɯɯɡ MC: kək 94 Attributions

                  The dominant word is guó 國, and the word naturally focusses on the capital which defines the identity of the state, but from Warring States times the word does refer to the whole of the territory, as the term guó xiāo 國削 "the state was truncated" shows.

                  • n(post-N)the state of a contextually determinate person (many examples need to be moved here)
                  • n[post-N][our] state; [his] state, her state, their state, one's state; [the subject's] state
                  • n[post-N]definiteour state, [one's] country. MOVE UP TO THE ENTRY ABOVE
                  • nnonreferential(in general:) the state
                  • n[post-N]territoryone's state as territory
                  • nwithin empiredemesne; royal domain within the empire
                  • nabfigurativerealm 佛國
                  • ncc(not necessarily large, territorially conceived) state (within the empire)
                  • npost=Npr衛國
                  • npost=Nprterritorystate in the sense of territory of the state
                  • nname of one's state
                  • nenfeoffed state, state enfeoffed by the Zhou King
                  • n(adN)the contextually determiate N (e.g. population) of the state
                  • n[adN]everyone in the state N =國人
                  • n Stopic: as for the state, in it S
                  • npost-NN=ruler: N's state, the state governed by N
                  • nadNthe contextually determinate N (e.g. minister) of the state
                  天下   tiān xià OC: lʰiin ɢraaʔ MC: then ɦɣɛ 16 Attributions

                  Tiān xià 天下 refers to the inhabited earth construed as dominated by the emperor or Son of Heaven. (NOTE THAT THE EMPIRE OF CHINA WAS NOT REGARDED AS A STATE.)

                  • NPplaceAll under Heaven; the Empire
                  • NPpluralall the states in the world
                     bāng OC: prooŋ MC: pɣɔŋ 6 Attributions

                  Bāng 邦 is an area-orientated old word referring to an extended state without emphasising the leading role of a capital in that state, and the word was increasingly replaced by guó 國 even before taboo rules related to the name of Liú Bāng had their impact.

                  • nthe land; country, (large) country (as bounded by formal boundaries)
                  • npost-N{PLACE}魯邦 "the Land of Lǔ", 我周邦
                  • viactestablish a state MO: 邦於越
                  • vtoNestablish one's country in MO: 邦齊晉
                  • vttoN1.+N2create a state for N1 in N2 SHU 邦之蔡
                  萬乘   wàn shèng OC: mblans ɢjɯŋs MC: mi̯ɐn ʑɨŋ 4 Attributions

                  萬乘 refers to one of a group of the most powerful states Warring States China.

                  • NPnonreferentiallarge state commanding 10 000 war chariots
                  • NPclarge state
                     tǔ OC: kh-laaʔ MC: thuo̝ 3 Attributions

                  Tǔ 土 refers to territory as such, and occasionally comes to refer to the territory of a certain state, including one's own.

                  • narchaic: land; place
                     yì OC: qrɯb MC: ʔip 3 Attributions

                  Yì 邑 "capital" occasionally comes to refer metonymically to the state dominated by a certain city, its capital.

                  • npolitearchaic: state as represented by its capital, in polite speech
                  • nadNin polite diplomatic speech: relating to my city (i.e. state)
                  國土   guó tǔ OC: kʷɯɯɡ kh-laaʔ MC: kək thuo̝ 3 Attributions
                  • NPstate, country
                  方國   fāng guó OC: paŋ kʷɯɯɡ MC: pi̯ɐŋ kək 3 Attributions

                  方國 is an ancient term referring to the (distant) states of the four quarters.

                  • NPlocal states> states of the four quarters; ZHENG XUAN: 四方來附者
                  四境   sì jìng OC: plids kraŋʔ MC: si kɣaŋ 2 Attributions

                  Sì jìng 四境 refers to the neighbouring states as viewed from a certain centre.

                  • NP{vadN}the four borders of the state, the state
                  境內   jìng nèi OC: kraŋʔ nuubs MC: kɣaŋ nuo̝i 2 Attributions
                  • NP{N1adN2}what is within the boundaries; the state
                  • NPhumaneveryone within the state
                  皇輿   huáng yú OC: ɡʷaaŋ k-la MC: ɦɑŋ ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution
                  • NPfigurativemetonymic: the state
                  一國   yī yí,yì guó  MC: 'jit kwok  OC: qliɡ kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
                  • NPa single state
                  四國   sì guó  MC: sijH kwok  OC: plids kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
                  • NPall states
                     bó OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 0 Attributions
                  • nearldom
                     hóu OC: ɡoo MC: ɦu 0 Attributions
                  • nmarquisate
                     fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

                  Fāng 方 refers to a region other than one's own state.

                  • nregion
                  千乘   qiān shèng OC: snʰiin ɢjɯŋs MC: tshen ʑɨŋ 0 Attributions

                  千乘 refers to a powerful state in Warring States China.

                  • NPnonreferentiala state with an army of a thousand war chariots
                  國朝   guó cháo OC: kʷɯɯɡ daw MC: kək ɖiɛu 0 Attributions

                  state SANGUOZHI

                    家邦   jiā bāng OC: kraa prooŋ MC: kɣɛ pɣɔŋ 0 Attributions
                    • NPstate
                    州國   zhōu guó OC: kju kʷɯɯɡ MC: tɕɨu kək 0 Attributions
                    • NPnonreferentialstate
                    方隅   fāng yú OC: paŋ ŋo MC: pi̯ɐŋ ŋi̯o 0 Attributions

                    local state SANGUOZHI

                      虞氏   yú shì OC: ŋʷa ɡjeʔ MC: ŋi̯o dʑiɛ 0 Attributions
                      • NPprpre-historical dynasty referred to in ZUO and GY, often mentioned in connection with the Xia4 夏.
                         guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
                      • nadNbelonging to the state 官費

                      Existing SW for

                      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: