FAMILY  家族

GROUP of PERSONS with the SAME ANCESTORS, OR WITH the SAME GRANDFATHER OR GREAT GRANDFATHER.
CLANRELATIVESRELATIONSKINNEXT OF KINKINSFOLKKINDREDONE'S (OWN) FLESH AND BLOODNEAREST AND DEARESTPEOPLECONNECTIONSEXTENDED FAMILYIN-LAWSCLAN
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current dominant word is jiā 家 which refers to a whole household, including men, domestic animals and utensils as well as the whole clan system that defines its lineage affiliation.

2. Zōng 宗 refers unambiguously as a technical term to the lineage group.

3. Zú 族 refers to the extended lineage group including all manner of in-laws, with the outer boundaries of reference ill-defined.

4. Shì 室 refers to a (typically substantial or powerful) household with all its appurtenances.

5. Mén 門 refers to the any complete respectable household including servants and dogs.

6. Hù 戶 refers to any complete household whatever, often in administrative contexts, with no regard to its status of respectability or political influence.

7. Nú 孥 is an archaic rare word referring to the members of a family.

NB: For 氏 and 姓 see NAME.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 HUMAN AFFAIRS 同姓親族。

家,以血緣聚居團體為基礎的財產單位,即家族,上古文獻中一般指卿大夫的家族。

族,奉祀同一宗廟的家族, “ 族 ” 適用範圍較 “ 家 ” 廣。

宗,本是支族之祖的廟,借代引申為同一祖先的家族,所指範圍大於 “ 族 ” 。

種,本指種子,喻指源於同一祖先的家族,側重於家族延續或得以延續的根源。

Modern Chinese Criteria

家眷

眷屬

家屬

家庭

家族 is a current modern word for a clan.

親族 focusses on the kinship relationship between members of a clan.

家門 takes the common abode as the conceptual point of departure.

宗族 is the traditionalist kinship term.

宗門 focusses on the institution constututed by a clan.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on Cilin. 18.11.2003. CH

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 2.82

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 19.23

  • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

    CLAN

    domus denotes a family as a social unit.

    familia denotes a family as a political unit, as part of a civitas or populus.

    FAMILY

    gens refers to the trunk or body of a tree and by extension to main line of descent.

    familia refers to the individual branches of an over-arching gens.

    prosapia is an antiquated solemn word only used of ancient noble families.

  • China Handbuch ( FRANKE 1974) p. 339

  • 古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典 ( HUANG JINGUI 2006) p.

  • 中華古代文化辭典 Zhonghua gudai wenhua cidian ( QIAN YULIN 1996) p. 568-575

    Traditional Chinese keywords related to the family system simply explained.

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 2.895

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 2.895

  • Das grosse China-Lexikon ( STAIGER 2003) p. 209

  • "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China" ( UNGER SACH) p.

    CLANS

    GENEALOGIEN

    KIANG 姜

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 216

  • Encyclopedia of Religion ( JONES 2005) p.

  • Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology ( BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002) p.

  • A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms ( T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004) p. NO.146

  • New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols. ( HOROWITZ 2005) p.

  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 68A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • ncc : 36
  • NP : 26
  • npost-N : 23
  • n : 22
  • nab : 9
  • n[post-N] : 3
  • NP{N1=N2} : 3
  • nab(post-N.)postVt : 2
  • NP[adN] : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • npost-N1.adN2 : 1
  • nc : 1
  • nm(post-N1.)[adN2] : 1
  • n(post-N) : 1
  • nadN{PRED} : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • n.red:adV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 39
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 論語 : 8
  • 墨子 : 7
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   jiā OC: kraa MC: kɣɛ 40 Attributions

The current dominant word is jiā 家 which refers to a whole household, including men, domestic animals and utensils as well as the whole clan system that defines its lineage affiliation.

  • n.red:adVin every family
  • nmembersthe members of the family
  • nccone's family in the broadest sense of the term; extended family including employees, who live together; LY 三家
  • npost-Nfamily of N
  • npost-Ndefinitethe home/family of the contextually determinate N
  • nadVto each family, family by family
  • n[post-N]one's family
  • nabsocialclan, household
  • npost-N1.adN2belonging to the given family; of the given family
  • nab(post-N.)postVtN=selfone's own clan/family
  • nab(post-N)clan, household
   shì OC: qhljiɡ MC: ɕit 21 Attributions

Shì 室 refers to a (typically substantial or powerful) household with all its appurtenances.

  • npost-N"house of" 周室 "house of Zhōu"; household; members of the household 公室
  • nm(post-N1.)[adN2]family property; family affairs
  • n(post-N)the family (of the contextually determinate subject N)
   zōng OC: tsuuŋ MC: tsuo̝ŋ 17 Attributions

Zōng 宗 refers unambiguously as a technical term to the lineage group.

  • nccclan, the overall clan; the leading clan; clan as united by ancestral worship and respect for the living representative of the ancestors
   zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 12 Attributions

Zú 族 refers to the extended lineage group including all manner of in-laws, with the outer boundaries of reference ill-defined.

  • nmembers of one's family; clan; tribe; kinsmen
   mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 7 Attributions

Mén 門 refers to the any complete respectable household including servants and dogs.

  • nclan, household 私門; often close to "school (of Confucius etc)"
妻子   qī zǐ OC: tshiil sklɯʔ MC: tshei tsɨ 5 Attributions
  • NPfamily life; family: wife and children
   hù OC: ɡlaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 3 Attributions

Hù 戶refers to any complete household whatever, often in administrative contexts, with no regard to its status of respectability or political influence.

  • nfamily as social unit living in one compound HF 萬戶之邑
  • nadN{PRED}per family (such-and-such things)
同姓   tóng xìng OC: looŋ seŋs MC: duŋ siɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPpluralclansmen
  • NP[adN]any person of the same surname
宗族   zōng zú OC: tsuuŋ sɡooɡ MC: tsuo̝ŋ dzuk 3 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}pluralthe whole clan, all the members of one's clan in the broadest sense of the term (NB: It remains an open question whether this term refers to the group as a whole, as one thing, or to the menmbers of the group, as a plural term. I.e. the question is whether the Chinese hypostatised or reified a family or clan "as such".)
  • NP[post-N]reflexivea member of one's own clan
種姓   zhǒng xìng OC: tjoŋʔ seŋs MC: tɕi̯oŋ siɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPclan
內姓   nèi xìng OC: nuubs seŋs MC: nuo̝i siɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPhaving the same surname > member of the same clan/family
宗室   zōng shì OC: tsuuŋ qhljiɡ MC: tsuo̝ŋ ɕit 2 Attributions
  • NPruling clan, members of the ruling clan; ancestral clan
私家   sī jiā OC: sil kraa MC: si kɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPprivate families, private clans (other than the ruler's); family of wife's parents
私門   sī mén OC: sil mɯɯn MC: si muo̝n 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralprivate families
種族   zhǒng zú OC: tjoŋʔ sɡooɡ MC: tɕi̯oŋ dzuk 2 Attributions
  • NPclan, family
   xìng OC: seŋs MC: siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • ncfamily, clan
   shì OC: ɡjeʔ MC: dʑiɛ 1 Attribution
  • nclan
  • npost-NprMr
妻息   qī xī OC: tshiil sqlɯɡ MC: tshei sɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPKind und Kegel; the members of one's family including in-laws
支屬   zhī shǔ OC: kje djoɡ MC: tɕiɛ dʑi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • NPclan
族姓   zú xìng OC: sɡooɡ seŋs MC: dzuk siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPdistinguished family
豪姓   háo xìng OC: ɡoow seŋs MC: ɦɑu siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPdistinguished clan
豪族   háo zú OC: ɡoow sɡooɡ MC: ɦɑu dzuk 1 Attribution
  • NPimportant family, distinguished clan
  • VPibe of distinguished extraction
舉家   jǔ jiā MC: kjoX kae OC: klaʔ kraa 1 Attribution
  • NPthe whole family; the whole clan
家口   jiā kǒu MC: kae khuwX OC: kraa khooʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPfamily members
   nú OC: naa MC: nuo̝ 0 Attributions

Nú 孥 is an archaic rare word referring to the members of a family.

  • nwife and children (Shu)
   zhǒng OC: tjoŋʔ MC: tɕi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • nfamily, group of people with shared ancestry
   lián OC: b-ren MC: liɛn 0 Attributions
  • ngroup of 5 households (GUAN)
   fá OC: bod MC: bi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han, TANG: clan 名閥 "powerful clans"
   lèi OC: ruds MC: li 0 Attributions
    中外   zhōng wài OC: krluŋ ŋoods MC: ʈuŋ ŋɑi 0 Attributions
    • NP[adN]people within and outside the family/clan
    公室   gōng shì OC: klooŋ qhljiɡ MC: kuŋ ɕit 0 Attributions
    • NP[post-N]ducal family

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: