CAPITAL CITY  國都

CITY where the GOVERNMENT of a STATE BE-IN:is located.
Kind Of

CITY

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Guó 國 is a current word for the capital from early Zhou times onwards, but in the course of time the capital came to stand as representative of the (city-) state, and the word came to be used for the state rather than the capital. (Note that even the names of ancient Chinese states currently refer not to the state as such but to the capital.).

2. Dū 都 typically refers to a conurbation which serves as an administrative centre below the level of a capital, but the meaning of the word does often include the capital and it is occasionally used to refer specifically to the capital.

3. Jīng 京 refers to the capital in Han times and seems short for jīng shī 京師 which refers to the permanent seat of central government and of the encampment of the central army.

4. Yì 邑 is an archaic term for a capital current in Western Zhou times and obsolete in that meaning afterwards, when the word came to mean settlement at an administrative level below the dū 都.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 30. 國都之稱,商代尚無。

邑,西周國都之稱。

國,東周國都之稱。

京,秦以後國都之專稱,

兼用 “ 都 ” 。

Modern Chinese Criteria

首都

國都

京都

上都

都城

京城

上京

京師

京華

京畿

鳳城

帝鄉

輦下 (lit) refers to the imperial capital.

轂下

輦轂下

首善之區

故都

舊都

舊國

舊京

華甸 (obs)

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 10

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 20

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

CHENG??? HAUPTSTADT

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian NO

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 105

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 168

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.105

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 45
  • NP : 22
  • vtoN{PLACE} : 5
  • n(post-N) : 3
  • npost=Npr : 3
  • npost=Npr : 2
  • +vt+prep+N : 1
  • n[post-N] : 1
  • npost-N{PLACE} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 19
  • 毛詩 : 17
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 史記 : 8
  • 管子 : 6
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 26 Attributions

Dū 都 typically refers to a conurbation which serves as an administrative centre below the level of a capital, but the meaning of the word does often include the capital and it is occasionally used to refer specifically to the capital.

  • nenfeoffed city; administrative centre (of a district); by Han times: capital of a kingdom within the empire; the reference is frequently to a capital: 宋都 would appear to refer to the capital of Sòng and not to any city or administrative centre of of Sòng.
  • npost=Nprthe capital city of Npr
  • vtoN{PLACE}make (a place) one's capital; have one's capital in Npl
京師   jīng shī OC: kraŋ sril MC: kɣaŋ ʂi 21 Attributions
  • NPcapital
   guó OC: kʷɯɯɡ MC: kək 19 Attributions

Guó 國 is a current word for the capital from early Zhou times onwards, but in the course of time the capital came to stand as representative of the (city-) state, and the word came to be used for the state rather than the capital. (Note that even the names of ancient Chinese states currently refer not to the state as such but to the capital.).

  • npre-Han usage: HF 6.1.16: (walled) capital city; capital or residence of a feudal lord;MENG: 遍國 throughout the capital
  • npost-N{PLACE}captial of the state Npl
  • vt+prep+Nestablish one's capital at N
  • n(post-N)the capital of the contextually determinate state/place
  • n[post-N]N=EGOour capital
   jīng OC: kraŋ MC: kɣaŋ 13 Attributions

Jīng 京 refers to the capital in Han times and seems short for jīng shī 京師 which refers to the permanent seat of central government and of the encampment of the central army.

  • ncapital; mostly definite: the capital
  • npost=Nprthe capital X
   yì OC: qrɯb MC: ʔip 3 Attributions

Yì 邑 is an archaic term for a capital current in Western Zhou times and obsolete in that meaning afterwards, when the word came to mean settlement at an administrative level below the dū 都.

  • nWestern Zhou inscriptions, SHU, occasionally: capital
  • +vt+prep+Nestablish one's capital at N
京城   jīng chéng OC: kraŋ djeŋ MC: kɣaŋ dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPcapital
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 0 Attributions
  • nHan bureaucratic usage: capital city

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: