CITY  城市

BIG PLACE that CONTAINS MANY STREETS AND GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND where INTENSELY MANY PEOPLE LIVE NEAR TOGETHER.
TOWNMUNICIPALITYMETROPOLISMEGALOPOLISMEGACITYCONURBATIONURBAN AREAMETROPOLITAN AREAURBAN MUNICIPALITYBOROUGHTOWNSHIP
Taxonoymy

CITIESCAPITAL CITY

CITY WALL

Antonymy

SUBURBCOUNTRYSIDE

See also

VILLAGE

Kind Of

PLACE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general term for walled urban or semi-urban administrative centres and settlements below the level of the capital, and above the level of the village without any presence of the state administration, is 邑. In OBI the word can also refer to the royal capital.

2. Dū 都 refers to a larger urbanised settlement with an ancestral shrine for the leading family in the town, and with representatives of the central state government in permanent residence. The word came to refer quite generally to a city in post-Warring States times.

3. Chéng 城 refers specifically to the part of a city surrounded by the inner city wall chéng 城. But the word is also sometimes used to refer more generally to walled cities.

4. Guō 郭 refers to the part of a walled city outside the inner city walls chéng 城 but inside the outer city walls guō 郭. Sometimes the outer walls are added on one side only of the inner city walls thus creating a kind of second-level walled city.

5. Fú 郛 refers to a large guō 郭 "inhabited area between inner and outer city walls".

6. Jiāo 郊 refers to the cultivated area outside the guō 郭 and bounded by yě 野 "open countryside". See SUBURB

Modern Chinese Criteria

城市

都會

都市

都邑

城邑

城池

通都大邑

town:

集鎮

鎮子

市鎮

鄉鎮

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.15

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 961

POLIS

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 329

587. Ex Serv. ad ill. II Aen.: Festa velamus fronde per Urbem. Vid. Non. dictionibus. Inter Urbem, et Civitatem. Al. Ut urbe moenia civitatis significet, civitate incolas urbis.

-- Urbem autem. Serv. ad ill. I En., Urbs antiqua fuit: et Donat. ad ill. V Urbem designat aratro.

[col. 68C] -- Aratrum, vel. Pars aratri non aratrum, neque sulcus, sed quod sulcus fit, melius distinctiusque ipse lib. Etymolog. XV, cap. 2.

[col. 68D] -- Ab orbe. Servius, loco citato, ab orbe, quod antiquae civitates in orbem fiebant.

]

587. Inter Urbem et civitatem ita distinguit Cicero, ut urbem moenia civitatis significent, civitas incolas urbis. Nam ad Dolabellam sic scripsit: Liberasti urbem a periculo, civitatem a metu. Urbem autem ab urbo, quem aratrum vel sulcum veteres dicebant, aut ab orbe dictam putant, cujus in se imaginem respublica contineret. Porro oppidum ad habitantes pertinet, civitas ad leges, urbs ad utrumque.

FRANKE 1974 China Handbuch 1309

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

URBS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 49

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1915

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 716

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

PFRUENDEN 食邑

CITY

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1463

邑,都,國

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.105

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.363

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 54
  • ncc : 12
  • NP : 7
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 2
  • n(post-N) : 1
  • npost-Npr : 1
  • vtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 26
  • 管子 : 13
  • 說苑 : 8
  • 韓非子 : 8
  • 論語 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   yì OC: qrɯb MC: ʔip 36 Attributions

The most general term for walled urban or semi-urban administrative centres and settlements below the level of the capital, and above the level of the village without any presence of the state administration, is 邑. In OBI the word can also refer to the royal capital.

  • ntown which serves as an administrative centre
  • vt+prep+NN=placeto establish a city (somewhere)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2give a city to N1 in a place N2
  • npost-Nprcity, urbanised settlement
  • npost=Nprthe city of Npr
   dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 20 Attributions

Dū 都 refers to a larger urbanised settlement with an ancestral shrine for the leading family in the town, and with representatives of the central state government in permanent residence. The word came to refer quite generally to a city in post-Warring States times.

  • nmajor administrative and ritual centre, local centre at the lower administrative level immediately below the state capital
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 14 Attributions

Chéng 城 refers specifically to the part of a city surrounded by the inner city wall chéng 城. But the word is also sometimes used to refer more generally to walled cities.

  • ncca walled city
  • vtoNcausativemake a place into a walled city; establish a place as a walled city
  • n(post-N)cities belonging to the contextually determinate N
都邑   dū yì OC: k-laa qrɯb MC: tuo̝ ʔip 3 Attributions
  • NPpluraladministrative centres and settlements
   guō OC: kʷaaɡ MC: kɑk 2 Attributions

Guō 郭 refers to the part of a walled city outside the inner city walls chéng 城 but inside the outer city walls guō 郭. Sometimes the outer walls are added on one side only of the inner city walls thus creating a kind of second-level walled city.

  • npart of the suburb close to the outer walls
國邑   guó yì OC: kʷɯɯɡ qrɯb MC: kək ʔip 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralcities
   fú OC: pho MC: phi̯o 1 Attribution

Fú 郛 refers to a large guō 郭"inhabited area between inner and outer city walls".

  • nsuburban area of some size
城廓   chéng kuò OC: djeŋ khʷaaɡ MC: dʑiɛŋ khɑk 1 Attribution

city, town [CA]

  • NPcity
城邑   chéng yì OC: djeŋ qrɯb MC: dʑiɛŋ ʔip 1 Attribution
  • NPcity
聚 / 聚   jù OC: sɡos MC: dzi̯o jù OC: sɡoʔ MC: dzi̯o 0 Attributions
  • nSHJI, Wudibenji: small city
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 0 Attributions

Jiāo 郊 refers to the cultivated area outside the guō 郭 and bounded by yě 野 "open countryside". See SUBURB

    城郭   chéng guō OC: djeŋ kʷaaɡ MC: dʑiɛŋ kɑk 0 Attributions
    • NPpostadVwithin the city walls
       shī OC: sril MC: ʂi 0 Attributions
    • ncity

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: