COUNTRYSIDE  郊外

LANDSCAPE OUTSIDE CITIES AND SUBURBS.
COUNTRYGREENBELTGREAT OUTDOORSRURAL AREASBACK
Antonymy

CITYSUBURB

See also

BOUNDARY

Kind Of

LANDSCAPE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for the undelimited non-urban areas is yě 野 (ant. yì 邑 "urbanised settlement").

2. Jiāo 郊 is the fairly well-defined cultivated countryside immediately surround a conurbation; it is also the place where "suburban" sacrifices are held. See CITY

3. Pì 僻 refers to unfrequented outlying parts of the country without strongly suggesting any deficiency in culture.

4. Bǐ 鄙 refers again to the outlying parts of the countryside that are deficient in "high culture", and these words are predominantly used as adjectives.

5. Lòu 陋 is a rare word referring to the remote countryside.

6. Huāng 荒 refers to any lack of cultivated vegetation and even demarkation of fields.

Modern Chinese Criteria

郊外

鄉村

農村

鄉間

鄉下

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.13

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

COUNTRYSIDE

rus refers to the country as opposed to a town or city.

ager refers to the open country or fields.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

RUS

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1476

野,鄙,都,郊

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO. 22

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 14
  • NP : 5
  • nadV : 3
  • nadN : 3
  • VPadN : 3
  • vtoN : 1
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 7
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 史記 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 韓非子 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1

Words

   yě OC: laʔ MC: jɣɛ 15 Attributions

The current general word for the undelimited non-urban areas is yě 野 (ant. yì 邑 "urbanised settlement").

  • nopen countryside
  • nabmetaphysical"wilderness"
  • nadNbelonging to the countryside; taking place in the countryside; from the countryside
  • nadVplacein the open countryside
   bǐ OC: prɯʔ MC: pi 4 Attributions

Bǐ 鄙 refers again to the outlying parts of the countryside that are deficient in "high culture", and these words are predominantly used as adjectives.

  • nout-of-the-way place in the countryside, outlying district
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe rusticated, be sent to the outlying areas, be sent to the countryside
僻陋   pì lòu OC: pheeɡ roos MC: phek lu 3 Attributions
  • VPadNoutlying [contrast bǐ lòu 鄙陋 "vulgar and ignorant".]
   pì OC: pheeɡ MC: phek 2 Attributions

Pì 僻 refers to unfrequented outlying parts of the country without strongly suggesting any deficiency in culture.

  • nout of the way place
  • vadNZUO: out of the way, little frequented
田野   tián yě OC: ɡ-liiŋ laʔ MC: den jɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialthe contryside with fields and wilderness
   piān OC: phen MC: phiɛn 1 Attribution
  • nthe countryside outside a city; borderland
  • vibe distant from the centre, out-lying and undeveloped; be remote
林野   lín yě OC: ɡ-rɯm laʔ MC: lim jɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPwooded countryside
虛空   xū kōng OC: qhla khooŋ MC: hi̯ɤ khuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPsubjectwilderness
野鄙   yě bǐ MC: dzyoX pijX OC: laʔ prɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPoutlying regions, distant countryside
   wài OC: ŋoods MC: ŋɑi 0 Attributions
  • viHF 1.3.77: in the field, away from the capital
   diàn OC: ɡ-liiŋs MC: den 0 Attributions
  • nadministrative unit of 16 market villages
   huāng OC: hmaaŋ MC: hɑŋ 0 Attributions

Huāng 荒 refers to any lack of cultivated vegetation and even demarkation of fields.

  • nthe open uncultivated countryside
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 0 Attributions

Jiāo 郊 is the fairly well-defined cultivated countryside immediately surround a conurbation; it is also the place where "suburban" sacrifices are held. See CITY

       lòu OC: roos MC: lu 0 Attributions

    Lòu 陋 is a rare word referring to the remote countryside.

    • nout-of-the-way place of little culture
    野里   yě lǐ OC: laʔ ɡ-rɯʔ MC: jɣɛ lɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPthe countryside

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: