EMPTY  空虛

LACK ALL POSSIBLE THINGS INSIDE.
VACANTUNOCCUPIEDUNINHABITEDUNTENANTEDBAREDESOLATEDESERTEDABANDONEDCLEARFREEVOIDDEVOID OFEMPTY OFVACANT OFBEREFT OFFREE FROMLACKINGWANTINGWITHOUTWITH NARY A
Antonymy

FULLOBJECT

See also

ABSTRACTSURFACE

Kind Of

LACK

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most geneal word is xū 虛 (ant. shí 實 "substantial and full") which can refer both to physical emptiness of a space and to abstract emptiness or tenuousness as a philosophical concept.

2. Kōng 空 (ant. mǎn 滿 "filled up") generally refers to literal emptiness of a container, but used adjectivally the word also has abstract uses as in kōng yán 空言 "empty words, abstract insubstantial discourse".

3. Wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "existence") refers to the philosophical abstract construct of "nothingness, emptiness".

4. Kuò 廓 and kuàng 曠 emphasise the expansiveness of the empty space.

Modern Chinese Criteria

空洞

空虛

虛空

空疏

虛無

懸空

架空

空幻

虛幻

虛飄飄

虛無縹緲

不著邊際

華而不實

紙上談兵

空洞無物

言之無物

空空如也

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 787;899

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 13.22

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

EMPTY

inanis refers to what is empty but has been full of content.

vacuus refers to emptiness of that which may be filled but is at prsent vacant.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 351

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 220

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 313

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 5.157

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 272

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 273

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 30
  • vadN : 27
  • VPi : 23
  • nab : 20
  • vtoN : 12
  • NPab : 7
  • vadV : 4
  • vi.red : 2
  • NP : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • NP[adN] : 1
  • nab : 1
  • vi-P : 1
  • vad.VadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 28
  • 祖堂集 : 12
  • 莊子 : 11
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 9
  • 管子 : 8
  • 鹽鐵論 : 7
  • 史記 : 7
  • 六祖壇經 : 7
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 老子 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1

Words

   xū OC: qhla MC: hi̯ɤ 45 Attributions

The most geneal word is xū 虛 (ant. shí 實 "substantial and full") which can refer both to physical emptiness of a space and to abstract emptiness or tenuousness as a philosophical concept.

  • nabemptiness, empty space; depletion; voidness;
  • nabactthe cultivation of emptiness
  • nabmethod(abstract) emptiness (of mind)
  • vadNfigurativeinsubstantial, inconsequential; rarified; vacant; also generally: empty; characterised by emptiness 虛月 "months where they are empty"
  • vadVfigurativeinconsequentially; groundlessly, without a basis in facts; > in vain
  • vibe literally empty (like storehouses etc)
  • viactbe vacant; be open-minded; cultivate emptiness; be empty and receptive
  • vtoNcausativecause to be empty; allow to be empty
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be empty
  • vtoNcausativemake (oneself) empty 虛己
  • vtoNfigurativecause (the mind etc) to be without special ambitions and preoccupations 虛心
  • nabpoeticderived: meaninglessness
   kōng OC: khooŋ MC: khuŋ 40 Attributions

Kōng 空 (ant. mǎn 滿 "filled up") generally refers to literal emptiness of a container, but used adjectivally the word also has abstract uses as in kōng yán 空言 "empty words, abstract insubstantial discourse".

  • nempty space
  • nabmetaphysicalemptiness 養空 "cultivate emptiness"BUDDH: emptiness, voidness (the notion of emptiness developed into one of the key terms of Mahāyāna Buddhism; for explanations in secondary literature see 'sources'); SANSKRIT śūnyatā
  • vad.VadN空大谷
  • vadNempty; empty of relevant content (an empty pond, for example, may be just empty of fish etc)
  • vadNbuddhistinsubstantial (without reality)
  • vadVemptily, in an empty state
  • vi-Pfigurativebe all receptive 空然
  • vi.redbe all empty
  • viempty, without content
  • vibuddhistBUDDH: empty, void, insubstantial (without self-nature, interdependent, and subject to constant change); skr. śūnya
  • vtoNcausative(to cause to be empty>) to deplete, to empty
  • vtoNcausativebe emptied
空虛   kōng xū OC: khooŋ qhla MC: khuŋ hi̯ɤ 18 Attributions
  • NPsubjectthat which is all empty and deserted; empty space
  • NPabemptiness
  • VPifigurativebe empty and receptive; be all empty
  • VPiintensitivebe all empty; be all empty and deserted
空寂   kōng jì OC: khooŋ sɡlɯɯwɡ MC: khuŋ dzek 5 Attributions
  • VPifigurativeBUDDH: be empty > be insubstantial; existing only in dependance of other factors
虛無   xū wú OC: qhla ma MC: hi̯ɤ mi̯o 4 Attributions
  • viactpractice emptiness
  • VPibe inane
  • NPabmetaphysicalemptiness; receptiveness to relevant experience
  • NPabpoeticinsignificance; meaninglessness; pointlessness,
   liáo OC: ɡ-rɯɯw MC: leu 3 Attributions
  • vi.redbe all empty
  • vivoid; empty; deserted
虛空   xū kōng OC: qhla khooŋ MC: hi̯ɤ khuŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPempty space
  • NPabfigurativeBUDDH: emptiness, voidness; SANSKRIT Śūnyatā (see also 空)
  • VPifigurativebe completely empty>without resources
  • VPadNfigurativedestitute
   kuàng OC: khʷaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • vibe vast and empty
  • vtoNcausativecause to be vast and empty ZHUANG[also: to (concretely) emtpy something][CA]
無形   wú xíng OC: ma ɡeeŋ MC: mi̯o ɦeŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetathe formless
  • VPibe without physcial form or manifestation; be incorporeal
  • NP[adN]what has no shape
   kuò OC: khʷaaɡ MC: khɑk 1 Attribution

Kuò 廓 and kuàng 曠 emphasise the expansiveness of the empty space.

  • nabdimensionempty space
  • vibe empty
   chōng OC: ɡrluŋ MC: ɖuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe empty
   yǔ OC: loʔ MC: ji̯o 1 Attribution
  • vadNsuperfluous, futile, worthless
   qìng OC: kheeŋs MC: kheŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe empty (vessels) (SHI)
  • vtoNcausativeto empty completely (the mind etc)
   què OC: khʷiid MC: khet 1 Attribution
  • nabfeatureemptiness
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • vi(of moon:) wane
寂寞 / 寂漠   jì mò OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ maaɡ MC: dzek mɑk jì mò OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ maaɡ MC: dzek mɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPibe all empty
  • NPabemptiness
空曠   kōng kuàng OC: khooŋ khʷaaŋs MC: khuŋ khɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNempty and vast
   bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vadN
空豁   kōng huò huō, huá MC: khuwng xwat OC: khooŋ qhʷaad 1 Attribution
  • VPibe all receptive and all-encompassing
   wù MC: ngwot OC: ŋɡluud 1 Attribution
  • vifigurativebe blank-minded; be empty-headed
   xuè OC: qhʷliiɡ MC: het 0 Attributions
  • viempty
   xù OC: qhʷrɯɡ MC: hɨk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause to be emtpty> drain (GUAN) ??
   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 0 Attributions

Wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "existence") refers to the philosophical abstract construct of "nothingness, emptiness".

  • nabmetaphysicalnothingness, emptiness LAO
   láng OC: ɡ-raaŋ MC: lɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • vispacious; empty
太空   tài kōng OC: thaads khooŋ MC: thɑi khuŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe Great Void
舜若多   shùn rě duō OC: qjuns njaʔ k-laal MC: ɕʷin ȵɣɛ tɑ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: emptiness, voidness (this phonetic transliteration is rather rare in Chinese Buddhist texts, the common term is kōng 空); SANSKRIT śūnyatā
   kǒng OC: khooŋʔ MC: khuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadN
   tú OC: daa MC: duo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vadN.adVempty, bare 徒手搏虎 "wrestle with a tiger with bare hands"
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPibe all receptive and all-encompassing
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe blank-minded; be empty-headed
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe dissiccated, inwardly shrivelled up
   huò huō, huá MC: xwat OC: qhʷaad 0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe dissiccated, inwardly shrivelled up

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: