ENEMY  敵人

OPPONENENT whom one HATES.
OPPONENTADVERSARYFOERIVALANTAGONISTCOMBATANTCHALLENGERCOMPETITOROPPOSER(THE ENEMY) THE OPPOSITIONTHE COMPETITIONTHE OTHER SIDETHE OPPOSING SIDE
Antonymy

FRIEND

Kind Of

OPPONENT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word for an enemy or opponent of any kind is dí 敵 (ant. yǒu 友 "friend") which can also often refer to mere competitors or adversaries.

2. Kòu 寇 is an enemy of the state, often a foreigner.

3. Chóu 讎 (ant. yǒu 友 "friend") emphasises the intense emotional nature of the conflict between the enemies concerned.

4. Qiú 仇 "fiend" (ant. qīn 親 "someone close to one") refers to a mortal enemy with whom one has a serious feud.

5. Lǔ 虜 is originally a foreign enemy who deserves to be taken prisoner, but the term comes to be used quite generally for an enemy of the state in Han times.

6. Zéi 賊 emphasises the moral turpitude and decrepitude or the villainy of the enemy.

Modern Chinese Criteria

敵人

仇人

仇敵

勁敵 refers to an enemy as a formidable threat.

仇家

寇仇

對頭

冤家

怨家

冤家對頭

死敵

死對頭

眼中釘

肉中刺

手下敗將

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.52

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ENEMY

adversarius refers to any opponent in any context

hostis is the enemy in war.

inimicus is a personal enemy.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

INIMICUS/INIMICITIA

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 13

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 35

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 162

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 121

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 16

1. WL 16 does not make the semantic difference between cho2u 讎and qiu2 仇 clear. The crucial contrast is that whereas both CAN refer to mortal enemies, cho2u 讎 has a more general application and refers occasionally to a friendly mate, or to mere opponents, like di2 敵, and even where the word does refer to an enemy, the emphasis is not normally on him being a mortal enemy.

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 255f

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.321.283.

ENNEMI.ADVERSAIRE.ANTAGONISTE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.210

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 79A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 68
  • npost-N : 50
  • NP : 23
  • nab : 13
  • vtoN : 10
  • vadN : 7
  • nadN : 7
  • nt : 3
  • NPadN : 3
  • VPtoN : 3
  • n(post-N) : 2
  • VPtpost-.vt+N{OBJ} : 2
  • NP : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • vi.red : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 77
  • 韓非子 : 54
  • 史記 : 14
  • 管子 : 10
  • 孟子 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   chóu OC: ɡju MC: dʑɨu 61 Attributions

Chóu 讎 (ant. yǒu 友 "friend") emphasises the intense emotional nature of the conflict between the enemies concerned.

  • npost-Nfigurativecompetitor
  • npost-Narch enemy, foe
  • nabactunfriendly act
  • nabstativeenmity; real contradiction
  • nadNhostile
  • vtoNbe enemies with, treat as an enemy
仇 / 讎   qiú OC: ɡu MC: gɨu chóu OC: ɡju MC: dʑɨu 39 Attributions

Qiú 仇 "fiend" (ant. qīn 親 "someone close to one") refers to a mortal enemy with whom one has a serious feud. Qiú 仇 "fiend" (ant. qīn 親 "someone close to one") refers to a mortal enemy with whom one has a serious feud.

  • nenemy, mortal enemy
  • nabfigurativehostile stance
  • nadNwith whom one has a feud
  • vi.redintensitivein a hostle manner
  • vtoNbe enemies (with someone); act in a hostile manner against
  • nabpsychenmity
   dí OC: ɡ-leeɡ MC: dek 34 Attributions

The general word for an enemy or opponent of any kind is dí 敵 (ant. yǒu 友 "friend") which can also often refer to mere competitors or adversaries.

  • nrival, opponent, competitor; military opponent; an equal
  • vadNrivalling, rival; enemy; opposing 敵國
  • vt(oN)attitudinaltreat contextually determinate person N as an opponent > engage in contest with
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat as one's competitor or potential enemy; treat as an enemy
  • vtoNcausativecause to be an enemy of; create a worthy opponent for, create a match for
  • vtoNputativeconsider as a competitor or enemy
  • n(post-N)enemy; enemies
仇讎   qiú chóu OC: ɡu ɡju MC: gɨu dʑɨu 19 Attributions
  • NPmortal enemy; mortal enemies
  • NPadNwho are mortal enemies
   kòu OC: khoos MC: khu 18 Attributions

Kòu 寇 is an enemy of the state, often a foreigner.

  • nforeign enemy; enemy; mostly plural: the enemy(!)
  • n(post-N)enemy
   zéi OC: sɡɯɯɡ MC: dzək 7 Attributions

Zéi 賊 emphasises the moral turpitude and decrepitude or the villainy of the enemy.

  • npost-Nenemy; mortal enemy; malefactor
  • ntfigurativeforce destructive of, "mortal enemy of"
不善   bù shàn OC: pɯʔ ɡjenʔ MC: pi̯ut dʑiɛn 5 Attributions
  • VPibe on bad terms
  • VPt(oN)be on bad terms with the contextually determiante N
  • VPtoNstativebe on bad terms with
寇讎   kòu chóu OC: khoos ɡju MC: khu dʑɨu 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialenemies; foreign enemies
  • NPabactenmity; enemy action
   tè OC: nʰɯɯɡ MC: thək 1 Attribution
  • npluralill-wishers>enemies??
   dú OC: duuɡ MC: duok 1 Attribution
  • nfigurativepoisonous enemy
   lǔ OC: ɡ-raaʔ MC: luo̝ 1 Attribution

Lǔ 虜 is originally a foreign enemy who deserves to be taken prisoner, but the term comes to be used quite generally for an enemy of the state in Han times.

  • nforeign enemy
仇人   qiú rén OC: ɡu njin MC: gɨu ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NPenemy
仇敵   qiú dí OC: ɡu ɡ-leeɡ MC: gɨu dek 1 Attribution
  • NPenemy with whom one has a feud
為怨   wéi yuàn OC: ɢʷal qons MC: ɦiɛ ʔi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPtpost-.vt+N{OBJ}be on bad terms with N
私怨   sī yuàn OC: sil qons MC: si ʔi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPtpost-.vt+N{OBJ}have a private feud with N
讎國   chóu guó OC: ɡju kʷɯɯɡ MC: dʑɨu kək 1 Attribution
  • NPadNenemy (state of X)
讎敵   chóu dí MC: dzyuw dek OC: ɡju ɡ-leeɡ 1 Attribution
  • NPbitter enemy
冤家   yuān jiā OC: qon kraa MC: ʔi̯ɐn kɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPperson who feels he has suffered a serious injustice from one
怨家   yuàn jiā OC: qons kraa MC: ʔi̯ɐn kɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPenemies; hostile clans
   yuǎn OC: ɢʷanʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNstative
   shū OC: sqra MC: ʂi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vi2be on distant terms, not be on intimate terms; have hostile relations

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: