BARBARIAN  野蠻

HUMAN who is NOT CHINESE.
Antonymy

CHINA

See also

SLAVEWILD

Kind Of

HUMAN

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Perhaps the most current general word for peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community is yí dí 夷狄, but sometimes the term refers specifically to the eastern and the northern barbarians.

2. Jiǔ yí 九夷 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but more specifically to those of the East.

3. Sì dí 四狄 is a general term for the various types of peoples that were not taken to belong the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but more specifically to those of the north. Sometimes the term wǔ yí 五夷 is used.

4. Róngdí 戎狄 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but also more specifically to the western and northern barbarians.

5. Mán yí 蠻夷 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community.

One standard classification of non-Chinese peoples is this:

6. Yí 夷 refers to the barbarians of the east, but the term came to be used for barbarians generally. 東方為九夷,

7. Mán 蠻 refers specifically to the barbarians of the south. 南方為八蠻,

8. Róng 戎 refers specifically to the barbarians of the west. 西方為六戎,

9. Dí 狄 refers specifically to the barbarians of the north. 北方為五狄。

In addition there is a rich vocabulary specifying various non-Chinese ethnic groups.

Modern Chinese Criteria

異族

野蠻

胡虜 "northern barbarians"

外族人

外族

夷狄

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

FUNCK 1981 Studie zu der Bezeichung barbaros Soziale Typenbegriffe

GERNET 1994 L'intelligence de la China. Le social et le mental 139-142

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 61

QIAN YULIN 1996 中華古代文化辭典 Zhonghua gudai wenhua cidian 1-10

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.773

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.672

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.414

GESCHICHTSLOSIGKEIT

SANBAITI 1987 中國文化史三百題 99-116

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

BARBAREN

JUNG

KUEI-FANG 鬼方

PAULY 1894-1973 Realencyklopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft 3.1

BARBAROI

BARBARUS

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

BARBARIANISM AND CIVILISATION

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 43
  • NP{N1&N2} : 17
  • npr : 16
  • n : 14
  • NP{vadN} : 7
  • NPpr : 3
  • nadV : 3
  • NPadN : 3
  • nadN : 2
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • n{PRED} : 1
  • NPc : 1
  • nm : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 30
  • 論衡 : 11
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 論語 : 6
  • 韓非子 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 國語 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 鮑氏集 : 1

Words

夷狄   yí dí OC: li deeɡ MC: ji dek 21 Attributions

Yí and Dí barbarians> by metonymy: barbarians in general. Perhaps the most current general word for peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community is yí dí 夷狄.

  • NP{N1&N2}collectivethe barbarians
  • NPreferentialthe (contextually determinate) barbarians
  • NPadNof a barbarian nature
  • VPtoNattitudinaltreat as a barbarian
  • NPabnonreferential(any) barbarians
   yí OC: li MC: ji 10 Attributions

Yí 夷 was originally a name of eastern barbarians, later it came to be used as a general term for barbarians.

  • ncollectivebarbarians
  • nsubj=nonhumanwhat is barbarian
  • nadNbarbarian, of barbarian character, different form what is current in the central areas
  • npra non-Chinese people in Zhou times; eastern barbarian; general: barbarians
  • n{PRED}be barbarian in nature; belong to the Yi barbarians
淮夷   huái yí OC: ɡruul li MC: ɦɣɛi ji 10 Attributions
  • NPcollectivethe Huai barbarians
戎狄   róng dí OC: njuŋ deeɡ MC: ȵuŋ dek 9 Attributions

Róngdí 戎狄 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but also more specifically to the western and northern barbarians.

  • NPpluralthe barbarians, any barbarians
   róng OC: njuŋ MC: ȵuŋ 7 Attributions

Róng 戎 refers to western barbarians.

  • nadVmannerin the manner of the Rong barbarians of the West
  • nprRóng barbarian; note that all enemies of the Zhōu were currently described as Róng.
  • vibe barbarian, belong to the Ro2ng Barbarians
   dí OC: deeɡ MC: dek 7 Attributions

Dí 狄 refers to northern barbarians.

  • ncollectiveDí barbarian, northern barbarian
  • nadNof northern barbarian descent
  • nsingularthe (contextually determinate) barbarian
四夷   sì yí OC: plids li MC: si ji 7 Attributions

Sì dí 四狄 is a general term for the various types of peoples that were not taken to belong the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but more specifically to those of the north. Sometimes the term wǔ yí 五夷 is used.

  • NP{vadN}collectivebarbarians which surround the whole of China in all directions
九夷   jiǔ yí OC: kuʔ li MC: kɨu ji 5 Attributions

Jiǔ yí 九夷 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community, but more specifically to those of the East.

  • NPcollectivethe barbarians [NOT: the nine kinds vis-a-vis other kinds of barbarians!]
  • NPplacethe Nine Barbarians Territories
   hú OC: ɡaa MC: ɦuo̝ 3 Attributions

Hú 胡 in Zhanguo period referred to the barbarians living to the north of the states of Qín 秦, Zhaò 趙 and Yàn 燕, which later became to be known as Xiōngnǔ 匈奴.

  • npluralsouthern barbarians
  • nadNbarbarian; Turkish
  • nadVanalogyin the style of a barbarian 胡服 "dress up as a barbarian"
   lǔ OC: ɡ-raaʔ MC: luo̝ 3 Attributions
  • npluralthe barbarians; barbarians
  • nadNbarbarian
   mò OC: mɢraaɡ MC: mɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • nprnonreferentialused to refer to a Northern barbarian tribe correctly referred to as 貊, often mentioned together with the eastern Yí 夷
蠻夷   mán yí OC: mbroon li MC: mɣan ji 3 Attributions

Mán yí 蠻夷 is another term referring generically to the peoples who were taken not to belong to the Huáxiá 華夏 community, and more specifically to the barbarians of the south and east.

  • NPnonreferentialgeneral barbarians of all description (not just the Man and the Yi
匈奴   xiōng nú OC: qhoŋ naa MC: hi̯oŋ nuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralthe Xiōngnú or Huns (Or were they the Huns? Apart from the sinological literature see Otto J. Mänchen-Helfen (ed. Max Knight): The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973) )
犬戎   quǎn róng OC: khʷeenʔ njuŋ MC: khen ȵuŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralThe Quǎn barbarians
獦獠   gé liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: kɑt leu 2 Attributions
  • NPinsulting: Southerner
  • NPadNsouthern barbarian (body etc)
白狄   bái dí OC: braaɡ deeɡ MC: bɣɛk dek 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralWhite di barbarians
諸戎   zhū róng OC: klja njuŋ MC: tɕi̯ɤ ȵuŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralRong barbarians
赤狄   chì dí OC: khjaɡ deeɡ MC: tɕhiɛk dek 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralThe Red Di barbarians
   huì OC: qʷads MC: ʔi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
  • npluralname of tribe
   qiāng OC: khlaŋ MC: khi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Qiáng 羌 (or western Qiáng, Xī Qiáng 西羌) lived in the area of modern Gansu, Qinghai, western Sichuan, and northern Yunnan). They lived in a nomadic way of life. Their tribes were originally dominated by Xiōngnǔ 匈奴, but thereafter they came under the Hàn 漢 rule.

  • nprwestern Tibeto-Burman people
   miáo OC: mrew MC: miɛu 1 Attribution
  • nmthe Mia2o barbarians
   mán OC: mbroon MC: mɣan 1 Attribution

Mán 蠻 is a general term for southern barbarians.

  • nprsouthern barbarian
山羌   shān qiāng OC: sreen khlaŋ MC: ʂɣɛn khi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPcQiang barbarian from the mountains
有戎   yǒu róng OC: ɢʷɯʔ njuŋ MC: ɦɨu ȵuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPcollectivethe Yǒuróng semi-sinicised state of Shandong [MOVE TO STATES]
有緡   yǒu mín OC: ɢʷɯʔ mrin MC: ɦɨu min 1 Attribution
  • NPprthe Yǒu Mín barbarian tribe native to Shāndōng
東夷   dōng yí OC: tooŋ li MC: tuŋ ji 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralEastern Barbarians
獯鬻   xūn yù OC: qhun luɡ MC: hi̯un juk 1 Attribution
  • NPprnorthern barbarian tribe, also known as 獫狁
玁狁   xiǎn yǔn OC: qhramʔ k-lunʔ MC: hiɛm jʷin 1 Attribution

Xiǎnyǔn 玁狁 was a powerful group of barbarians located somewhere in the area to the north of a royal domain in the Western Zhōu period. In the reign of king Xuān of Zhōu 周宣王 (828-782 B.C.), they attacked the central area of the Zhōu state in Shǎnxī (in 816 B.C., according to Shaughnessy), but were eventually defeated. The event is described in inscriptions on bronze vessels, and also in several poems in SHIJING. [JM]

  • NPname of a northern tribe
茅戎   máo róng OC: mruu njuŋ MC: mɣɛu ȵuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPpr"Reed Barbarians"
薰育   xūn yù OC: qhun luɡ MC: hi̯un juk 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralbarbarian Huns, better known as 薰粥
蠻貊   mán mò OC: mbroon mbraaɡ MC: mɣan mɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1&N2}collectivebarbarians
   tóng OC: looŋ MC: duŋ 0 Attributions
  • nprsouthern non-Chinese people
   bó OC: bɯɯɡ MC: bək 0 Attributions
  • nprsouthwestern people in early times
   xiōng OC: qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • nprdominant people in Mongolia in the Han period
   ruò OC: nja MC: ȵɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • nprÉr Qiāng 婼 羌 people in northern Tibet in the Han period.
   dòng OC: looŋs MC: duŋ 0 Attributions

Dòng is a general term for the southwestern barbarians living in the mountain areas.

  • nP: southern non-Chinese people (now written 侗)
   bā OC: praa MC: pɣɛ 0 Attributions

Bā 巴 is a name of an ancient ethnic group and polity in the area of modern Chongqing. According to the historical texts, the leader of Bā was enfeooffed by the king Wu of Zhōu (>Zhōu Wǔ wáng 周武王) when this had defeated the >Shāng 商. When >Qín 秦 conquered this area, it established there the commandery of Bā 巴君.

  • nprancient people in Sichuan Province.
   dī OC: tiil MC: tei 0 Attributions

Dī 氐 originally belonged to the western Róng 戎. They were (together with Qiáng 羌) settled in the area of modern Gansu, Qinghai, western part of Sichuan, and northern part of Yunnan.

  • npra western people in the Han period.
   yáo OC: k-lew MC: jiɛu 0 Attributions
  • npra southern people
   lǎo OC: ɡ-reewʔ MC: lɑu 0 Attributions
  • nprsouthwestern people
   xūn OC: qhun MC: hi̯un 0 Attributions
  • npr獯 鬻 name of a northern people in prehistoric times. Also 熏 粥, hun1yù 葷 粥, etc.
   shē OC: lʰa MC: ɕɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • nprnon-Chinese people
   jié OC: kad MC: ki̯ɐt 0 Attributions
  • nprpeople subject to the Xiongnu.
   dàn OC: laanʔ MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
  • nprsouthern non-Chinese people
   mò OC: mbraaɡ MC: mɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • nprnortheastern people in the Zhou dynasty
   mín OC: mrɯn MC: min 0 Attributions
  • nprancient people of Fujian Province.
   lián OC: ɡ-riiŋ MC: len 0 Attributions
  • nprP: xiānlián 先 零 branch of the Qiang1 people in the Han dynasty
   xí OC: sɢlɯb MC: zip 0 Attributions
  • npra northeastern people; xíxí 霫 霫 rainy
羌戎   qiāng róng OC: khlaŋ njuŋ MC: khi̯ɐŋ ȵuŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPcollectiveWestern Barbarians (a general term referring to a group of North-Western minority peoples, and the term can only be used to refer to the group as a whole, not in this sense to an individual who belongs to that group)
胡兒   hú ér OC: ɡaa ŋje MC: ɦuo̝ ȵiɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralbarbarians
雜虜   zá lǔ OC: sɡuub ɡ-raaʔ MC: dzəp luo̝ 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralvarious barbarians
  • NPadNof various barbarian origin

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: