STATES  國家類

An individual STATE, names of major states in the Warring States period.

CITIES

Kind Of

STATE

Old Chinese Criteria

[TO BE ENTERED: 1. Location and general characteristics

2. The order of geographical size.

3. The order of political importance, and the change of this hierarchy, ending with the predominance of Qin.

4. Distinctive prominent features economically and culturally.

5. Current opinion on every state, where applicable.]

DOSSIERS 2003 Apercus de civilisation chinoise

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1053

楚,荊

1. Ji1ng is certainly the deprecatory term for Chu3. But it is not true that HF uses mainly Ji1ng: Chu3 is used ca. 64 times, Ji1ng something like 80 times depending on what editions one bases oneself on.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • npr : 119
  • nadN : 10
  • npr.adN : 9
  • NPpr : 6
  • nadN : 5
  • npr.adV : 4
  • n : 2

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 49
  • 韓非子 : 28
  • 孟子 : 23
  • 說苑 : 12
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 戰國策 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 列子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 古列女傳 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

   xià OC: ɡraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 42 Attributions

Xià 夏 Clan: In the traditional accounts, the rulers of Xià are said to have Si 姒 surname. Rank: Wáng 王 (in the traditional accounts also referred to as hòu 后). Founded: According to the legendary tradition, the founder of the Xià dynasty was the mythical emperor Great Yù 大禹 who is said to rule in the end of the third millenium BC. Destroyed: According to the tradition, the last ruler of the Xià, Jié 桀, who is in the texts depicted as a prototype of the despotic ruler, was defeated by the founder of the Shāng 商 dynasty, Chéng Tāng 成湯. According to the traditional chronologies, it appened in 1766 BC or about 1550 BC. Location: The rulers of Xià are said to rule from several capitals. There have been the large discussion about their location in traditional Chinese historiography, but they are bassically located by tradition to the southwestern Shānxī and to central Henan. History: Xià is a legendary dynasty which is for the first times mentioned in Zhōu texts (the name does not appear in the Shāng oracle bone inscriptions). Some stories about its seventeen rulers are mythological. The question of the historicity of Xià dynasty is seen from different points of view by Chinese and western scholars. Most of the Chinese scholars do not doubt the existence of Xià, and often associated with the large archaeological site excavated at Èrlǐtóu 二里頭 in the modern Yǎnshī 偃師 district, central Henan, and dated to the 21th-16th century BC. On the other hand, western scholars consider the Xià dynasty rather legendary. Since the Zhōu period, the term Zhū Xià 諸夏 (or Huá Xià 華夏) referred to the states of the realm recognizing the authoritu of the Zhōu kings.

  • nprthe Xià dynasty
   chǔ OC: skhraʔ MC: ʈʂhi̯ɤ 14 Attributions

Chǔ 楚 (also called Jīng 荊, Chǔ Jīng 楚荊, Mán Jīng 蠻荊, Jīng Yí 荊夷, Chǔ Mán 蠻楚) (CHEN PAN 1969, 197-231) Clan: Mì 羋 (attested also by the inscriptions on the bronzes). It is not very clear what mean the component Xióng 熊 which often occurs in the names of mainly early Chǔ rulers. Some scholars have suggested that it originally it could have been also a surname, or the local title of the Chǔ rulers. Rank: In the Zhōu hierarchy, the rulers of Chǔ were of zǐ 子 rank (the title is common in CQ). This fact is even for the early Western Zhōu period attested by one bone inscription found in the first Zhōu capital of Zhōuyuán 周原. According to the Du;s commentary to ZUO (Huan 2; 710 B.C.), since the reing of King Wǔ of Chǔ 楚武王 (740-690 B.C.) the rulers of Chǔ adopted the title of wáng 王 (this is also attested by the Chǔ shìjiā chapter of SHI). According to the Chǔ shìjiā chapter of SHI, the Chǔ ruler Xióng Qú 熊渠 adopted the title of wáng already during the reign of the Zhōu king Yí 周夷王 (ca 865-858 B.C.), but later rejected it. In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, rulers of Chǔ are sometimes referred to as gōng 公, hóu 侯, or bó 伯. Founded: According to ZUO and to SHI (Chǔ shìjiā), the first ruler of Chǔ who received the title of zǐ from the Zhōu king Chéng 周成王 was Xióng Yì 熊 in the second half of the eleventh century B.C. MOZI associates this story with Xióng Lì 熊麗 who was (according to SHI) the grandfather of Xióng Yì. Whatever the truth is, the state of Chǔ obviously existed (long?) prior to this event, as the quite reliable genealogy of the Chǔ rulers in SHI goes back to Yù Xióng 鬻熊 (the father of Xióng Lì), who is said to be contemporary with the Zhōu pre-conquest king Wén 周文王. Note that the fact that Chǔ had the some relationship with the Zhōu royal house already in the early Western Zhōu period is well-attested by the above-mentioned inscription from Zhōuyuán recording the visit of the viscount of Chǔ 楚子. How far the history of Chǔ goes prior the Western Zhōu period is not known. Note that the poem Yīn wǔ of the Shījīng mentions the attack of the Shāng king Wǔ Dīng 武丁 on Jīng Chǔ. SHI (Chǔ shìjiā) and XUNZI goes as far back as the period of Xià and the reign of the first Shāng king Chéng Tāng 成湯, but those records do no not seem to be reliable. Note in this context that the place name Chǔ appears already in the oracle bone inscriptions, but it is problematic whether there was any relationship between this Chǔ and the later state of Chǔ. According to the mythical tradition obviously kept in Chǔ and recorded in SHI (Chǔ shìjiā), the rulers of Chǔ were descendants of the mythical Zhù Róng 柷融. Destroyed: Eliminated in 223 BC by >Qín 秦. Location: Southern state located in the southern Henan, Hubei, part of Hunan, and later also controlling parts of Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shandong. The first capital was Dānyáng 丹陽. Its location is unknown, and quite many possibilities were offered by traditional Chinese historiography, ranging from modern Anhui province (Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì) over the northern and central parts of Hubei province (Kuò dì zhì, Chūnqiū dì míng kǎo lyè) to the area of the Dān 丹 river in the southern Henan (Sòng Xiángfèng). The latter opinion seems to be the most probable one with regard to the fact that in the Warring states period there was really place called Dānyáng in that area, to the fact that the first Chǔ capital could not be located too far from the early Zhōu centers, and also with regard to the scope and area of the early Chǔ expansion. Note also the fact that the lavishly equiped tombs belonging to the members of the highest Chǔ aristocracy (and dating from the sixth century B.C.) were uncovered in Xichuan district in the southern part of Henan, approximately in this area. In 690 (Zhuang 4) the capital was moved to Yǐng 郢 (according to SHI Chǔ shìjiā). This is located by the Du's commentary to ZUO and Shuǐ jīng zhù to modern Jìnán 紀南 in Hubei Province, and this opinion is accepted by the most of the modern Chinese scholars; it is supposed that this Yǐng is identical with the city excavated in that area. However, this identification is by no means certain. Archaeological Jìnán was with the all probability the capital of Chǔ (called Yǐng) in the Warring states period, but there is no evidence of a substantial settlement dating from the Chunqiu period. Not improbable is the opinion (see Blakeley 19..) that in the Chunqiu period Yǐng was located in southern Henan. However, what contradicts it is the record in ZUO for 617 B.C. (Wen 10) that when the duke of Shāng 商公 went to the visit to Yǐng, he sailed down the Hàn 漢 River and then against the stream of the Jiāng 江. It is also possible that the capital moved several times, but it still bore the same name. After 506 B.C. (Ding 4) when Yǐng was sacked by the armies of >Wú , King Zhāo moved to Rùo 鄀 (or Yān ) to the north in the area of the Hàn River valley (according to the Hàn zhì and Dì míng kǎo lyè). Then the capital again shifted to Yǐng, which is for the Warring states period with great probability identical with Jìnán. After 278 BC the capital was moved to Chén 陳(modern Huáiyáng 淮陽 in eastern Henan), in 253 BC to Jùyáng 巨陽 in Anhui, and, definitely, in 241 to modern Xúzhōu 徐州 which was also called Yǐng. History: The origins of Chǔ are not clear, as well as its original location. According to the Shiji, the ruler of Chǔ was given an investiture by the king Chéng of Zhōu (>Zhōu Chéng wáng 周成王). This fact is partly supported by the mention of the visit of the ruler of Chǔ in a Zhōu capital in Zhōu oracle bones uncovered in Zhōuyuán 周原. It seems that Chǔ was located not far from the Zhou centers, perhaps in southern Henan (see Location). Also the early artefacts which can be associated with Chǔ are not substantially different from the Zhou art, and it seems that a distinctive Chǔ culture was not developed prior middle Chunqiu period. In the 8th and 7th centuries Chǔ grew in power, destroyed many small states located mainly in southern Henan, and became one of the leading powers in China. Chǔ ambitions to challenge the power of the declining Zhōu dynasty were manifested in 704 BC, when the ruler of Chǔ declared himself a king. In 632 BC Chǔ was seriously defeated by >Jìn 晉at Chéngpú 城濮, but in 597 the >king Zhuāng 楚莊王 of Chǔ won a great victory over Jìn armies at Bì 邲 and for a time became a hegemon. The struggle for a hegemony between Chǔ and Jìn thereafter lasted till 546 BC when status quo was recognized in a conference held at >Sòng 宋. At the end of the sixth century Chǔ went through a serious crisis, and in 506 BC its capital was even occupied by the southeastern state of >Wú 吳. In the fifth century Chǔ regained its power and expanded to the East. In the end of the fourth and beginning of the third century it received several severe defeats from the state of >Qín 秦, and in 278 BC Qín occupied the capital of Chǔ. Chǔ thereafter moved its center to the East. This "Eastern Chu" was destroyed by Qín in 223 BC.

  • npr.adVin the manner of Chǔ
  • nprname of a state
  • npradNof Chu; belonging to Chu;
   qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 11 Attributions

Qí 齊 (CHEN PAN 1969, 167-177) Clan: Ruled by the Jiāng 姜 clan. Since 481 B.C. (Ai 9) was real power in the state grasped by the Tián 田 (or Chén 陳) lineage, and in 386 B.C. its members oficially became marquises of Qí. The state was since that time sometimes called Tián Qí 田齊. Rank: Hóu 侯 (common in CQ and ZUO). In 334 B.C. rulers of Qí (or Tián Qí) adopted the title of wáng 王.   Founded: The fief of Qí was in the second half of the 11th century given by the king Chéng of Zhōu (>Zhōu Chéng wáng 周成王) to the Great Duke (Tài gōng 太公) >Lǚ Shàngfǔ 尚父. Destroyed: In 221 B.C. by Qín. Location: Located in modern Shandong province. 4. According to SHI, the first capital of the state was Yíngqīu 營丘. Several possible locations for this place were offered by traditional Chinese historiography, but the most probable seems the opinion of Shìjiā zhēngyì (quoting Kuò dì zhì), Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì, and Tōng diǎn that it was located in the area of modern Lìnzī 臨淄 in the eastern part Zīfù 淄傅 in Shandong Province. In the beginning of the ninth century BC, the capital was shifted by lord Hú 齊胡公 to Bùgu 簿姑, which is located by the Xù Hàn shū Jùn guó zhì, Kuò dì zhì, and Dì míng kǎo lyè into the area of the modern Fùxìng 傅興 in Shandong. Eventually, Lord Xiàn 齊獻公 ruling in the ninth century established its capital in Línzī 臨淄 (modern Línzī 臨淄 in Shandong, where the city and necropolis dating from the Chunqiu and Zhanguo periods were excavated). History: By the eight century BC, Qí was one of the most powerful states in northern China. It reached the first peak of its power under duke Huán (>Qí Huán gōng 齊桓公, 685 - 643 BC) who was enfeoffed the leader of feudal lords (bà ) by the Zhōu king in 679 BC. After the death of duke Huán Qí lost its leading position due to the internal struggles, but it still remained a powerful state, and was recognized to be one of the four main powers in China in the conference in 546 BC. In the fifth century, Qí went through an internal crisis when the power in the state was in fact usurped by the >Tián 田 (or >Chén 陳) clan in 481, and officially in 386 BC. Under king Wei (>Qí Wēi wáng 齊威王) Qí grew in power and by the end of the fourth century it became together with the state of >Qín 秦the main power in China. However, in 284 BC Qí was almost eliminated by allied armies of other states, and although in 279 regained its lost territories, it remained the secondary power until its elimination by Qín in 221 BC.

  • npr.adVin the Qí manner 齊語 "speak in the Qí manner" XINSHU: 生長於齊不能齊語也。
  • nprname of a state
  • npr.adNof Qi; belonging to Qi; coming from Qi
   yú OC: ŋʷa MC: ŋi̯o 7 Attributions

Yú 虞 (also called Xī Yú 西虞, Xī Wú 西吳, Běi Yú 北虞, Běi Wú 北吳, Yú 于, Gàn 干) (CHEN PAN 1969, 459-464) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Gōng 公 (common in the CQ and the ZUO). Founded: The state of Yú was probably established very early in the Western Zhōu period (or even prior to it); its first ruler Zhòng Yōng 仲雍 (or Yú Zhòng 虞仲) was probably the son of the pre-dynastic Zhōu king Tài wáng 太王 and brother of his successor Wáng Jì 王季 (or Jìlì 季歷), the father of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王; in the sources, there is some confusion about the founder of Yú and his relationship with the Zhōu kings, but perhaps the most authoritative is the record in the ZUO, Xi 5 (大伯, 虞仲, 大王之昭也; for a detailed discussion on the issue see Chen Pan 1969, 461-464). Destroyed: In 655 B.C. (Xi 5) by Jìn 晉. Location: In the modern Pínglù 平陸, southwestern Shānxī province. History: Yú was a small, but not completely unimportant state, which was located within a royal domain. Its rulers probably had a close relationship with the Zhōu royal court, as can be deduced from their high title gōng.

  • nprplaceName of state, brother state of Wú, destroyed in 655.
  • npr"dynasty"also referred to as 虞氏
   yān OC: qeen MC: ʔen 5 Attributions

Yān 燕 (originally - on the bronzes - written as Yǎn 匽偃郾; also called Běi Yān 北燕. Distinguish from >Nán Yān 南燕) (CHEN PAN 1969, 154-166) Clan: Ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Bó 伯 (common in CQ and ZUO). In SHI (Yàn shìjiā chapter), the rulers of Yàn are usually referred to as hóu 侯. The same designation also appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes. In some of the inscriptions, rulers of Yàn are referred to as gōng 公. Founded: Established in the second half of the eleventh century under the reign of king Chéng of Zhōu (>Zhōu Chéng wáng 周成王), where Yàn was given as a fief to the Duke of Shào 召公, and then ruled by his son. This is also attested by the inscriptions on the bronzes. Destroyed: Eliminated in 222 BC by the state of >Qín 秦. Location: Located in modern Hebei Province. The first capital was located at modern Liúlíhé 流璃河, Fángshān 房山 district, about 100 kilometres to the south of Beijing. There the walled city and the cemetery of the Yàn aristocracy, belonging to the early Western Zhōu period, was excavated. Thereafter, still in the Western Zhōu period, it moved to Jì 薊 , probably located to the southwest of modern Beijing (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). According to the Shìjiā jìjiě (quoting Shì běn), during the reign of Marquis Huán 燕桓侯 (697-691 B.C.), the capital of Yàn shifted to Línyì 臨易 (probably in the modern Běixióng   北雄 district, Hebei province). During the Warring States period, the capital moved to Yàn Xiàdū 燕下都 (in the modern Yī district in Hebei province). Exact time of its establishment is not known, but - judging from the excavated artefacts - it was in use in the third century BC. History: Yàn was during the Western Zhōu and Chunqiu periods the remote state, which almost did not intervene into the struggles in the northern China, and was very rarely mentioned in ZUO. However, during the fourth century B.C., Yàn became more and more powerful, and during the reign of the King Zhāo 燕昭王 (311-279 B.C.), it beecame one of the most powerful states in China (particularly after its victory over the state of Qí in 284 B.C.). Eventually, in 222 B.C., it was conquered by Qín.

  • nprname of a state
  • npr.adNbelonging to Yan; of Yan
   sòng OC: suuŋs MC: suo̝ŋ 4 Attributions

Sòng (also called Yīn 殷, Shāng 商) (CHEN PAN 1969, 232-241) Clan: Ruled by the Zǐ 子 clan. Rank: Gōng (common in CQ and ZUO). This high title was due to the special prestige which the rulers of Sòng enjoyed as the descendants of the Shāng dynasty. In the Zhanguo period, the rulers of Sòng were also sometimes referred to as hóu (for instance in SHI, Liù guó nián biǎo). The last ruler of Sòng, Yǎn, adopted the title of wáng in 318 BC. Founded: The first ruler of Sòng (enfeoffed by King Wǔof Zhōu (>Zhōu Wǔ wáng 周武王) was Wēizǐ 微子, the son of Shang king >Dì Yǐ 商王帝乙. This received his fief during the reign of >King Chéng 成王. Destroyed: Conquered by the >Qí 齊 in 286 B.C. Location: The state of Sòng was located in eastern part of Henan and western Shandong. The capital was Shāngqiū 商丘 (modern Shāngqiū 商丘 in Henan). History: In the eighth century B.C., Sòng belonged together with >Zhèng 鄭, >Wèi 衛, >Lǔ 魯and >Qí 齊 among the most important states of the early Chunqiu period. Then, during the second half of the seventh century the state of Sòng gradually declined in power, and became a vassal state of >Jìn 晉, shortly before the battle of Chéngpú in 632 B.C.. In 286 B.C., it was eliminated by Qí.

  • nprname of a state
   jìn OC: tsins MC: tsin 4 Attributions

Jìn 晉 (also called Táng 唐 - this designation sometimes appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes - or - after capital - Yì 翼) (CHEN PAN 1969, 68-98) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Hóu 侯 (common designation in CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronzes, rulers of Jìn are sometimes referred to as gōng 公. Founded: The first ruler of Jìn was >Tángshū Yú 唐叔虞, the son of >Zhōu Wǔ wáng 周武王. Destroyed: The power of the rulers of Jìn was gradually declining during the 6th century B.C. in a favor of important aristocratic families. In 453 B.C. the families of >Zhào 趙, >Wèi 魏 and >Hán 韓 in fact divided the state. To the dukes of Jìn was left only small territory in the neighbourhood of a capital, which was definitely eliminated in 376 B.C.   Location: Located in the southwestern part of the modern Shanxi province, also controlled the part of northeastern and northwestern Henan and southwestern Hebei. The first capital ruled by Tángshū was Jìn 晉 or Dà Xià 大夏(according to ZUO - Zhao 1). Within the traditional Chinese historiography, there were different opinions as one regards its location. According to the Jìn shìjiā zhēngyì (quoting Kuò dì zhì) and to the Máo shī Táng fēng pǔ, it was located in the area of the modern Tàiyuán 太原 in Shānxī province. However, it seems to be highly improbable with regard to the fact that that area was conquered by Jìn just in the 6th century B.C. Much more reasonable seems seems to be the opinion (expressed by Gù Yánwǔ on the basis of the Jìn shìjiā chapter of SHI) locating the first centers into the are of the southwestern part of Shānxī province, mainly to the modern Linfen district. It is also the area, where important cemeteries belonging to the Jìn aristocracy of the western Zhōu and early Chunqiu periods were uncovered. According to the Current Zhúshū jìnián, in 812 B.C. (11th year of the reign of the Zhōu King Xuān 周宣王), Marquis Xiàn of Jìn 晉獻侯 shifted its capital to Jiàng 絳 (also called Yì 翼, to the southeast of the modern Yìchéng 翼城 in the Shanxi province). After 679 B.C. the capital was moved to Qūwò 曲沃 (to the east of the modern Wénxǐ 聞喜 in the Shanxi province), then - during the reign of Lord Xiàn 晉獻公 (675-653 B.C.) - again to Jiàng 絳. In 584 B.C. (Cheng 7), the capital of Jìn shifted to Xīntián 新田 (sometimes also called also Jiàng 絳; modern Hóumǎ 侯馬 in Shānxī). For the history of the capitals see also Qū 1991: 353-377. 5. Jìn became a powerful state in the end of the 9th and in the beginning of the 8th century B.C., after its victories over neighboring barbarians. Marquis Wén of Jìn 晉文侯 (780-746 B.C.; do not confuse with the later hegemon) even successfully intervened into the struggles for the Zhōu royal throne after 770 B.C. After the civil war which lasted from 739 B.C. to 679 B.C. the power in the state was seized by the branch lineage of the ruling clan ruling in Qūwò. Thanks to the large expansion, Jìn quickly became one of the most powerful states of the Chunqiu period. In 632 B.C. the duke Wen (>Jìn Wén gōng 晉文公) defeated the powerful southern state of >Chǔ 楚 and was enfeoffed a hegemon (bà 霸) by the Zhou king. The struggle for the hegemony between Chǔ and Jìn then lasted without final decision till 546 B.C. when status quo was recognized at the famous conference held at Sòng 宋. The power of the rulers of Jìn was gradually declining during the 6th century B.C. in a favor of important aristocratic families. In 453 B.C. the families of >Zhào 趙, >Wèi 魏 and >Hán 韓 in fact divided the state. To the dukes of Jìn was left only small territory in the neighbourhood of a capital, which was definitely eliminated in 376 B.C.

  • nprname of a state
   qín OC: dzin MC: dzin 4 Attributions

Qín 秦 (CHEN PAN 1969, 178-196) Clan: Yíng 贏 (also written as or Yǎn 偃). Rank: Bó 伯 (common in CQ). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, rulers of Qín also refers to themselves as gōng 公. In 324 B.C., the ruler of Qín adopted the title wáng 王. Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the Qín shìjiā chapter of SHI and in the Guó yǔ (Zhèng yǔ), rulers of Qín were descendants of the mythical Bóyī 伯翳 (or Bóyì 伯益), who served to the muthical emperor Shùn 舜. His descendant Fēizǐ 非子 received the fief in Qín from the Zhōu King Xiào 周孝王(ca 872?-866 B.C.). Later, in 770 B.C., lord Xiāng (>Qín Xiāng gōng 秦襄公) was raised into the rank of zhūhóu 諸侯 by King Píng of Zhou (>Zhōu Píng wáng 周平王) because of his assistence to the king during his removal of the capital to the East. Destroyed: In 221 B.C. Qín united all the states of the Chinese cultural sphere into one empire and established Qin dynasty which was overthrown in 206 B.C. Location: The state of Qín basically controlled the Wèi渭 River valley in the modern Shǎnxī province and the eastern part of Gansu province. The first capital of Fēizǐ was Qín 秦, which is located by the Kuò dì zhì into the area of the modern Tiānshuǐ 天水, Gansu province. During the reign of lord Níng 秦寧公 (715-704 B.C.) it moved to Píngyáng 平陽 (supposed to be located in the western part of modern Méi 眉 district, Shaanxi province), and later - in 677 B.C. - to Yōng 雍(modern Fēngxiáng 風翔, Shaanxi). Eventually, in 350, the capital was shifted to Xiányáng 咸陽(to the northeast of modern Xiányáng 咸陽, Shaanxi). History: During the decades following its establishment Qín reconquered ancient Zhōu territories in the West. In the Chunqiu period Qín reached in the second half of the 7th century B.C. it reached the height of its power under the duke Mù (>Qín Mù gōng秦穆公 , 659 - 621 B.C.) who became a hegemon among the "western barbarians". At a conference in 546, Qín was recognized to be one of the four strongest states in China. After the reforms of >Shāng Yāng 商鞅 (between 356 - 338 Qín) grew in power, and in 324 the ruler of Qín accepted the title of wáng 王"king". Thereafter Qín gradually defeated the remaining "warring" states and in 221 B.C. united China. The Qín dynasty was neverthless short-lived, and in 206 it was overthrown.

  • nprname of a state Qín was a semi-barbarian powerful western state, formally enfeoffed as one of the feudal lord states in the eighth century B.C., came to annex all the other states and created the first united Chinese empire in 221 B.C.. For the history of the capitals see Qū 1991: 159-208.
  • nadNof Qin; belonging to Qin
   guó OC: kʷraaɡ MC: kɣɛk 4 Attributions

1. Xī Guó 西虢 (written also as 郭) (CHEN PAN 1969, 341-349) Clan: Jī姬. Rank: Gōng 公 (occurs both in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: There are uncertainties concerning the founder of Xī Guó, what is particularly due to the fact that there were at least two states bearing the name Guó. Their rulers belonged to the same lineage (the different branches of which were obviously dispersed throughout the Zhōu realm, from the Shǎnxī province to the eastern part of Central Henan), and there is a general consensus that both were the sons of the Zhōu pre-dynastic king Wáng Jì 王季, and younger brothers of his successor King Wén 周文王 (what is attested by the record in the ZUO, Xi 5; 655 B.C.). The record in the ZUO mentions two sons of Wáng Jì 王季 - Guózhòng 虢仲 and Guóshū 虢叔 - as founders of the both states of Guó. However, there is a disagreement among scholars which one was the founder of the Eastern Guó and which one of the Western Guó. Destroyed: In 655 B.C. (Xi5) by Jìn 晉. Location: The former state of Xī Guó was located in the West (probably in the area of the modern Bǎojī 寶雞 district; according to another opinion, it was in the modern Shǎn 陝 district). According to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, the state shifted to the East during the reign of King Píng of Zhōu 周平 (770-720 B.C.); on the other hand, Current Zhúshū jǐnián dates the shift into the reign of his predecessor King Yōu of Zhōu 周幽王 (781-771 B.C.). Shàngyáng 上陽, the new capital of Xī Guó, was obviously located in the area of the modern Sānménxiá 三門峽, Henan province, where the remarkable cemetery belonging to the aristocracy of Guó was excavated. This Xī Guó was sometimes also referred to as Běi Guó 北虢. The part of the Guó lineage remained in the area of Shǎnxī province, and was referred to as Xiǎo Guó 小虢. Xiǎo Guó was (according to the Qín běnjì chapter of the Shǐ jì) conquered by Qín 秦 in 687 B.C. (in the eleventh year of the reign of Duke Wǔ of Qín 秦武公). There was also Nán Guó 南虢 (probably in the southern part of the modern Pínglù 平陸, Shānxī province), which belonged to the another branch of the Guó lineage. It should be noted that the names for the states ruled by the different branches of the Guó lineage are quite confused in the texts. History: Although Guó was a small state, it was located within royal domains both during the Western Zhōu and Eastern Zhōu periods, and the dukes of Guó usually held high positions in the Zhōu royal court, being mainly charged with the leadership of important royal military enterprises. However, since the 70ties of the 7th century B.C., Guó was exposed to the pressure from the side of the powerful state of Jìn (seeking to win a control over crossings over the Yellow river) and was eventually subdued in 655 B.C. The story about the downfall of Guó, and the role played in it by its neighbor, the state of Yú 虞, became quite famous in Chinese tradition. Guó is also remarkable for the large cemetery in Shàngcūnlǐng 上村嶺, mentioned above, which yielded a lot of data concerning the development of the bronzes in the Early Chunqiu period. 2. Dōng Guó 東虢 (CHEN PAN 1969, 311-317) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Uncertain. In the Current Zhúshū jìnián (in the record for the third year of King Lì of Zhōu 周厲王), the ruler of Guó (presumably this Dōng Guó) is referred to as gōng 公. The same designation is used in the Shuǐ jīng zhù, where it clearly refers to the rulers of Dōng Guó. Founded: There are uncertainties concerning the founder of Dōng Guó, what is particularly due to the fact that there were at least two states bearing the name Guó. Their rulers belonged to the same lineage (the different branches of which were obviously dispersed throughout the Zhōu realm, from the Shǎnxī province to the eastern part of Central Henan), and there is a general consensus that both were the sons of the Zhōu pre-dynastic king Wáng Jì 王季 and younger brothers of his successor King Wén 周文王 (what is attested by the record in the ZUO, Xi 5; 655 B.C.). The record in the ZUO mentions two sons of Wáng Jì 王季 - Guózhòng 虢仲 and Guóshū 虢叔 - as the founders of both states of Guó. Among scholars, there is a disagreement which one of those two founded Eastern Guó and which one Western Guó. Destroyed: Dōng Guó was conquered by Zhèng 鄭 in the beginning of the Eastern Zhōu period, most probably during the reign of Duke Wǔ of Zhèng 鄭武公 (770-744 B.C.). Location: In the northern part of the modern Zhèngzhōu 鄭州 area, Henan province.

  • nprName of an archeologically very important state, destroyed in 656 BC.
   yuè OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 4 Attributions

Yuè 越 (also called Dà Yuè 大越, Yú Yuè 於越, Yuè粵, or Dà Yuè 大粵) (CHEN PAN 1969, 787-803) Clan: According to the Yuè shìjiā chapter of SHI, Yuè was ruled by the Sì 姒 clan. Rank: According to the Zhōu hierarchy, the rulers of Yuè were of zǐ 子 rank, and this designation is used in ZUO. As the rulers of the other non-Zhōu states, the rulers of Yuè designated themselves as wáng 王, and this title also appears in ZUO and in other texts. Founded: According to the Yuè shìjiā chapter of SHi, the first (legendary) mythical ruler of Yuè was the son of the Xià 夏 ruler Shǎo Kāng 少康. Wú Yuè chūnqiū calls him Wǔyú 無余. However, this is obviously mythical tradition, which has nothing to do with the real origins of the state. Destroyed: In 333 B.C. Yuè iwas decisively defeated by its large and powerful neighbour >Chǔ 楚 and fragmented into small states which were in 306 B.C. conquered by Chǔ. Location: Southern state located in modern Zhejiang province, noted for its many lakes and its constant conflicts with surrounding states of Chǔ 楚 and Wú 吳. According to the Yuè shìjiā chapter of SHi, the capital of Yuè was Guìjī 會稽, probably located in modern Shàoxìng 紹興 in Zhejiang. History: The first reliable mention of the state is in Zuozhuan for 601 B.C. Since 544 Yuè was in constant wars with its northern neighbour, the powerful state of >Wú 吳. In 473 B.C., the famous Yuè king >Gōujiàn 勾踐conquered Wú , and two years later he was enfeoffed as a leader of the feudal lords by the Zhou king. Later Yuè is rarely mentioned, but by the 4th century B.C. it was still a powerful state. In 333 B.C. Yuè was defeated by >Chǔ 楚 and fragmented into many small states which were eliminated in 306 B.C. Inhabitants of Yuè were conceived as southern barbarians by other Chinese states. According to the descriptions in the texts, people of Yuè had short hair and were tatooed. However, Yuè created quite developed culture, which was influenced by other Chinese states, but was quite distinct. Famous are particularly Yuè bronze vessels and swords.

  • nprname of a state
  • npr.adNof Yue4, Yue4-ish
   wèi OC: ŋɡuls MC: ŋɨi 4 Attributions

1. Wèi 魏 (also called Liáng 梁) Clan: According to the Wèi shìjiā chapter of SHI, Wèi Iineage was of the same surname as the Zhōu kings, i.e. Jī 姬. Rank: In the beginning, the rulers of Wèi were formally of dàfū 大夫 rank, but in 403 B.C. they were raised to the rank of zhūhóu 諸侯 by the Zhōu king. Thereafter, they were usually referred to as hóu 侯. In 344 B.C., the ruler of Wèi adopted the title of wáng 王 (as the first among the rulers of the Warring states period excepts Chǔ). Founded: The state of Wèi was one of the three states which emerged after the split of Jìn in 453 B.C. In 403 B.C., it was recognized by the Zhōu king. The Wèi lineage is said to descent from the Duke Gāo of Bì 畢公高, who was an important person in the early Zhōu period. Its descendants entered the service in the state of Jìn, and when Jìn in 660 B.C. conquered the state of Wèi (see section 2 of this entry), it gave it as a fief to its dàfū Bì Wàn 畢萬 who was the real founder of the Wèi lineage. Wèi gradually grew in power in Jìn, and since the beginning of the sixth century BC, it became one of the most powerful lineages in Jìn which in fact usurped real power in the state. Destroyed: In 225 BC by Qín 秦. Location: Wèi basically controlled the area of northeastern Henan and southwestern Shānxī (this two areas were connected by the corridor in central Shānxī. The first capital was Ānyì 安邑 (modern Yúwángcūn 禹王村 in the northwestern part of the Xià district, southwestern Shānxī). In 361 BC, the capital shifted to Dà Liáng 大梁 (modern Kāifēng 開封). History: In the second half of the fifth and in the first part of the fourth century, Wèi was the strongest state among three Jìn, and in fact the strongest state in China in that period. It was mainly due to the reforms introduced during the reign of marquis Wén 魏文侯 (ca 445-396 B>C>) by Lǐ Kuī 李悝 and Wú Qǐ 吳起. In 344 B.C. ruler Huì 魏惠侯王 (369-319 B.C.) adopted the title of king. However, in the 40ties of the fourth century Wèi suffered serious defeat from Qí and Qín and became a secondary power. In the end of the fourth and in the beginning of the third century, the state was pressed between two superpowers, the states of Qín and Qí. In 225 B.C., Wèi was eventually conquered by Qín. 2. Wèi 魏 (CHEN PAN 1969, 408-410) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Xiang 29). Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 660 B.C. (Min 2) by Jìn 晉 (according to the ZUO). Location: In the area of modern Ruìchéng 芮城, southwestern Shānxī province (according to the Hàn zhì, Kuò dì zhì, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì). History: Wèi was a small and unimportant state, which appears in the ZUO for the first time in 708 B.C. (Huan 4). After its conquest by Jìn, the area was given as a fief to Bì Wàn 畢萬, the descendant of the Duke Gāo of Bì 畢公高 (according to the Shǐ jì, Wèi shìjiā). He was the founder of the Wèi 魏 lineage, which gradually obtained great power in the state of Jìn, and in 453 B.C. was one of three lineages which divided that state.

  • nprname of a state
  • npr.adNof Wei; belonging to Wei
   lǔ OC: ɡ-raaʔ MC: luo̝ 4 Attributions

Lǔ 魯 (CHEN PAN 1969, 39-46) Clan: Ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Hóu 侯 (common in CQ and ZUO). In some of the inscriptions on the bronzes, the rulers of Lǔ are referred to as gōng 公. Founded: The fief of Lǔ was given by king Chéng of Zhōu 周成王 to >Bóqín 伯禽, the son of duke of Zhōu (>Zhōu gōng 周公). Destroyed: In 256 BC, Lǔ was eliminated by the state of >Chǔ 楚 (according to the Lǔ shìjiā chapter of SHI). Location: The state was located in modern Shandong Province. The capital was Qūfù 曲阜 (to the north of modern Qūfù 曲阜 in Shandong). History: Lǔ was established in the early Western Zhōu period as the basis of the Zhōu power in the East. By the eight century, Lǔ was still relatively strong state, but thereafter it declined in importance, and since the thirties of the seventh century, it became a vassal state of >Jìn 晉. Since the beginning of the sixth century, power in the state in fact fell to the hands of families of Shūsūn 叔孫, Jìsūn 季孫 and Mèngsūn 孟孫. In 256 BC, Lǔ was eliminated by the state of >Chǔ 楚. The state of Lǔ was known as one of the most cultural states in China, where the rites of Zhōu 周 were fully preserved.

  • nprname of a state
  • nadNof Lu; belonging to Lu
   wú OC: ŋʷaa MC: ŋuo̝ 3 Attributions

Wú 吳 (also called Yú 虞, Gān 干, Jù Wú 句吳, or Yú Gān 禺干) (CHEN PAN 1969, 143-153) Clan: According to tradition ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. (However, this matter is not uncontroversial, since the state of Wú is supposed to have been established even before the fall of the Shāng, and since there was intermarriage between the Wú and Lǔ ruling clans, these cannot very plausibly both have been Jī clans, althouth there is evidence that intermarriage taboos were occasionally set aside for political reasons.) Rank: According to the Zhōu hierarchy, the rulers of Wú were of Zǐ 子 rank (and they are ussually referred to by this title in CQ). However, they themselves declared themselves to be kings (wáng 王), as was also the case of some of the other non-Zhōu states. This title appears in ZUO and in the bronze inscriptions. Founded: According to the tradition (maybe fabricated by the Wú rulers and recorded already in ZUO and MENG, but mainly in SHI), the founder of the state was >Tàibó 太伯, the son of the Zhou pre-conquest king >Tàiwáng 周太王. This person is said to leave Zhōu even prior to the conquest of Shāng and to establish the state of Wú far in the southeast. However, this tradition is very suspicious. Destroyed: In 473 B.C. (Ai 22) by the state of >Yuè 越. Location: Located in modern Jiangsu Province, renowned for its many lakes, marshes and waterways. Like their arch-enemies, the people of Yuè 越 , the people of Wú were light-heartedly regarded as "amphibious" creatures. According to the traditional Chinese historigraphy, the first capital was at Méilǐ 梅里 (located by Kuò dì zhì and Chūnqiū dì míng kǎo lyè to the modern Méicūn 梅村 in Wuxī 無 , Jiangsu). Then it (according to the Xù Hàn Jùn guó zhì) moved to Wú 吳 (modern Sūzhōu 蘇州). Thus the city of Suzhou regards itself even today as as something of a cultural capital in the south of China. History: The state of Wú was - in spite of its proclaimed Zhōu origin - conceived as barbarian by the states belonging to the Zhōu realm. However, Wú itself strived to establish itself as a part of the Zhū Xià 諸夏 and even seeked for the hegemeny among Chinese atates. The state is for the first time mentioned in ZUO in the entry for 601 BC (Wen 26). Particularly after 584 BC when the army of Wú was trained by >Jìn 晉 instructors, the state gradually rose to power, and competed with the neighbouring state of >Chǔ 楚. In 506 (Ding 4) Wú even occupied the capital of the much larger state of Chǔ. In the end, Wú was overextended itself, and in 473 it was destroyed by its southern neighbour and recurrent arch-enemy, the state of >Yuè 越.

  • nprname of a state
   zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 3 Attributions

Zhōu 周 Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Wáng 王. Founded: Zhōu was an old state in the Wèi 渭 River valley, which is mentioned already in the oracle bone inscriptions dating from the reign of the Shāng 商 king Wǔ Dīng 武丁. According to the Zhōu mythological story (recorded in the poem Shēng mín in the Shī jīng and in the Zhōu běnjì chapter of SHI), the first mythological ruler of Zhōu was Qì 棄 (rather known as Hòu Jì 后稷, Lord Millet). Perhaps the first really historical Zhōu ruler was the Old Duke Dànfǔ 古公亶父 (also known as Tài Wáng 太王, the Great King). Destroyed: Zhōu king Kǎo 周考王 (440-426 BC) gave a part of the area under the control of the Zhōu rulers to his younger brother, who was then known as Xī Zhōu Huán gōng 西周桓公. In 367 BC, after the internal struggles, the realm of Zhōu in fact splited into the two small states: to the Western Zhōu 西周 (centered in the city of Hénán 河南) and Eastern Zhōu 東周 (centered in the city of Gǒng). Luòyáng 洛陽 fromwhere the Zhōu kings formally ruled perhaps belonged to the Dōng Zhōu. Xī Zhōu was annexed by Qín 秦 in 256 BC (and the last Zhōu king died in that year, so that after that date there was not Zhōu king), Dōng Zhōu in 249 BC. Location: There are many problems concerning the original homeland of the Zhōu people. The first place they settled down is in the traditional accounts called Bīn 豳/邠 (mentioned in MENGZI and SHI), and there bassically two possible locations of it. Traditional accounts identify it with the modern Bīn 豳 district in Shǎnxī; however, since the 1930thies, there appears an opinion that it was located in the Fèn 汾 River valley in the southwestern part of Shānxī province. The latter opinion can explain record about Zhōu in the early oracle bone records and its dissapearance after the reign of the King Wǔ Dīng 武丁 (then Zhōu against appeared in the record just in the end of the Shāng period). It is also not in contradiction to the archaeological evidence. The first capital of Zhōu in the Wèi River valley in modern Shǎnxī (no matter whether there was any migration prior to its establishment) was Zhōuyuán 周原 in the Qíshān 岐山 district. This was built during the reign of the Gǔ Gōng Dànfǔ, and was uncovered by archaeologists. During the reign of the Dànfu's grandson, King Wén 周文王, there was founded another capital at Fēng 豐 and during the reign of his successor King Wǔ 周武王 at Hào 鎬 (both located to the south of modern Xī'ān 西安, 100 km to the east from Zhōuyuán). These old ritual centers in the homeland of the Zhōu people were then referred to as Zōng Zhōu 宗周. After the defeat of the Shāng (ca 1045 B.C.) and stabilization of the Zhōu rule over the eastern territories, the new center for the control over the eastern areas was established in the area of modern Luòyáng (central Henan) by the dukes of Zhōu 周公 and Shào 召公. This was then referred to as Chéng Zhōu 成周. Both eastern and western capitals were in use during the Western Zhōu period, Zōng Zhōu mainly as a ritual center and Chéng Zhōu as an administrative centre for the eastern territories. In 771 BC, western capital was destroyed by barbarians and the Zhōu royal court shifted to Chéng Zhōu. This period is therefore known as the Eastern Zhōu (770-256 BC). In that period, the area under the real control of the Zhōu kings was in fact confined to the very neighborhood of the eastern capital. History: Zhōu is for the first time mentioned as the Zhōu fāng 周方 in the oracle bone inscriptions dating from the reign of the Shāng king Wǔ Dīng, which record the Shāng attack on the Zhōu (where it was located in that time is a question; see Location). Later, Zhōu dissappeared from the inscriptions, but (according to the SHI, Zhúshū jìnjián and to the Shī jīng), it grew to power in the Wèi River valley. Zhōu king Wén (who was later claimed to obtain the Mandate of Heaven) was given the title of the Lord of the West 西伯 by the last Shāng king. His son, king Wǔ, in 1045 BC defeated the Shāng and conquered the eastern territories. King Wǔ died just three years after the conquest, and instead his young (according to the traditional accounts) son, king Chéng 周成王, Zhōu realm was governed by the two brothers of king Wǔ, the dukes of Zhōu and Shào. These suppressed the revolt led by the son of the last Shāng king and by the other two brothers of king Wǔ. The reign of the kings Chéng and Kāng 周康王 was then a climax of the Zhōu power, when the Zhōu won a control over the most of the northern China. Nonethless, after the defeat of the King Zhāo 周昭王 in the south, Zhōu power began to decline, and Zhōu were pressed into the defenssive against neighboring people. There were also internal struggles resulting into the expel of the king Lì 周厲王 (ca 858-842 BC) by the aristocracy. The following years (841-828 BC) are known as Gōng Hé 共和, because the empire was ruled by the Duke Hé 和 of Gōng 共. During the reign of king Xuān 周宣王 (827-782 BC), Zhōu for the last time strengthened its power, but in 771 BC the western capital was conquered by the allied armies of the duke of Shēn 申公 and the western barbarians. This put an end to the Western Zhōu 西周 dynasty. Zhōu royal court then moved to the eastern capital, and the following period is then known as the Eastern Zhōu 東周. Zhōu kings were formally recognized by the feudal lords as their sovereigns, but in fact they lost any real power and they were able to control only the area in the neighborhood of their capital. During the fourth century BC, even formal authority of the Zhōu kings came to the end, as also the other feudal lords declared themselves kings. In the mid third century, Zhōu was annexed by the state of Qín.

  • nprname of a tribe and of a state; name of dynasties
  • npr.adNof Zhou, belonging to Zhou
   yīn OC: qɯn MC: ʔɨn 3 Attributions

Yīn 殷 According to the traditional accounts, the late period of the Shāng dynasty, covering the reign of its last twelve kings, when the capital is said to be located in Yīn. However, the term does not appear in the oracle bone inscriptions and it was perhaps originally the Zhōu designation for the Shāng. See Shāng.

  • nprname of a dynasty, the Yīn or Shāng
   jīng OC: kreŋ MC: kɣaŋ 3 Attributions

see Chǔ 楚

  • nprname of a city and of a state
  • nadNof Jīng, belonging to Jīng
   xuē OC: sŋed MC: siɛt 3 Attributions

Xuē 薛 (CHEN PAN 1969, 256-261) Clan: Rèn 任 (mentioned in the inscriptions on the bronze vessels, as well as in the ZUO, Shì běn and Guó yǔ). Rank: Bó 伯 (according to the CQ; in the ZUO the rulers of Xuē are usually also referred to as bó). In the inscriptions on the bronze vessels, the rulers of Xuē refer to themselves as hóu 侯 (the same designation is used in the ZUO, Yin 11). Founded: According to the tradition (recorded in the ZUO, Ding 1 - 509 B.C.), the rulers of Xuē were descendants of Xīzhòng 奚仲 (the offspring of the mythical Yellow emperor 黃帝) who was given a fief in Xuē during the reign of the legendary Xià 夏 dynasty. It should be noted that the name of Xuē is known already from the Shāng oracle bones. Destroyed: Date of the destruction of Xuē and the state which conquered it remain unknown. The state was still in the existence by the end of the period recorded in the CQ. Later, it was most probably conquered by Qí 齊, as by the end of the 4th century B.C. the Qí noble Tián Yīng 田嬰 and his son Tián Wén 田文 (Mèngcháng jūn 孟嘗君) had their fief in Xuē. Location: The first capital of Xuē, called Xuēchéng 薛城, was located in the modern Téng 滕 district, Shandong province. According to the Zhūshū yìzhèng, the capital of state shifted several times: first into Pī [written as 丕 with the radical 邑 on the left] (also called Xià Pī 下), which is supposed to be located in the eastern part of the modern Pī district (Jiangsu province), and later to Shàng Pī 上 (again in the modern Téng district, just thirty kilometers to the West from the first capital of the state). After the Chunqiu period, the capital of Xuē is supposed to shift again to Xià Pī, but in the Zhanguo period, Xuē had its capital in Xuēchéng. It is difficult to say how reliable this description is; basically, Xuē was located in the modern Téng district. One of the small walled cities excavated there, and dating from the end of the Shāng till Chunqiu period, is supposed to be the capital of Xuē. History: Xuē was a small and weak state, which is for the first time mentioned in CQ and the ZUO under Yin 11 (712 B.C.). Throughout most of its history, it was exposed to the attacks of its neighbors, mainly of Qí. One of the earls of Xuē is noticeable for his debate over the precedence in the Zhōu royal audience with the the Marquis of Téng 滕, recorded in the ZUO in the entry for Yin 11 (712 B.C.) . 1. Located in modern Shāndōng province, in the southern part of the modern Téng 滕county. 2. The precise date of an establishment of the state is unknown, but it probably existed already in Shang times. Also the date of elimination of the state remains unknown, but it still existed by the beginning of the Warring states period. Later it was destroyed by the state of >Qí 齊. A terminus ante quem is the end of the fourth century when Qís politician Mengchangjun was apppointed as a duke of Xuē. 3. Ruled by the Rèn 任 clan. 4. The capital was Xuē 薛 in the southern part of the modern Téng 滕county, southwestern Shandong. 5. According to the tradition, the rulers of Xuē 薛 were descendants of >Huángdì 黃帝, the Yellow emperor. The state probably existed already in Shang times, and some of the archaeological finds uncovered in the Téng 滕county and dating from that period can be related to this state. In written sources, Xuē 薛 was for the first time mentioned in the Chunqiu and Zuozhuan in the entry for the eleventh year of the duke Yin >Lǔ Yin gōng , when its ruler had a remarkable disputation on the

  • nprname of a small state, became part of Qí
   wèi OC: ɢods MC: ɦiɛi 3 Attributions

Wèi 衛 (also written as Wéi 韋) (CHEN PAN 1969, 58-62) Clan: Ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Hóu (common in CQ and ZUO). In some of the inscriptions on the bronzes, rulers of Wèi are referred to as gōng. Founded: The fief of Wèi was given to >Kāngshū 康叔, the son of the king Wén of Zhōu (>Zhōu Wén wáng 周文王). In the inscription on the Kāng hóu Fēng dǐng 康侯丰鼎, this person is called Fēng 丰. Destroyed: In 254 it was eliminated by >Wèi 魏. Location: Wèi was located in northeastern Henan. 2. Established in the second half of the eleventh century during the reign of the king Chéng of Zhōu (>Zhōu Chéng wáng 周成王), and eliminated by Wèi 魏 in 254 BC. 3. Ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. 4. The capital was Chǎogē 朝歌 (in modern Qí 淇county, Henan Province). History: The fief of Wèi was supposed to be one of the main strongholds of the Zhōu power, controlling original Shāng 商territory. In the second half of the eight century, Wèi was one of the most important states in northern China. Thereafter, due to the internal struggles, it declined in power, and in 660 it was almost eliminated by the >Dí 狄 barbarians, being only rescued by the >duke Huán of Qí齊桓公. Since the thirties of the seventh century, Wèi was a vassal state of >Jìn晉, and in 254 it was eliminated by >Wèi 魏.

  • nprname of a state
  • npr.adNof Wey, belonging to Wey
   hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 3 Attributions

Hán 韓 (also called Zhèng 鄭) Clan: According to the Hán shìjiā chapter of SHI, Hán lineage was of the same surname as the Zhōu kings, i.e. Jī 姬. Rank: In the secong half of the fifth century B.C., rulers of Zhào were still of dàfū 大夫 rank. In 403 B.C. they were raised to the rank of zhūhóu 諸侯, and were then usually referred to as hóu 侯. In 325 B.C., the ruler of Hán adopted the title of wáng 王. Founded: Hán was founded by one of the three lineages, which after civil war in 453 B.C. divided among themselves the state of Jìn 晉. The history of the Hán lineage goes back to the first half of the seventh century B.C. when Hán Wàn 韓萬 received the fief in Hán (previously conquered by Jìn) and became Jìn dàfū. Since the beginning of the sixth century B.C., Hán became one of the most powerful lineages in Jìn which in fact usurped the power in the state. Destroyed: Conquered in 231 B.C. by Qín 秦. Location: The state of Hán was located in the central part of modern Henan province and in the southern part of Shānxī. The capital was since 415 BC Píngyáng 平陽 in the sothwestern part of modern Shānxī province, in the Fén 汾 River valley. In 375 B.C. (after the conquest of Zhèng 鄭), the capital shifted to Xīn Zhèng 新鄭 (modern Xīn Zhèng 新鄭 in Henan province). History: Among the three states which emerged after the split of Jìn, Hán was the most weak one. In spite of its conquest of Zhèng in 375 B.C. and Shēn Bùhài's 申不害 reforms in the mid fourth century B.C., Hán was exposed to the pressure from the side of its most powerfull neighbors, and in the end of the fourth and the beginning of the third century it often changed alliances mainly with the states of Qín and Qí. In 231 B.C. it was conquered by Qín as the first of the seven great powers of the Warring states period.

  • nprname of a state
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 2 Attributions

Qǐ 杞 (CHEN PAN 1969, 242-252) Ruling clan: Sì 似. Rank: In both CQ and ZUO, the rulers of Qǐ are basically referred to as bó 伯, but sometimes also as hóu 侯, and one time (CQ Xi 22; 638 B.C.) as zǐ 子. In the inscriptions on the bronze vessels, the rulers of Qǐ usually referred to themselves as bó. Location: There are many uncertainties concerning precise locations of the Qǐ capitals. According to the commentary to the Hàn zhì Chénliu jùn, the first capital of the state was Yōngqiū 雍丘, probably located in the modern Kāifēng 開封 district, Henan province. Later (prior to the period recorded in the CQ), the capital was shifted to the northeast of the state of Lǔ 魯 in modern Shandong. Exact location of the centre of Qǐ there is uncertain, but with regard to the fact that some bronze vessels made by Qǐ were found in the area of modern Xīn Tài 新泰 district, it is probable that the capital was in that area. ZUO records that later, in 646 B.C. (Xi 14), the capital of Qǐ was shifed by other feudal lords to Yuánlíng 緣陵. Founded: According to the Shǐ jì, Xià běnjì, the first ruler of Qǐ was the Duke of Dōnglóu 東樓公, the descendant of the Xià 夏 dynasty, who received Qǐ as his fief from King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. Destroyed: Conquered by Chǔ 楚 in 445 B.C. History: Rulers of Qǐ were supposed to be the descendants of the ruling clan of the Xià 夏 dynasty, and enjoyed special position in the Zhōu ritual system. The state for the first time appears in the CQ in the entry for 719 B.C. (Yin 4).

  • nprname of a state
   liáng OC: k-raŋ MC: li̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

Liáng 梁 (CHEN PAN 1969, 450-453) Clan: Yíng 嬴 (appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes; also written as 盈 or Yǎn 偃). Rank: Bó 伯 (common in the ZUO). Founded: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, Guǎng yùn, and to the Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè, the state of Liáng was founded during the reign of the Zhōu king Píng 周平王 (770-720 B.C.) by his son Kāng 康 (what is in contradiction with the supposed Yíng surname of the Liáng rulers). On the other hand, Hòu Hàn shū (quoting Dōng guàn jì), Hàn zhì, and Fēngsú tōng state that the rulers of Liáng were of the same lineage as the ruling house of Qín 秦. Destroyed: In 641 B.C. (Xi 19) by Qín 秦. Location: Modern Shǎo Liáng 少梁 in the Hánchéng 韓城 district, eastern Shǎnxī province (according to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, to the Hàn zhì, and to the Xù Hàn Jùn guó zhì). History: Liáng was a small and unimportant state, destroyed by Qín, which thereafter established there the city of Shǎo Liáng 少梁. In 617 B.C. (Wen 10), the area was conquered by Jìn 晉.

  • nprLiáng 梁 (CHEN PAN 1969, 450-453)
  • npr.adNbelonging to Liang; of Liang
   jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 2 Attributions

Jǔ 莒 (CHEN PAN 1969, 271-280) Clan: Jǐ 己 (according to the Shì běn and the ZUO). According to the Shǐ jì (Qín běnjǐ4, the rulers of Jǔ had the surname Yíng 盈/嬴. According to the Guó yǔ (Zhèng yǔ), their surname was Cáo 曹. Rank: Zǐ 子 (usual in both CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze vessels, rulers of Jǔ sometimes refer to themselves as hóu 侯. Founded: According to the Shìzú pǔ (and also to the Tōngzhì Shìzú lyè), the founder of Jǔ (the descendant of the mythical ruler Shǎo Hào 少昊) was Cíyù 茲與, who received his fief from King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. Destroyed: According to the Gǔ běn Zhúshū jìnián and to the Shǐ jì (Chǔ shìjiā and Liù guó nián biaǒ), Jǔ was destroyed by Chǔ 楚 in 431 B.C. Location: According to the Zhēngyì, Shìzú pu, and Lùshǐ Guó míng jì, the first capital of Jǔ was Jiègēn 介根 (also called Jìjīn 計斤), located probably in the southwestern part of the modern Jiāo 膲 district, Shandong province. Later, the capital shifted to Jǔ 莒 in the modern Jǔ 莒 district, southwestern Shandong province. History: Jǔ was one of the states of the Eastern barbarian (Dōng Yí 東夷) origin. Although it did not belong to the strongest states it can be seen as the power of second order. Sometimes, it intervened into inner struggles of its more powerful neighbors, such as Qí 齊 or Lǔ 魯 (Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 fled during the struggle for power in Qí to Jǔ, and was introduced to the throne from that state). Particularly since the 20ties of the 6th century B.C., Jǔ was exposed to the attacks from Qí, and was forced to become its dependent state. The large tomb uncovered in Dàdiàn 大店, Jǔ district, dating from the end of the 6th century B.C., and containing remains of over twenty human sacrifices, probably belonged to one of the rulers of Jǔ.

  • nprname of a state
   zhào OC: rlewʔ MC: ɖiɛu 2 Attributions

Zhào 趙 Clan: Ruled by the Yíng 贏 clan (according to the Zhào shìjiā chapter of SHI). Rank: In the secong half of the fifth century B.C., rulers of Zhào were still of dàfū 大夫 rank. In 403 B.C. they were raised to the rank of zhūhóu 諸侯, and were then usually referred to as hóu 侯. In 323 B.C., the rulers of Zhào adopted the title of wáng 王. Founded: Established in 453 BC after the split of Jìn, and in 403 BC recognized by the Zhōu king. Destroyed: In 228 BC destroyed by >Qín. Location: Located in modern Shanxi and in southwestern part of Hebei. The first capital was Jìnyáng 晉陽 (modern Tàiyuán 太原 in Shanxi), in 424 it was moved to Zhōngmóu 中牟(in modern Zhōngmóu 中牟 district in northeastern Henan), and definitely, in 386 to Hándān 邯鄲 (modern Hándān 邯鄲 in southwestern Hebei). History: Zhào was established in 453 BC when three families divided the state of >Jìn , and in 403 it was recognized by the Zhou king. In 323 the ruler of Zhào accepted the title of wáng 王. After the military reforms of >king Wǔlíng (趙武靈王 325 - 299 BC) when the cavalry in a fashion of nomad tribes was introduced, Zhào grew in power and became one of the most powerful states in China. However, in 260 B.C. the Zhào army was completely destroyed by >Qín 秦 at Chángpíng 長平, and in 228 BC the state was eliminated by Qín.

  • nprname of a state
  • npr{2}
   chén OC: ɡrliŋ MC: ɖin 2 Attributions

Chén 陳 (CHEN PAN 1969, 253-261) Clan: Guī 媯. Rank: Hóu 侯 (usual designation of the rulers of Chén in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: Founded by Hú gōng 胡公, who is said to be the descendant of the mythical emperor Shùn 舜, in the early Western Zhōu period (according to the ZUO, Xiang 25 - 548 B.C. - and to the Chén shìjiā chapter of the Shǐ jì). Destroyed: According to the ZUO, in 478 B.C. (Ai 17) by Chǔ 楚. According to the Shǐ jì (Chén shìjiā), it was destroyed one year earlier. Location: Yuànqiū 宛丘, the capital of Chén, was located in the modern Huáiyáng 淮陽 district, Henan province. History: In the beginning of the Chunqiu period, Chén was a quite powerful state. During the 7th century B.C., it was exposed to the rising pressure from the side of Chǔ, against which Chén usually allied with northern states (for instance, the armies of Chén participated in a famous military campaign against Chǔ led by Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 in 656 B.C.). Later, it gradually became a vassal of Chǔ (in 632 B.C. armies of Chén were on the side of Chǔ in the battle of Chéngpú 城濮), and was even destroyed and changed into a district of Chǔ in 531 B.C. (Zhao 11). However, it was reestablished in 529 B.C., and later eventually destroyed by Chǔ in 478 B.C.

  • nprname of a state
  • npradNof Chen; belonging to Chen
干 / 邗   gān OC: kaan MC: kɑn gān OC: kaan MC: kɑn 1 Attribution

Ancient state conquered by Wú, the name of this state being used in literary contexts to refer to Wú in the phrase 干越. See Wú 吳. Ancient state conquered by Wú, the name of this state being used in literary contexts to refer to Wú in the phrase 干越. See Wú 吳.

  • NPprancient state conquered by Wu, the name of this state being used in literary contexts to refer to Wu in the phrase 干越
   xú OC: lja MC: zi̯ɤ 1 Attribution

Xú 徐 (also called Xúfāng 徐方, Xú Yī 徐夷, Xú Róng 徐戎; written also as Chá 茶 or Shū 舒, in some inscriptions on the bronzes as Yú 余) (CHEN PAN 1969, 535-547) Clan: Yíng 嬴, which can be also written as 盈 or Yǎn 偃 (according to the Shì běn and to the ZUO). In the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā chapter), Xú Jī 徐姬 is mentioned among the consorts of the Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 (685-643 B.C.). It seems that it is either a mistake (note that the same person is in the ZUO, Xi 17, called Xú Yíng 徐嬴) or the word Jī 姬 is used as a general term for a consort. Rank: Zǐ 子 (occurs in the CQ and ZUO under Zhao 4, 16, and 30). The rulers of Xú, which did not belong to the Zhōu realm, often referred to themselves as wáng 王 in the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts. This title also appears in other texts (Shǐ jì, Lǐ jì, Xúnzǐ, Hán Fēizǐ, Mù tiānzǐ zhuàn). In some of the inscriptions on the bronzes, the rulers of Xú are also referred to as hóu 侯 or bó 伯. The latter title is used in the Current Zhúshū jìnián in the entry for the sixth year of the King Mù of Zhōu 周穆王. Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, the rulers of Xú were descendants of Ruòmù 若木, the son of Bóyì 伯益 who was an advisor of the mythical emperor Yǔ 禹. Obviously, Xú was an ancient non-Zhōu state; note that Yú 余 (Xú 徐) is mentioned as a place-name already in the oracle bone inscriptions (however, it does not necessarily point to the Xú in the Anhui province, as there were more places of this name; see Location). Destroyed: In 512 B.C. (Zhao 30) by Wú 吳. Location: According to the Du's commentary, to the Kuò dì zhì, and to the Dì lǐ kǎo shí, the capital of Xú was located in the modern Sì 泗 district, Anhui province. It should be noted that the place-name Xú was found also in other areas. In the state of Qí, there were perhaps two places called Xúzhōu 徐州: one approximately in the area of the modern Téng 滕 district, and another in the northwestern part of Qí 齊, on the borders with the state of Yàn 燕. Another Xú 徐 or Xúzhōu 徐州 (and mentioned for instance in the Shū jīng, the Bì shì chapter) was located on the eastern borders of Lǔ 魯. Again different Xú is mentioned in the Zhèng yǔ chapter of the Guó yǔ, which states that it was located to the north of the Zhōu eastern capital Chéng Zhōu 成周 (modern Luòyáng 洛陽). If there was any relationship between these place-names (pointing for instance to the spread of some closely related barbarian groups, as is suggested for example by the Dōng Yí zhuàn chapter of the Shǐ jì) is difficult to say. History: Xú was an ancient, strong, and highly civilized state which was never subdued by the Zhōu kings. The state and its inhabitants were closely related to the Eastern (Dōng) Yí 東夷 and to the Huái Yí 淮夷, and were probably one of their branches. Throughout the Western Zhōu period, Xú (called also Xú Róng 徐戎 or Xú Yí 徐夷) was a dangerous enemy of the Zhōu and eastern Zhōu states. Some of the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts record attacks from the side of Xú, and the same is recorded in some chapters of the Shū jīng (mainly in the Bì shì chapter; however, in this case, it is by no means certain that the record refers to the Anhui Xú; Xú mentioned in Bì shì was more probably located to the east of Lǔ). According to the Shǐ jì (Dōng Yí zhuàn), as well as to the Mù tiānzǐ zhuàn, Yǎn, the King of Xú 徐王偃, was a powerful rival of King Mù of Zhōu 周穆王 (but the story is rather legendary). Since 645 B.C. (Xi 15) when armies of Xú were defeated by Chǔ 楚 at Lóulín 婁林, Xú was exposed to the attacks from the side of Chǔ. In the second half of the 6th century B.C., the states of Chǔ and Wú strived to conquer Xú in order to gain a control over the lower reaches of the Huái 淮 river. Eventually, in 512 B.C. (Zhao 30), Xú was conquered by Wú.

  • nprA state, older even than that of Zhōu, a powerful state at the early stage that was able to challenge the Zhōu, but finally destroyed in 512.
   jiāng OC: krooŋ MC: kɣɔŋ 1 Attribution

Jiāng 江 (CHEN PAN 1969, 571-575) Ruling clan: Yíng 嬴 (according to the Qín běnjì chapter of the Shǐ jì, and to the Shǔi jīng zhù). Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the Shǐ jì (Qín běnjì chapter), the rulers of Jiāng belonged to the branch lineage of the ruling clan of Qín 秦. Destroyed: In 623 B.C. (Wen 4) by Chǔ 楚. Location: Uncertain. According to the Du Yu's commentary, Xù jùn guó zhì zhù etc., the state was located in the modern Xī 息 district (Taiwanese Zhèngyáng 正陽 district), Henan province. History: The state for the first time appears in CQ and ZUO in the entry for Xi 2 (658 B.C.).

  • NPprJiāng 江 (CHEN PAN 1969, 571-575)Ruling clan: Yíng 嬴
   téng OC: lɯɯŋ MC: dəŋ 1 Attribution

Téng 滕 (CHEN PAN 1969, 63-67) Clan: Jī姬. Rank: Hóu 侯 (usual in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: In the early Western Zhou period by Shūxiù 叔繡, the son of King Wén of Zhōu 周文王 (according to the Shì běn; also ZUO mentions that the founder of Téng was the son of King Wén). Location: In the modern Téng 滕 district, Shandong province. One of the small walled cities excavated in the area and dating from the end of Shāng to Eastern Zhōu times was probably the capital of Téng (see Li Xueqin, DONG ZHOU QIN WENMING). Destroyed: Uncertain. The state was still in existence by the end of the period recorded in CQ. It was preserved till the end of the 4th century, when its ruler is mentioned in the Mèngzǐ. Later, it was probably conquered by Qí 齊 (according to the Shì běn and Hàn zhì). Other sources state that Téng was destroyed either by Yuè 越 (Gǔ běn Zhúshū jìnián) or by Sòng 宋 (Zhàn guó cè). Sòng was in 286 B.C. conquered by Qí, and it is possible that Téng was actually destroyed by Sòng and the area later came under the control of Qí. History: Téng was a small petty state dependant mainly on Qí. In the CQ, it appears for the first time in 716 B.C. (Yin 7). The state is remarkable for the stay of Mencius in the court of the Duke Wén of Téng 滕文公.

  • nprname of a minor state
   shēn OC: lʰin MC: ɕin 1 Attribution

Shēn 申 (CHEN PAN 1969, 302-309) Clan: Jiāng 姜. Rank: Hóu 侯 (according to the Shǐ jì, Qín běnjì, and to the Current Zhúshū jìnián). Founded: According to the tradition, rulers of Shēn were descendants of Bóyí 伯夷. Kong Yida mentions that the state of Shēn was established in the reign of King Xuān of Zhōu 周宣王 (828-782 B.C.). Establishing of the state of Shēn is described in the Shī jīng. Destroyed: According to the ZUO (Zhuang 6), Shēn was conquered by Chǔ 楚 in 688 B.C. Location: Xiè 謝 (also called Xù 序), the capital of Shēn, was according to the widespread opinion located in the area of the modern Nányáng 南陽, southern Henan province. Other locations are unreliable. History: As we can suppose on the basis of the Shī jīng, Shēn was established during the reign of King Xuān of Zhōu as a barrier against southern states, and it seems that in the beginning it was a quite powerful state. Duke of Shēn played a crucial role in the downfall of the Western Zhōu in 771 B.C., as he together with Western barbarians attacked and conquered Zhōu western royal capital (because his daughter was displaced from the position of the main wife by King Yōu of Zhōu 周幽王 [781-771 B.C.]). Later, Shēn was attacked by Chǔ, and it was conquered by that state in 688 B.C. Chǔ then established in the area one of the first districts (xiàn 縣), which became its power basis in the southern part of modern Henan. The title of Duke of Shēn 申公, which appears later in the ZUO and in other texts does not refer to the rulers of the state, but to the Chǔ officials put in charge of control over the former area of Shēn.

  • nprState of She1n
   hú OC: ɡaa MC: ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • nstate of Hú
   gé OC: kaad MC: kɑt 1 Attribution

Gé 葛 (CHEN PAN 1969, 497-501) Clan: Yíng 嬴 (according to the Tōng zhì and to the Zhào Qí's Mèngzǐ zhù). Rank: According to the Mèng Kāng's Hàn zhì zhù, rulers of Gé were of bó 伯 rank. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Unknown. The state appears in the CQ in the record for 681 B.C. (Huan 15). Location: Probably in the modern Nínglíng 寧陵 district, Shandong province. History:

  • nprname of an ancient state in today's Hénán with ruling clan 嬴
   cài OC: skhaads MC: tshɑi 1 Attribution

Cài 蔡 (CHEN PAN 1969, 47-53) Rank: Hóu 侯 (used both in CQ and the ZUO). Clan: Jī 姬. Founded: By Shūdù 叔度, the son of King Wén of Zhōu 周文王. Destroyed: According to the Shǐ jì, Cài shìjiā, Cài was destroyed in 449 B.C. by Chǔ 楚. Location: Cài was located in the area of southeastern Henan. The first capital of the state (called Cài) was in the area of the modern Shàng Cài 上蔡 district, Henan province (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). Marquis Píng 蔡平侯 (529-522 B.C.) shifted the capital to Xīn Cài 新蔡 (modern Xīn Cài 蔡 district, Henan province) and later Duke Zhāo 蔡昭公 (518-491 B.C.) shifted it to Xià Cài 下蔡 (Zhōulái 州來; according to the Zuǒ zhuàn Dù jiě and Shì lì). History: After the death of King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王 (ca. 1044 B.C.), Cài participated in the revolt against the regent government of Dukes of Zhōu 周公 and Shào 召公, but was defeated. Then, it was given as a fief to Hú 胡, the son of Shūdú, by King Chéng of Zhōu 成王. In the beginning of the Chunqiu period, Cài was a quite powerful state, but since 684 B.C. (Zhuang 10), it was repeatedly attacked by Chǔ and by 656 B.C., it already became a vassal state of Chǔ. Armies of Cài also participated on the side of Chǔ in the famous battle of Chéngpú 城濮 in 632 B.C. (Xi 28). In 531 B.C. (Zhào 11), King Líng of Chǔ 楚靈王 (540-529 B.C.) had killed Marquis Líng of Cài 蔡靈侯 (542-531 B.C.) and changed Cài into a district of Chǔ. However, two years later (in 529 B.C.), Cài was reestablished by Chǔ.

  • nprname of a state
   bīn OC: prɯn MC: pin 1 Attribution
  • nprsmall ancient state in today's Shǎnxī
   zōu OC: tsru MC: ʈʂɨu 1 Attribution

see Zhū 邾

  • npra small state in today's Shāndōng
   zhèng OC: deŋs MC: ɖiɛŋ 1 Attribution

Zhèng 鄭 (CHEN PAN 1969, 99-142) Clan: Ruled by the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Bó (common in CQ and ZUO). Founded: The first ruler of Zhèng was >duke Huán (Zhèng Huán gōng 鄭桓公), by the personal name Yǒu 友 (or Duōyǒu 多友; in the Current Zhúshū jìnián Duōfǔ 多父), the son of the king Lì of Zhōu 周厲王 (according to SHI, Zhèng shìjiā) and the brother of the king Xuān of Zhōu (>Zhōu Xuān wáng 周宣王; 827-782 B.C.). According to the Current Zhúshū jìnián, Yǒu was the son of the king Xuān and not his brother. Destroyed: In 375 BC, Zhèng was eliminated by the state of >Hán 韓. Location: The state of Zhèng was originally located in modern Shǎnxī province. Among traditional Chinese scholars, there is not agreement on its precise location there, but basically it was located not very far from the Zhōu western capital. During the turmoil at the turn of the Western and Eastern Zhōu periods, the state of Zhèng shifted to the East, into the area of the eastern part of central Henan. The precise date of this shift is problematic. It seems that the part of eastern areas was occupied already by Duke Huán prior to the downfall of the Western Zhōu in 771 B.C. (according to the Zhèng shìjiā chapter of SHI and to the Zhèng yǔ section of the Guó yǔ; Zhú shū jìnián dates this event to the second year of the Marquis Wén of Jìn 晉文侯, i.e. 779 B.C.), but the state was shifted by his successor the duke Wǔ 鄭武公 (770-744 B.C.). The capital of Zhèng in the East was Xīnzhèng 新鄭, identical with modern Xīnzhèng 新鄭 in Henan. This capital is under excavation. History: After the shift to the East, duke Wǔ of Zhèng succesfully intervened into the struggles for the royal succession . The height of its power Zhèng reached under duke Zhuāng (>Zhèng Zhuāng gōng 鄭莊公, 743 - 701 BC), who is sometimes even called the small hegemon of the feudal lords. After his death, Zhèng lost its power, and since the thirties of the seventh century it was pressed between the powerful states of >Jìn 晉 and >Chǔ 楚. In 375 BC, Zhèng was eliminated by the state of >Hán 韓. Zhèng was famous in Chunqiu times as the main trading centre in China, and merchants represented in the capital very important part of population.

  • nprname of a state
   zōu OC: skru MC: ʈʂɨu 1 Attribution
  • nname of a very small ancient state near Song and Lu
三晉   sān jìn OC: saam tsins MC: sɑm tsin 1 Attribution

Term referring to the states of Wèi 魏, Zhào 趙, and Hán 韓, which emerged after the collapse of the state of Jìn in 453 B.C.

  • NPprplacethe three states of >Wèi 魏, >Zhào 趙, and >Hán 韓
夏后   xià hòu OC: ɡraaʔ ɡooʔ MC: ɦɣɛ ɦu 1 Attribution

see Xià 夏

  • NPprLord of Xià > Xià dynasty
昆夷   kūn yí OC: kuun li MC: kuo̝n ji 1 Attribution
  • NPprname of a western barbarian tribe
六國   liù lù liù guó  MC: ljuwk kwok  OC: ɡ-ruɡ kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
  • NPprThe states 齊、楚、燕、韓、趙、魏 (note the absence of Qin, by which these were annexed in the "unification" of "China"
   rén OC: njɯm MC: ȵim 0 Attributions

Rén 任 (probably identical with Réng 仍) (CHEN PAN 1969, 635) Clan: Fēng 風. Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the tradition, the rulers of Rèn were descendants of mytical Tài Hào 太嗥. Destroyed: In 639 BC. (Xi 21). Location: Located in the modern Jíníng 濟寧, Shandong province.

  • nprState of Ren
   gōng OC: koŋ MC: ki̯oŋ 0 Attributions

Gōng 共 (CHEN PAN 1969, 318-327) Clan: Unknown. Rank: According to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì, the rulers of Gōng were of the bó rank 伯. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In the early Chunqiu period (but after 722 B.C. - Yin 1 - when Gōng is mentioned in the ZUO), Gōng was conquered by Wèi 衛 (in 660 B.C. - Min 2 - the people of Gōng were attached to the people of Wèi). Location: According to the Cheng's Guó cè dì míng kǎo, Gōng was located in the modern Huī 輝 district, Henan province. History: Gōng was a very small state, but it was not completely unimportant in the early Chinese history. According to the Zhúshū jìnián, Hé 和, the ruler of Gōng, ruled as a regent from 841 to 828 B.C., after Zhōu King Lì 周厲王 was sent to an exile by aristocracy (the period being thus known as Gōng Hé 共和). This is attested also by the inscription on the Shī X guǐ 師X簋 (see Shaughnessy 1999, 345). The state of Gōng is mentioned also for the later periods; in 722 B.C. (Yin 1), Shū Duàn 叔段, the brother of Lord Zhuāng of Zhèng 鄭莊公 (743-701 B.C.), fled to this state, and was then known as Gōngshū Duàn 共叔段. It should be noted that prior to the beginning of the Western Zhōu period, there was also another state of Gōng, the conquest of which by the King Wén of Zhōu 周文王 is recorded in the poem Huáng yī of the Shī jīng. Apparently, it must have been located close to the former Zhōu realm in the Wèi 渭 river valley; Lù shǐ Guó míng jì suggested the modern Língtái 靈臺 district in Gansu province as the probable location. Which was the relationship (if there was any) between this Gōng and Gōng in Henan is unknown; it cannot be excluded that in the Western Zhōu times, the former fief of Gōng was located in the West, and then it shifted to the East during the turmoil in the turn of the Western and Eastern Zhōu periods, as was the case of many other states.

  • NPprGōng 共 (CHEN PAN 1969, 318-327)
   jì OC: krɯls MC: ki 0 Attributions

Jì 冀 (CHEN PAN 1969, 576-577) Ruling clan: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Jì belonged to the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Unknown. In late sources (commentary to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì) is the ruler of Jì referred to as zǐ 子. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Destroyed by Jìn 晉 prior to 650 B.C. (Xi 10) when the area already belonged to Jìn. Location: Uncertain. According to the Du's commentary, the state was located in the modern Héjīn 河津 district, Shānxī province.

  • NPprState of Ji
   fán OC: blom MC: bi̯ɐm 0 Attributions

Fán 凡 (also written as Fàn 汎) (CHEN PAN 1969, 379-382) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (appears in the both CQ and ZUO). Founded: In the Early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Duke of Zhōu 周公 (according to the ZUO, Xi 24; 636 B.C.). Destroyed: Unknown. Location: According to the Du's commentary and Xù Hàn Jùn guó zhì, Fán was located in the modern Huī 輝 district, Henan province. History: The state for the first time appears in the ZUO under Yin 7 (716 B.C.).

  • NPprFán 凡 (also written as Fàn 汎 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 379-382)
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions

Yuán 原 (CHEN PAN 1969, 519-521) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (common in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: The state of Yuán was founded in the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Zhōu King Wén 周文王 (according to the Shū jīng Jūn Shì zhēngyì and to the Xìng xī). Destroyed: The state is mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 676 B.C. (Zhuang 18). In 635 B.C. (Xi 25), the state already was not in existence, as in that year the Zhōu 周 king gave the city of Yuán to Jìn 晉. Thereafter, Yuán was shifted by Jìn to Yì 翼 in Shānxī province. Location: According to the Hàn zhì and Dì míng kǎo lyè, Yuán was located in the modern Jǐyuán 濟源, Henan province. On the contrary, Du's commentary to the ZUO and also Tōng zhì suggest that it was located in the modern Qìnshuǐ 沁水, Shānxī province. According to CHEN PAN, Henan Yuán was in fact another Yuán, which is mentioned in the ZUO for 711 B.C. as one of the cities given by the Zhōu 周 King to Zhèng 鄭.

  • NPprYuán 原
   lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi 0 Attributions

Lì 厲 (probably identical wit Lài 賴) (CHEN PAN 1969, 611-620) Ruling clan: Uncertain. According to the Hàn 漢 tradition, the rulers of Lì were descendants of Lìshānshì 厲山氏, who (according to the Jìn 晉 tradition) was identical with Shén Nóng 神農. The descendants of Shén Nóng are said to possess Jiāng 姜 surname. However, these legends (mentioned in the late texts) are very unreliable. Rank: Uncertain. In the ZUO (Zhao 4, 538 B.C.), the ruler of Lì is one time referred to as zǐ 子. Founded: Unknown (see Ruling clan). Destroyed: In 538 B.C. (Zhao 4) by Chǔ 楚. Location: Uncertain. According to the one opinion (Gù Dōnggāo quoting Qián Hàn dì lǐ zhì), the state was located in the area of the modern Lìshāndiàn 厲山店, in the northern part of Suízhōu 隨州, Hubei province. According to the other (Bao Xin's commentary to the Xù Hàn shū Jùn guó zhì), Lì was located in the modern Lìxiāng 厲鄉, to the east of Lùyì 鹿邑, Henan province.

  • NPprLì 厲 (probably identical wit Lài 賴 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 611-620)
   xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Xiàng 向 (CHEN PAN 1969, 350-356) Clan: Jiāng 姜 (according to the ZUO - Yin 2 - and to the Shì běn). Probably, there were also two other states of the same name, with ruling lineages bearing Zǐ 子 and Qí 祁 surnames (according to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè and to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì). However, nothing is known about their location and history. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 721 B.C. (Yin 2), the state of Jǔ 莒 attacked Xiàng. Later (in 605 B.C.; Xuān 4), Xiàng is mentioned as a city belonging to Jǔ. As one regards Xiàng with the ruling lineage bearing Zǐ 子 surname (location unknown), it is supposed to be conquered by Sòng 宋, because the Xiàng 向 lineage was later one of the most important lineages in the latter state (being for the first time mentioned in the record for 586 B.C.; Cheng 5). Location: Several possible locations for Xiàng (ranging from Anhui to Henan province) were offered by traditional Chinese historiography. However, with regard to the fact that Xiàng was obviously located in the neighborhood of Jǔ 莒 and Lǔ 魯, the most probable location is the modern Jǔ 莒 district in the southwestern part of the Shandong province. History: Xiàng was a small and unimportant state, which was probably destroyed in the beginning of the early Chunqiu period, and is mentioned only one time (721 B.C.) as an independent state. Other five mentions of Xiàng in the CQ and ZUO refers to it as a city belonging to other states.

  • NPprXiàng 向 (CHEN PAN 1969, 350-356)
   shāng OC: qhjaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Shāng 商 (also called Yīn 殷) Clan: Zǐ 子. Rank: Wáng 王. Founded: The mythical story about the origin of the Shāng is described in the Yīn běnjì chapter of SJ and in the poem Xuán niǎo of the Shī jīng. According to these accounts, the first ancestor of the Shāng was Xiè 契, whose mother conceived when she swallowed an egg dropped by a black bird. SJ then records the names of the fourteen predynastic ancestors, and then thirty dynastic kings starting with Chéng Tāng 成湯, who was supposed to defeat the legendary Xià 夏 dynasty (according to the traditional dates, it should happen either in 1766 BC or about 1550 BC). The list of kings in SJ bassically matches the list of Shāng ancestors in the oracle bone inscriptions. Destroyed: In 1045 BC (according to the most reliable chronology) the Shāng was defeated and conquered by the Zhōu 周. Zhōu king then gave the former area of Shāng to Wǔ Gēng 武庚, the son of the last Shāng ruler. This later revolted and was defeated and killed. Location: There are different opinions concerning the former homeland of the Shāng people, the locations of which range from the southwestern Hebei, over the eastern Henan to the western Shandong. This question can be hardly answered. According to the Yīn bějì chapter of SHI, the Shāng capital shifted five times. The first capital of Chéng Tāng was called Bó 亳, then it shifted to Ao, then to Xiāng 相 and Xíng 邢, and eventually (under the king Pán Gēng 盤庚) to the last capital, called Yīn 殷, fromwhere the last twelve Shāng kings ruled. In Chinese traditional historiography as well as in the modern hstoriography and archaeology, there has been large discussion about the location of these capitals. It is quite accepted that the last capital was in modern Ānyáng 安陽, northeastern Henan, where the large late Shāng center dating at least from the period of the reign of the last nine Shāng kings was excavated. However, the name Yīn does not appear in the oracle bone inscriptions where the capital of Shāng is referred to as the Great (or Heavenly) city Shāng, Dà yì Shāng 大邑商 (it is even not certain whether this capital was identical with th Shāng city in Ānyáng). Some of the previous capitals are often (mainly by Chinese archaeologists) identified with some of the major sites of the Bronze Age, but this identification is far from being certain. Thus the first capital of Bó is identified either with the huge city excavated in Zhèngzhōu 鄭州 or with the even earlier site of Èrlǐtóu 二里頭 in the modern Yǎnshī 偃師 district, central Henan. Zhèngzhōu is sometimes also identified with the second capital of Ao. Note that just recenty, another large walled city (called by the archaeologists the Shāng city of Huánběi) was excavated just to the north of the Late Shāng settlement in Ānyáng. The city is later than the occupation of Zhèngzhōu, but antedates the Late Shāng occupation in Ānyáng. History: Besides the traditional accounts in the later texts (mainly the Yīn běnjì chapter of SJ), Shāng history is mainly known from the oracle bone inscriptions uncovered in Ānyáng and dating from the reign of the last nine Shāng kings (beginning with Wǔ Dīng 武丁; the inscriptions cover approximately the period 1200-1045 BC). As have been mentioned above, the list of the Shāng predynastic rulers and kings given in SJ is considerably in accordance with the lists of Shāng ancestors in the oracle bone inscriptions. In the later accounts, the Shāng state is said to grow to power when the king Chéng Tāng (called Dà Yǐ 大乙 in the inscriptions) defeated the last ruler of the rather legendary Xià dynasty. However, this tradition is not attested in the inscriptions. The first period of the existence of the Shāng state is often identified with the period of existence of the so-called Èrlǐgǎng 二里崗 culture (ca 16th-14th century BC), when the main centre of northern China was the walled city in Zhèngzhōu. Many characteristic features of the later Shāng culture developed at that period, mainly the large-scale production of bronze ritual vessels and weapons. On the basis of the archaeological investigations it seems that Zhèngzhōu was a centre of a quite centralized state controlling large areas spanning over the most of the area of central China and as far to the south as the middle reaches of the Chángjiāng 長江 River. After the end of the Èrlǐgāng period, it seems that there was some crisis leading to the fragmentation of the centralized control and to the diminishion of the territory under the Shāng control. The Shāng kings ruling from Ānyáng (the period ca between 1200-1045 BC; the archaeological culture of the period is called Yīnxū 殷墟) controlled much smaller area (basically northeastern Henan) and relied heavily on the very unstable system of political, ritual and kin alliances with smaller polities. In the beginning of the period, there was quite a large expansion under the King Wǔ Dīng, but later the Shāng lost some allies mainly in the area of western Shānxī. During that time, the Zhōu state in Shǎnxī province grew to the power, and in 1045 BC Zhōu defeated the last Shāng king Dì Xīn 帝辛 (or Zhòu 紂, who is depicted as a wicked and cruel despot in the later texts) and put an end to the existance of the Shāng state. Shāng culture was extremely important in the formation of the Chinese culture, as any basic elements of the latter emerged in the Shāng period (including the writing system).

  • nprname of a dynasty and of a tribe
宿   sù OC: suɡ MC: suk 0 Attributions

Sù 宿 (CHEN PAN 1969, 291-293) Clan: Fēng 風 (according to the ZUO, Xi 21). Rank: Nán 男. Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè and Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Sù was established by King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王, and ruled by the descendants of the mythical ruler Tài Hào 太皞. Destroyed: In the ZUO in the record for 500 B.C. (Ding 10), Sù is mentioned as already belonging to Qí 齊. Location: Sù is supposed to be located in the area of modern Dōngpíng 東平, Shandong province. According to the CQ, in 584 B.C. (Zhuang 10), Sòng 宋 shifted the capital of Sù, but its new location is unknown.

  • NPprSù 宿 (CHEN PAN 1969, 291-293)
   mì OC: mbriɡ MC: mit 0 Attributions

Mì 密 (CHEN PAN 1969, 629-634) Ruling clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Yan's commentary to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì quoting Shì běn). This suggestion is supported by the fact that - according to the ZUO (Xi 17) - Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 (685-643 B.C.) had the consort Mì Jī 密姬. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown (see History). Destroyed: See History. Location: See History. History: The case of Mì is rather complicated. It seems that there were at least two states of this name. The first one was perhaps located in the modern Mì 密 district, Henan province, and its rulers had Zhōu royal surname Jī 姬. Mì Jī, the consort of the Duke Huán of Qí, mentioned in the ZUO (Xi 17), probably had something to do with this state. However, it is by no means certain that the state was still in existence by that time. The area of that state was perhaps identical with the city of Xīn Mì 新密, which in 654 B.C. (ZUO Xi 6) already belonged to Zhèng 鄭. On this basis, Gāo Shìqí has suggested that the state of Mì was prior to the period recorded by CQ conquered by the state of Kuài 鄶, which was in turn conquered by Zhèng. Mì Jī could come from the former ruling lineage of this Mì, which was preserved within a noble class (according to Chén Qīnhán). Another state of Mì was perhaps located in the area of the modern Língtái 靈臺, Gansu province. It is mentioned in the Shī jīng (poem Huáng yī), according to which it was destroyed by King Wén of Zhōu 周文王. It is also associated with Mì mentioned in the Guó yǔ (Zhōu yǔ), which was later conquered by King Gōng of Zhōu 周共王. According to the Wei's commentary to the Guó yǔ, this Mì was of Jī 姬 origin. However, yet another Mì (also located by Wei to the area of Língtái) is mentioned in the Zhōu yǔ, which was of Jí 姞 surname. According to the Wei's commentary, there were two states of Mì in the Língtái area; but more probable seems to be the view of Wu Zhuoxin, who supposes that the former state of Mì, the rulers of which bore Jí 姞 surname, was that conquered by King Wén, who then gave the area as a fief to the lineage of the Jī 姬 surname (which was later destroyed by King Gōng).

  • NPprMì 密 (CHEN PAN 1969, 629-634)
   zhōu OC: kju MC: tɕɨu 0 Attributions

1. Zhōu 州 (also written as 舟; also called Chúnyú 淳于) (CHEN PAN 1969, 411-416) Clan: Uncertain. According to the Xúnzǐ and Shì běn, the rulers of Zhōu belonged to the Jiāng 姜 clan. Rank: Gōng 公 (according to the ZUO and CQ, Huan 5). Founded: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the state of Zhōu was founded in the Early Western Zhōu period, during the reign of King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. Destroyed: Unknown. According to the CQ and the ZUO, in 707 B.C. (Huan 5), the ruler of Zhōu fled to Cáo 曹. Later, the area was occupied by the state of Qǐ 杞. Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the state of Zhōu was located in the area of modern Ānqiū 安丘, Shandong province. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì has suggested that the state was located in the modern Gāomì 高密, also in the Shandong province. According to some of the traditional Chinese scholars (Zhào Péngfēi; Yáo Nài), the state of Zhōu belonged to the eastern royal domain in central Henan (for 712 B.C. - Yin 11 - it is mentioned in the ZUO that the Zhōu 周 king gave the fields of Zhōu to the state of Zhèng). It cannot be excluded that the state of Zhōu was originally located within the royal domain (this can also explain why its rulers had the title of the Duke); however, by the beginning of the Chunqiu period, the state was obviously in the Shandong area. History: Zhōu was a small and unimportant state mentioned only one time (in 707 B.C.; Huan 5) in the CQ and ZUO. It is rather mysterious that on this occasion, its ruler is designated gōng in both texts. Maybe the state of Zhōu was originally located within the royal domain (see Location), and its rulers held some high positions in the Zhōu 周 royal court. 2. Zhōu 州 (also written as 舟; do not confuse with the state of the same name located in the Shandong province) (CHEN PAN 1969, 481-483) Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī, Lù shǐ Guó míng jì and Hòu jì, the rulers of Zhōu had Yǎn 偃 surname. Tōngzhì Shìzú lyè suggested that they were of Jiāng 姜 surname (this suggestion is based on the supposed relationship between the southern Zhōu and Shandong Zhōu). According to the record in the Shuō yuàn, Zhōu rulers belonged to the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Unknown. Zhànguó cè (Chǔ cè) mentions the ruler of Zhōu as hóu 侯. However, the record refers to the person of the 3rd century B.C. who was a favorite of the Chǔ king, and possibly had nothing to do with the former Zhōu rulers. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Mentioned in the ZUO in the record for 701 B.C. Later (in an unknown period), it was conquered by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Chinese traditional historiography, Zhōu was located either in the area of the modern Zhōulíngchéng 州陵城, Jiānlì 監利 district, Hubei province, or in the modern Hónghú 洪湖 in the same province.

  • NPprZhōu 州 (also written as 舟; also called Chúnyú 淳于 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 411-416)
   bā OC: praa MC: pɣɛ 0 Attributions

Bā 巴 (CHEN PAN 1969, 436-446) Clan: Jī 姬 (the wife of the Chǔ king Gōng 楚恭王, which is mentioned in the ZUO, Zhao 13, was called Bā Jī 巴姬). In the traditional Chinese historiography, there appear also other opinions concerning the surname of the Bā rulers. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Bā had Yíng 嬴 surname; in the same text, there is mentioned another Bā with Fēng 風 surname. Yú dì guǎng jì states that Bā was of the same surname as Shāng 商 kings, i.e. Zǐ 子. The matter is complicated, and it is possible that there were more states of that name. Nonetheless, the main Bā in Sichuan should have been of Jī 姬 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the Huáyáng guó zhì). Founded: Again, there are different opinions concerning the origins of Bā. According to the Huáyáng guó zhì, Bā of Jī surname was established by King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. Destroyed: In 316 B.C. by Qín 秦 (according to the Shǐ jì - Qín běnjì, Liù guó niánbiǎo, and Zhāng Yí zhuàn chapters - and to the Huáyáng guó zhì). According to the Zhànguó cè (Qín cè), it was conquered in 329 B.C. Location: There are some problems concerning the precise location of Bā, and it is quite probable that its center shifted several times (what is also stated in the Huáyáng guó zhì). Hàn shū dì lǐ zhì and Du's commentary to the ZUO locate the state of Bā into the area of the modern Bā 巴 district in the eastern part of Sichuan province. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì suggested that it was located in the modern Nánchōng 南充 district in Sichuan. According to Mēng Wéntōng, Bā was located in the Lǎngzhōng 閬中 district of the same province. Tóng Shūyè on the basis of the records in the ZUO and Zhànguó cè (which suggest that Bā could not have been too far from the capital of Chǔ 楚 and from the states of Dèng 鄧 and Yōng 庸) supposed that the center of Bā was located somewhere in the area of the Hàn 漢 River valley in the southeastern part of Shǎnxī province. This view seems to be quite reasonable; however, we probably should locate a broader area of the Bā activities somewhere between the southeastern Shǎnxī, southwestern Henan, northwestern Hubei, and northeastern Sichuan. History: Bā played not an unimportant role in the history of the Chunqiu and Zhanguo periods, particularly as a rival of the neighboring powerful state of Chǔ 楚. In 676 B.C. (Zhuang 18), armies of Bā even reached the gates of the Chǔ capital, but were defeated in the following year. Another great siege was laid on Chǔ by Bā in 477 B.C., but the result was again the defeat of Bā. In the 4th century B.C., Bā became an ally of the state of Qín against the states of Shǔ 蜀 and Chǔ. However, after the conquest of Shǔ, Qín also annexed Bā in 316 B.C. (or 329 B.C.). Bā was known as a semi-barbarian or even barbarian state, which differed from the states of Huá Xià 華夏, or Zhū Xià 諸夏 (in spite of its proclaimed Jī姬 - i.e. Zhōu 周 - origins). It probably had quite distinctive culture and customs, and some archaeological finds from the eastern part of Sichuan are mainly by Chinese archaeologists labeled under the general term of the Bā culture.

  • NPprBā 巴 (CHEN PAN 1969, 436-446) Clan: Jī 姬
   xián OC: ɡeen MC: ɦen 0 Attributions

Xián 弦 (CHEN PAN 1969, 582-583) Ruling clan: According to the Chūnqiū zhuàn shuō huì zuǎn, the rulers of Xián belonged to the Wěi clan. On the other hand, Lù shǐ Guó míng jǐ attributes to them Yíng 嬴 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (???, in CHEN PAN is not mentioned the source). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 655 B.C. (Xi 5) by Chǔ 楚. Location: Uncertain. Either modern Huáng chuán 潢川 district in Henan province, or the area of Guāngshān 光山 in the same province.

  • NPprState of Xián
   xī OC: sqlɯɡ MC: sɨk 0 Attributions

Xī 息 (CHEN PAN 1969, 388-390) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Yin 11 - 712 B.C. - and to the Du's commentary to that passage, as well as to the Shì běn). Rank: Hóu 侯 (appears in the ZUO). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 684 B.C. (Zhuang 10) by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Zuǒ zhuàn zhēngyì, Xī was located in the modern Xī 息 district, Henan province. History: Xī was a small and weak state, but it is quite remarkable for the curious and rather piquant story about its downfall. Both the rulers of Xī and Cài 蔡 married the daughters of the ruler of Chén 陳; but when Xī Guī 息媯, the wife of the ruler of Xī, passed through the state of Cài, the ruler of Cài detained her. The furious ruler of Xī thereafter proposed to the King Wén of Chǔ 楚文王 to pretend an attack on Xī, in order to enable the ruler of Xī to request a help from Cài, which then could be attacked by Chǔ. The king of Chǔ followed the proposal, defeated Cài, and captured its ruler. Immediately, Chǔ also destroyed Xī following the advice of Xī Guī persuaded by the captured ruler of Cài. Xi Gui eventually became a consort of the King Wén of Chǔ.

  • NPprXī 息 (CHEN PAN 1969, 388-390)Clan: Jī 姬
   dài OC: k-lɯɯs MC: təi 0 Attributions

Dài 戴 (also written as 甾, 載, or 圪) (CHEN PAN 1969, 383-387) Clan: According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì and Fēngsú tōng, the rulers of Dài belonged to the Jī 姬 clan. It is supported by the inscription on the Dàishū Qìngfǔ lì 戴叔慶父鬲. On the other hand, according to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Dài were descendents of Wēizǐ Qǐ 微子啟, and had thus Zǐ 子 surname. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Note that Dài or Dài fāng 戴方 is mentioned in the oracle bone inscriptions. Which was the relationship between this Dài and the later Zhōu state is unknown. Destroyed: Uncertain. In 713 B.C. (Yin 10), Dài was subdued by Zhèng 鄭; probably it put an end to its existence. Location: Several locations of Dài within Henan province were suggested by the traditional Chinese historiography. Hàn zhì and Xù zhì suppose that it was located in the Kǎochéng 考城 district. Du's commentary proposed an area of the modern Qǐ 杞 district; and Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè located Dài into the modern Fēngqiū 封丘 district. In Chūnqiū shǐ, the modern Mínquán 民權 district is suggested (is it identical with any place mentioned above???? Check!).

  • NPprDài 戴 (also written as 甾, 載, or 圪 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 383-387)
   cáo OC: dzuu MC: dzɑu 0 Attributions

Cáo 曹 (CHEN PAN 1969, 54-57) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯. Commonly used as a designation of the rulers of Cáo in the CQ and ZUO. Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by Shūzhèn 叔振, the son of King Wén of Zhōu 周文王. Destroyed: Destroyed by Sòng 宋 in 487 B.C. (recorded in CQ, Ai 8). Location: The capital of Cáo was Táoqiū 陶丘, located in the modern Dìngtáo 定陶 district, Shandong province. History: Cáo was a small petty state, in 708 (Huan 5) seen for the first time in CQ and ZUO.

  • nprname of a state
   bó OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 0 Attributions

Bó 柏 (CHEN PAN 1969, 585-586) Ruling clan: Unknown. Rank: Unknown. According to the Xìng kǎo Fēngsú tōng and Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, rulers of Bó were of zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: According to the Tōng zhì and Lù shǐ, the state was destroyed by Chǔ 楚. Location: Perhaps modern Wǔyáng 舞陽 district in the southeastern part of Henan province (Taiwanese Xīpíng 西平 district???; this is based on the Du's commentary). History: Mentioned for the first time in the ZUO under 655 B.C. (Xi 5).

  • NPprState of Bo
   jí OC: ɡɯɡ MC: gɨk 0 Attributions

Jí 極 (it was suggested that this Jí is Jù 遽 of the bronze inscriptions, but this identification remains uncertain) (CHEN PAN 1969, 357-359) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Dependent state. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 720 B.C. (Yin 2) by Lǔ 魯. Location: In the southern part of the modern Jīnxiāng 金鄉, Shandong province.

  • NPprJí 極 (it was suggested that this Jí is Jù 遽 of the bronze inscriptions, but this identification remains uncertain) (CHEN PAN 1969, 357-359)
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 0 Attributions

Fán 樊 (also called Yáng Fán 陽樊) (CHEN PAN 1969, 548-555) Clan: Unknown. Several opinions concerning the ruling clan of Fán were offered by traditional Chinese historiography. According to the inscription on the stone tablet dating from the Hàn dynasty, the rulers of Fán belonged to the royal Jī 姬 clan; this view is also supported by Tōng zhì and Xìng zuǎn. On the contrary, Hàn shū states that the rulers of Fán were of a different surname from that of the Zhōu royal house, and Qián fū lún attributes to them Fán 樊 surname (which is otherwise unknown from the Chinese Antiquity). In the other place of the latter text, the rulers of Fán are said to be of Jiāng 姜 surname. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the rulers of Fán were descendants of the Shāng dynasty. The most probable seems to be the opinion attributing to Fán the royal Jī surname. This is also supported by the record in the Jìn yǔ chapter of the Guó yǔ mentioning that the rulers of Fán were relatives of the Zhōu kings. It should be noted that in the inscription on the Fán jūn lì 樊君鬲, there is mentioned the women from the ruling house of Fán, which is called Shūnéng Mǐ 叔能羋; it suggest that there was also another state of the same name, the rulers of which were relatives of the ruling house of Chǔ 楚. Rank: According to the Máo shī Dà yá Zhēng mín zhuàn and to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, the rulers of Fán possessed the hóu 侯 rank. ZUO (Zhao 22) mentions Fán Qīngzǐ 樊慶子, but in this case it is not certain whether the title points to one of the Five ranks; it seems that this person had no relation with the ancient state which was destroyed earlier (see Destroyed). Founded: In the traditional Chinese historiography, there is a general consensus that the founder of Fán was called Zhòng Shānfǔ 仲山甫/父. However, there are different opinions concerning his origin. Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè states that he was the descendant of Yúzhòng 虞仲 (the son of the pre-conquest Zhōu king Tài wáng 周太王) and served as a minister (qīngshì 卿士) in the court of Zhōu King Xuān 周宣王 (827-782 B.C.), from which he received his fief. On the other hand, Quán dé Yú jí suggests that this person served in the Zhōu royal court, but that he actually was the son of Lord Xiàn of Lǔ 魯獻公. Hán shū agrees that Zhòng Shānfǔ was a royal minister, but denies that he would have any kin relationship to the Zhōu royal house (what seems less probable; see Clan). Destroyed: In 635 B.C. (Xi 25), Zhōu king gave Fán to Jìn 晉, which then annexed it. Fán Qīngzǐ 樊慶子 mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 520 B.C. (Zhao 22) had perhaps nothing to do with the former line of the Fán rulers; according to the Guǎng yùn and to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, at that time Fán was a fief of the descendants of the Zhōu king Jǐng 周景王 (544-520 B.C.). Location: According to the Du's commentary, Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jǐ, Fán was located in the modern Jǐyuán district 濟源, Henan province.

  • NPprFán 樊 (also called Yáng Fán 陽樊 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 548-555)
   quán OC: ɡron MC: giɛn 0 Attributions

Quán 權 (CHEN PAN 1969, 522-524) Clan: Uncertain. According to the Chén Péng's Chūngqiū guó dū jué xìng kǎo, the rulers of Quán belonged to the Yǎn 偃 clan; Táng zāixiàng biǎo suggests that they were of Zǐ 子 surname, and Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè attributes to them Mǐ 羋 surname. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. According to the Táng zǎixiàng biǎo, the rulers of Quán were descendants of the Shāng 商 king Wǔ Dīng 武丁. Destroyed: According to the ZUO, Zhuang 18 (676 B.C.), Quán was conquered by Chǔ 楚 during the reign of King Wǔ of Chǔ 楚武王 (740-690 B.C.). Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the state of Quán was located in the modern Dāngyáng 當陽 district in Hubei province. Shuǐ jīng zhù locates it into the modern Zhōngxiáng 鍾祥 in the same province, only 30 kilometers from Dāngyáng. It is possible that the latter location is the place to which Quán was shifted after its conquest by Chǔ.

  • NPprQuán 權 (CHEN PAN 1969, 522-524)
   máo OC: moow MC: mɑu 0 Attributions

Máo 毛 (CHEN PAN 1969, 644-646) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (common in the CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts and in some transmitted texts (such as Gù mìng chapter of the Shū jīng and the Mù tiānzǐ zhuàn), the rulers of Máo are referred to as gōng 公 (what was perhaps due to the fact that they hold high positions in the Zhōu royal court). Founded: According to the Shǐ jì (Zhōu běnjì) and to the Yì Zhōu shū (Kè Yīn chapter), the first ruler of Máo was Shūzhèng 叔鄭, the son of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. In the ZUO (Ding 4), the founder of Máo is called Shūdān 叔聃; according to the Shǐ jì zhì yí, it is a mistake, and this person was in fact a younger brother of the founder of Máo. Destroyed: In 516 B.C. (Zhao 26), the ruler of Máo fled from its state to Chǔ 楚. Location: The rulers of Máo were closely associated with the Zhōu royal court and their fief was probably within the royal domain. In the Western Zhōu period, it was perhaps located in the area of the western Zhōu capitals in Fúfēng 扶風, Shǎnxī province, where some bronzes cast by Máo rulers were found (including famous Máo gōng dǐng 毛公鼎). In the Eastern Zhōu period, Máo was probably shifted to the neighborhood of the eastern Zhōu capital Chéng Zhōu 成周 (modern Luòyáng 洛陽). Qīng scholar Gù Dònggāo has in his Chūnqiū dà shì biǎo suggested that Máo was located in the modern Yíyáng 宜陽, Henan province. History: Máo was a small, but not unimportant state, mainly because of its close relationship with the Zhōu royal house. Some traditional sources (for instance the Gù mìng chapter of the Shū jīng) and inscriptions on the bronze vessels (mainly famous Máo gōng dǐng) document that the rulers of Máo hold high positions in the Zhōu royal bureaucracy.

  • NPprMáo 毛 (CHEN PAN 1969, 644-646)Clan: Jī 姬.
   huá OC: ɡruud MC: ɦɣɛt 0 Attributions

Huá 滑 (also called Bì [Fèi?] Huá 費滑) (CHEN PAN 1969, 516-518) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Xiang 19). Rank: Bó 伯. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 627 B.C. (Xi 33) by Qín 秦. Thereafter, the area came under the control of Jìn 晉; in 574 B.C. (Cheng 17), it was occupied by Zhèng 鄭, and then it came to Zhōu 周. Location: In the modern Yǎnshī 偃師 district, central Henan (according to the Du's commentary to the ZUO).

  • NPprHuá 滑 (also called Bì [Fèi?] Huá 費滑 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 516-518)Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Xiang 19). Rank: Bó 伯.Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: In 627 B.C. (Xi 33) by Qín 秦. Thereafter, the area came under the control of Jìn 晉; in 574 B.C. (Cheng 17), it was occupied by Zhèng 鄭, and then it came to Zhōu 周. Location: In the modern Yǎnshī 偃師 district, central Henan (according to the Du's commentary to the ZUO).
   wēn OC: quun MC: ʔuo̝n 0 Attributions

Wēn 溫 (also called Sū 蘇) (CHEN PAN 1969, 587-593) Ruling clan: Jǐ 己. Inscription on the Sū gōng guǐ 蘇公簋 mentions Wáng Jǐ 王己, the daughter of the Duke of Sū (Wēn). Rank: Zǐ 子 (common title of the rulers of Wēn in the CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on bronze vessels, rulers of Sū (Wēn) sometimes referred to themselves as gōng 公; it could have been in association with their high position in the Zhōu royal court. Founded: According to the Lì zhèng chapter of the Zhōu shū, the duke of Sū 蘇公 (who held a high position of Sī kòu 司寇, the minister of justice, in the Zhōu royal court) received his fief from King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. However, the state perhaps existed for a long time before it (see History). Destroyed: In the early Chunqiu period, the state was not already in existence. In 712 B.C. (Yin 11), the king of Zhōu gave twelve fields of Sū Fèn Shēng 蘇忿生 (including the city of Wēn) to the state of Zhèng 鄭. Later, the area again came under the royal control and the Sū lineage was reestablished in Wēn. In 650 B.C. (Xi 10), the state was destroyed by Dí 狄 barbarians. In 635 B.C., the city of Wēn was given by the Zhōu king to the Marquis Wén of Jìn 晉文公. However, in 617 B.C. (Wén 10), the ruler of Sū is mentioned again as participating in the meeting of the states held in Nǚlì 女栗. Location: In the modern Wēn 溫 district, Henan province (according to the Du's commentary). History: According to the Shì běn and Guó yǔ (Zhèng yǔ), the state was established very early by the descendants of the mythical emperor Zhū Róng 祝融 (bearing Jǐ 己 surname) and later it was destroyed by Xià 夏. The Current Zhūshū jìnián states that in the 33rd year of reign of the Xià ruler Dì Fēn 帝芬, the descendant of Kūn Wú 昆吾 (bearing Jǐ 己 surname) was established as a ruler of Yǒu Sū 有蘇. Guó yǔ (Jìn yǔ) mentions that the last king of Shāng 商, Dì Xīn 帝辛 or Zhòu 紂, attacked Yǒu Sū, and the ruler of that state gave him his daughter Dá Jǐ 妲己 (which was in later texts blamed for being one of the main reasons of the destruction of Shāng) as a consort. In the beginning of the Western Zhōu period, King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王 established his high official Duke of Sū as a ruler in Sū (Wēn). The rulers of Sū sometimes (usually?) held high positions in the Zhōu royal court; according to the Shì běn (quoted by Guǎng yùn), Chéng, the Duke of Sū 蘇成公, served in the Zhōu royal court during the reign of King Píng 周平王 (770-720 B.C.). Duke of Sū is also mentioned in the inscription on the Sū gōng guǐ. However, in 712 B.C., the state already did not exist (see section Destroyed).

  • NPprWēn 溫 (also called Sū 蘇 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 587-593)Ruling clan: Jǐ 己. Inscription on the Sū gōng guǐ 蘇公簋 mentions Wáng Jǐ 王己, the daughter of the Duke of Sū (Wēn).Rank: Zǐ 子 (common title of the rulers of Wēn in the CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on bronze vessels, rulers of Sū (Wēn) sometimes referred to themselves as gōng 公; it could have been in association with their high position in the Zhōu royal court.Founded: According to the Lì zhèng chapter of the Zhōu shū, the duke of Sū 蘇公 (who held a high position of Sī kòu 司寇, the minister of justice, in the Zhōu royal court) received his fief from King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王. However, the state perhaps existed for a long time before it (see History).Destroyed: In the early Chunqiu period, the state was not already in existence. In 712 B.C. (Yin 11), the king of Zhōu gave twelve fields of Sū Fèn Shēng 蘇忿生 (including the city of Wēn) to the state of Zhèng 鄭. Later, the area again came under the royal control and the Sū lineage was reestablished in Wēn. In 650 B.C. (Xi 10), the state was destroyed by Dí 狄 barbarians. In 635 B.C., the city of Wēn was given by the Zhōu king to the Marquis Wén of Jìn 晉文公. However, in 617 B.C. (Wén 10), the ruler of Sū is mentioned again as participating in the meeting of the states held in Nǚlì 女栗. Location: In the modern Wēn 溫 district, Henan province (according to the Du's commentary).History: According to the Shì běn and Guó yǔ (Zhèng yǔ), the state was established very early by the descendants of the mythical emperor Zhū Róng 祝融 (bearing Jǐ 己 surname) and later it was destroyed by Xià 夏. The Current Zhūshū jìnián states that in the 33rd year of reign of the Xià ruler Dì Fēn 帝芬, the descendant of Kūn Wú 昆吾 (bearing Jǐ 己 surname) was established as a ruler of Yǒu Sū 有蘇. Guó yǔ (Jìn yǔ) mentions that the last king of Shāng 商, Dì Xīn 帝辛 or Zhòu 紂, attacked Yǒu Sū, and the ruler of that state gave him his daughter Dá Jǐ 妲己 (which was in later texts blamed for being one of the main reasons of the destruction of Shāng) as a consort. In the beginning of the Western Zhōu period, King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王 established his high official Duke of Sū as a ruler in Sū (Wēn). The rulers of Sū sometimes (usually?) held high positions in the Zhōu royal court; according to the Shì běn (quoted by Guǎng yùn), Chéng, the Duke of Sū 蘇成公, served in the Zhōu royal court during the reign of King Píng 周平王 (770-720 B.C.). Duke of Sū is also mentioned in the inscription on the Sū gōng guǐ. However, in 712 B.C., the state already did not exist (see section Destroyed).
   móu OC: mu MC: mɨu 0 Attributions

Móu 牟 (also written as 侔; probably identical with Gēn Móu 根牟) (CHEN PAN 1969, 492-496) Clan: Unknown. Rank: Uncertain. According to the Fēngsú tōng and Xìng yuàn, the rulers of Móu were of zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Uncertain. Gēn Móu was conquered by Lǔ in 600 B.C. (Xuan 9; recorded in the CQ). However, Hòu Hàn Rú lín states that Móu was destroyed by Lǔ in the end of the Chunqiu period. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì mentions that Móu was conquered by Chǔ 楚. Location: Several locations of Móu were suggested by traditional Chinese historiography. According to the Hàn zhì, Shuǐ jīng Wènshuǐ zhù, Du's commentary to the ZUO, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Móu was located in the modern Láiwú 萊蕪 district, Shandong province. Tōng diǎn locates it into the modern Pénglái 蓬萊 district in the same province, and Tōng zhì into the Móupíng 牟平 district of the same province. Other place names associated with Móu are found in the Yíshuǐ 沂水 district and Ānqiū 安丘 district. It is difficult to decide which of these opinions is correct (the state could shift several times); at least, it is certain that Móu was located somewhere in the neighborhood of Lǔ.

  • NPprMóu 牟 (also written as 侔; probably identical with Gēn Móu 根牟 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 492-496)Clan: Unknown. Rank: Uncertain. According to the Fēngsú tōng and Xìng yuàn, the rulers of Móu were of zǐ 子 rank.Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: Uncertain. Gēn Móu was conquered by Lǔ in 600 B.C. (Xuan 9; recorded in the CQ). However, Hòu Hàn Rú lín states that Móu was destroyed by Lǔ in the end of the Chunqiu period. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì mentions that Móu was conquered by Chǔ 楚. Location: Several locations of Móu were suggested by traditional Chinese historiography. According to the Hàn zhì, Shuǐ jīng Wènshuǐ zhù, Du's commentary to the ZUO, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Móu was located in the modern Láiwú 萊蕪 district, Shandong province. Tōng diǎn locates it into the modern Pénglái 蓬萊 district in the same province, and Tōng zhì into the Móupíng 牟平 district of the same province. Other place names associated with Móu are found in the Yíshuǐ 沂水 district and Ānqiū 安丘 district. It is difficult to decide which of these opinions is correct (the state could shift several times); at least, it is certain that Móu was located somewhere in the neighborhood of Lǔ.
   zhài OC: skreeds MC: ʈʂɣɛi 0 Attributions

Zhài 祭 (Sometimes written as Cài 蔡. Not to be confused with another, and more powerful, state of Cài) (CHEN PAN 1969, 294-301) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (common in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of Duke of Zhōu 周公 (according to the ZUO, Xi 24). Destroyed: Unknown. Location: According to the Dì míng kǎolyè, Zhài was located in the modern Zhèngzhōu 鄭州 area of central Henan.

  • NPprZhài 祭 (Sometimes written as Cài 蔡. Not to be confused with another, and more powerful, state of Cài) (CHEN PAN 1969, 294-301)Clan: Jī 姬.Rank: Bó 伯 (common in the CQ and ZUO).Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of Duke of Zhōu 周公 (according to the ZUO, Xi 24). Destroyed: Unknown. Location: According to the Dì míng kǎolyè, Zhài was located in the modern Zhèngzhōu 鄭州 area of central Henan.
   guǎn OC: koonʔ MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions

Guǎn 管 (also written as 關) (CHEN PAN 1969, 642-643) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Unknown. Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by Guǎnshū Xiǎn 管叔鮮, the son of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. Destroyed: Prior to the period recorded in the CQ. The area then belonged to the state of Huì 檜, and when it was conquered by Zhèng 鄭 (also prior to the period recorded in the CQ), it came under the control of the latter. Location: In the area of modern Zhèngzhōu 鄭州, central Henan. History: Guǎn played not an unimportant role in the early Western Zhōu history, as its first ruler Guǎnshū Xiǎn was one of the leaders of the revolt after the death of King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王, which was supressed by the Dukes of Zhōu 周公 and Shào 召公.

  • nprname of a state
   jì OC: kɯʔ MC: kɨ 0 Attributions

Jǐ 紀 (also written - mainly on the bronzes - as 己) (CHEN PAN 1969, 328-332) Clan: Jiāng 姜. Rank: Hóu 侯 (used in the CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, the rulers of Jǐ are sometimes referred to as bó 伯. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 690 B.C. (Zhuang 4) by Qí 齊. Location: In the modern Shòuguāng 壽光 district, Shandong province (according to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, Kuò dì zhì, Dì míng kǎolyè, etc.). Note that some bronzes found in that area and dating from the Late Shāng period were inscribed with Jǐ character. History: The state of Jǐ was rather small and weak. During the reign of the Zhōu King Yí 周夷王, the ruler of Jǐ slandered Duke Āi of Qí 齊哀公 to the King, who in turn had the Duke boiled alive. This incident (recorded in the Zhúshū jìnián) was later used by Qí as an excuse for its attacks on Jǐ. Jǐ allied against Qí with the states of Zhèng 鄭 and Lǔ 魯, and in 699 B.C. (Huan 13) this alliance managed to defeat the alliance led by Qí (and consisting of Sòng 宋, Wèi 衛, and Nán Yàn 南燕); however, Jǐ was eventually conquered by Qí in 690 B.C.

  • NPprJǐ 紀 (also written - mainly on the bronzes - as 己 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 328-332)Clan: Jiāng 姜.Rank: Hóu 侯 (used in the CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, the rulers of Jǐ are sometimes referred to as bó 伯.Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: In 690 B.C. (Zhuang 4) by Qí 齊. Location: In the modern Shòuguāng 壽光 district, Shandong province (according to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, Kuò dì zhì, Dì míng kǎolyè, etc.). Note that some bronzes found in that area and dating from the Late Shāng period were inscribed with Jǐ character. History: The state of Jǐ was rather small and weak. During the reign of the Zhōu King Yí 周夷王, the ruler of Jǐ slandered Duke Āi of Qí 齊哀公 to the King, who in turn had the Duke boiled alive. This incident (recorded in the Zhúshū jǐnián) was later used by Qí as an excuse for its attacks on Jǐ. Jǐ allied against Qí with the states of Zhèng 鄭 and Lǔ 魯, and in 699 B.C. (Huan 13) this alliance managed to defeat the alliance led by Qí (and consisting of Sòng 宋, Wèi 衛, and Nán Yàn 南燕 ); however, Jǐ was eventually conquered by Qí in 690 B.C.
   jiǎo OC: kreewʔ MC: kɣɛu 0 Attributions

Jiǎo 絞 (maybe identical with Jiāo 交 of the inscriptions on the bronzes; also written as Jiǎo 佼) (CHEN PAN 1969, 477-480) Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī and Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Jiǎo were of Yǎn 偃 surname. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: After its defeat by Chǔ 楚 in 700 B.C. (Huan 12), Jiǎo does not appear in the CQ and ZUO. In an unknown period, it was annexed by Chǔ. Location: According to the Dìlì kǎo shí and other sources, the state of Jiǎo was located in modern Yún 溳 district, northern Hubei province. A town of the same name (mentioned in the ZUO under Ai 2 - 493 B.C.) existed in modern Shandong and belonged to the state of Zhū 邾. Jiāo 交 of the bronze inscriptions, which are found on the artifacts cast in the eastern states, was perhaps this Shandong Jiǎo 絞.

  • NPprJiǎo 絞 (maybe identical with Jiāo 交 of the inscriptions on the bronzes; also written as Jiǎo 佼 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 477-480)Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī and Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Jiǎo were of Yǎn 偃 surname. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: After its defeat by Chǔ 楚 in 700 B.C. (Huan 12), Jiǎo does not appear in the CQ and ZUO. In an unknown period, it was annexed by Chǔ. Location: According to the Dìlì kǎo shí and other sources, the state of Jiǎo was located in modern Yún 溳 district, northern Hubei province. A town of the same name (mentioned in the ZUO under Ai 2 - 493 B.C.) existed in modern Shandong and belonged to the state of Zhū 邾. Jiāo 交 of the bronze inscriptions, which are found on the artifacts cast in the eastern states, was perhaps this Shandong Jiǎo 絞.
   luó OC: b-raal MC: lɑ 0 Attributions

Luó 羅 (CHEN PAN 1969, 487-490) Clan: Probably Xióng 熊 (according to the Shì běn, Du's commentary, and to the Tōng zhì). According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Luó belonged to the Yún 妘 clan. Rank: Unknown. According to the Shuǐ jīng zhù and Xìng xī, the rulers of Luó were of hóu 侯 rank. According to the Hàn zhì and Tōng diǎn, they had zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. According to the Shì běn, the rulers of Luó were of the Chǔ 楚 clan Xióng 熊. Destroyed: After 699 B.C. (Huan 13), Luó does not appear in the CQ and ZUO. In 635 B.C. (Xi 25), the area already belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, to the Shuǐ jīng Jiāng shuǐ zhù, and to the Tōng zhì Shìzú kǎolyè, Luó was located in the modern Yíchéng 宜城 district in the northern part of Hubei. According to the same sources, it later shifted to Zhījiāng 枝江. After its defeat by Chǔ, King Wén of Chǔ 楚文王 (689-677 B.C.) is said to shift it to the area of the modern Luó district in the neighborhood of Chángshā 長沙, Hunan province (what is stated in the Hàn zhì and Shuǐ jīng zhù). However, I found this statement late and rather problematic, because it is by no means certain that in that early period Chǔ had a control over this remote area. But probably by the end of the Warring states period, Luó was located in the area of Chángshā, as is mentioned in the Tōng zhì. History: Luó was a small and unimportant state, which is remarkable only for its victory over the invading Chǔ army in 699 B.C. (Huan 13).

  • NPprLuó 羅 (CHEN PAN 1969, 487-490)Clan: Probably Xióng 熊 (according to the Shì běn, Du's commentary, and to the Tōng zhì). According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Luó belonged to the Yún 妘 clan. Rank: Unknown. According to the Shuǐ jīng zhù and Xìng xī, the rulers of Luó were of hóu 侯 rank. According to the Hàn zhì and Tōng diǎn, they had zǐ 子 rank.Founded: Unknown. According to the Shì běn, the rulers of Luó were of the Chǔ 楚 clan Xióng 熊. Destroyed: After 699 B.C. (Huan 13), Luó does not appear in the CQ and ZUO. In 635 B.C. (Xi 25), the area already belonged to Chǔ 楚.Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, to the Shuǐ jīng Jiāng shuǐ zhù, and to the Tōng zhì Shìzú kǎolyè, Luó was located in the modern Yíchéng 宜城 district in the northern part of Hubei. According to the same sources, it later shifted to Zhījiāng 枝江. After its defeat by Chǔ, King Wén of Chǔ 楚文王 (689-677 B.C.) is said to shift it to the area of the modern Luó district in the neighborhood of Chángshā 長沙, Hunan province (what is stated in the Hàn zhì and Shuǐ jīng zhù). However, I found this statement late and rather problematic, because it is by no means certain that in that early period Chǔ had a control over this remote area. But probably by the end of the Warring states period, Luó was located in the area of Chángshā, as is mentioned in the Tōng zhì. History: Luó was a small and unimportant state, which is remarkable only for its victory over the invading Chǔ army in 699 B.C. (Huan 13).
   gěng OC: kreeŋʔ MC: kɣɛŋ 0 Attributions

Gěng 耿 (CHEN PAN 1969, 560-562) Ruling clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Jìn shìjiā jí jiě and to the Du's commentary), or Yíng 嬴 (according to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Dūchéng jì, and Jùn guó zhì). Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: 661 B.C. by Jìn 晉 (ZUO Min 1). Location: In the south-eastern part of the modern Héjīn 河津 district, Shānxī province. History: A small state destroyed by Jìn. Thereafter, the area became a fief of the Zhào 趙 lineage.

  • NPprGěng 耿 (CHEN PAN 1969, 560-562)Ruling clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Jìn shìjiā jí jiě and to the Du's commentary), or Yíng 嬴 (according to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Dūchéng jì, and Jùn guó zhì).Rank: Unknown.Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: 661 B.C. by Jìn 晉 (ZUO Min 1).Location: In the south-eastern part of the modern Héjīn 河津 district, Shānxī province.History: A small state destroyed by Jìn. Thereafter, the area became a fief of the Zhào 趙 lineage.
   dān OC: nʰaam MC: thɑm 0 Attributions

Dān 聃 (also written as Rǎn 冉, Nán 南, Dān 耽) (CHEN PAN 1969, 647-650) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the Xìng jiě, the first ruler of Dān was Jì Zài 季載, the son of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. Destroyed: Unknown. According to the traditional Chinese historiography, Dān was conquered either by Chǔ 楚 or Zhèng 鄭 (the latter opinion seems to be more probable; see Location). Location: Unknown. According to some opinions, the former capital of Dān was Nàchù 那處, which is mentioned in the ZUO (Zhuang 18; 676 B.C.) as belonging to Chǔ; if so, the former state of Dān must have been located somewhere in the neighborhood of Chǔ. In the ZUO, Xi 2 (658 B.C.), there is mentioned Zhèng 鄭 aristocrat Dān bó 聃伯, what would point to the fact that Dān was conquered by Zhèng and that it was located somewhere in the area of the latter state; Dì lǐ kǎo shí locates it into the area of modern Kāifēng 開封. This opinion seems more probable than the location of Dān to the neighborhood of Chǔ. Guǎng yùn mentions that the first fief of Dān was in the area of the western Zhōu royal capital, close to the modern Xī'ān 西安. This opinion sounds quite reasonable.

  • NPprDān 聃 (also written as Rǎn 冉, Nán 南, Dān 耽 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 647-650)Clan: Jī 姬.Rank: Unknown.Founded: According to the Xìng jiě, the first ruler of Dān was Jì Zài 季載, the son of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. Destroyed: Unknown. According to the traditional Chinese historiography, Dān was conquered either by Chǔ 楚 or Zhèng 鄭 (the latter opinion seems to be more probable; see Location). Location: Unknown. According to some opinions, the former capital of Dān was Nàchù 那處, which is mentioned in the ZUO (Zhuang 18; 676 B.C.) as belonging to Chǔ; if so, the former state of Dān must have been located somewhere in the neighborhood of Chǔ. In the ZUO, Xi 2 (658 B.C.), there is mentioned Zhèng 鄭 aristocrat Dān bó 聃伯, what would point to the fact that Dān was conquered by Zhèng and that it was located somewhere in the area of the latter state; Dì lǐ kǎo shí locates it into the area of modern Kāifēng 開封. This opinion seems more probable than the location of Dān to the neighborhood of Chǔ. Guǎng yùn mentions that the first fief of Dān was in the area of the western Zhōu royal capital, close to the modern Xī'ān 西安. This opinion sounds quite reasonable.
   shū OC: lʰa MC: ɕi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

Shū 舒 (also written as Xú 徐, Chá 茶, or Yú 余) (CHEN PAN 1969, 578-581) Ruling clan: According to the Du's and Zheng Xuan's commentaries (the latter quoting Shì běn) to the ZUO (Wen 12), the rulers of Shū belonged to the Yǎn 偃 clan. Shì běn Xìng shì states that they had the surname of Rèn 任. In Shì běn (and also in Lù shǐ) are thus mentioned two states of Shū: one ruled by the Yǎn lineage and another one with the rulers belonging to the Rèn clan. Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the ZUO, Wen 12). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 657 B.C. (Xi 3), the state was conquered by Xú 徐. Later, it again appears in the ZUO (Wen 12; 615 B.C.). After that date it was perhaps conquered by Chǔ 楚. Location: Perhaps in the modern Shūchéng 舒城 district in Anhui province.

  • NPprState of Shu1
   ruì OC: njobs MC: ȵiɛi 0 Attributions

Ruī 芮 (also written as 汭; in the bronze inscriptions, it appears as Nèi 內) (CHEN PAN 1969, 399-407) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Shì běn; in the inscription on the Ly wáng hú is mentioned the woman called Nèi Jī內姬). Rank: Bó 伯 (usual in the ZUO). Founded: The state was obviously established quite early in the Western Zhōu period, as in the Gùmìng chapter of the Shū jīng the Earl of Rùi 芮伯 is listed among the persons which attended the Zhōu King Chéng 周成王 in his deathbed. Destroyed: In 640 B.C. (Xi 20) by Qín 秦 (according to the Shǐ jì, Shíèr zhūhóu niánbiǎo and Qín běnjì chapters). Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Ruī was located in the modern Dàlì 大荔 district, Shǎnxī province. Dì míng kǎolyè locates it into the modern Cháoyì 朝邑 district, neighboring with Dàlì district.

  • NPprRuī 芮 (also written as 汭; in the bronze inscriptions, it appears as Nèi 內 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 399-407)Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Shì běn; in the inscription on the Ly wáng hú is mentioned the woman called Nèi Jī 內姬 ).Rank: Bó 伯 (usual in the ZUO).Founded: The state was obviously established quite early in the Western Zhōu period, as in the Gùmìng chapter of the Shū jīng the Earl of Rùi 芮伯 is listed among the persons which attended the Zhōu King Chéng 周成王 in his deathbed. Destroyed: In 640 B.C. (Xi 20) by Qín 秦 (according to the Shǐ jì, Shíèr zhūhóu niánbiǎo and Qín běnjì chapters).Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Ruī was located in the modern Dàlì 大荔 district, Shǎnxī province. Dì míng kǎolyè locates it into the modern Cháoyì 朝邑 district, neighboring with Dàlì district.
   xún OC: sqʷlin MC: sʷin 0 Attributions

Xún 荀 (also written as 郇; on the bronzes as 旬) (CHEN PAN 1969, 454-456) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Huan 9). Rank: Hóu 侯 (mentioned in the ZUO, Huan 9; in the Máo shī zhuàn; and also in the inscriptions on the bronzes). In Máo shī (Cáo fēng, Xià quán), in the Current Zhū shū jǐnián, and also in some of the inscriptions on the bronzes, the ruler of Xún is also referred to as bó 伯. Founded: The state was obviously already in existence by the Early Western Zhōu period, as in the Wáng huì chapter of the Yì Zhōu shū, Xúnshū 荀叔 is mentioned together with the Duke of Zhōu 周公, Tài gōng 太公, and Kāngshū 康叔. According to the ZUO (Xi 24) and to the Máo shī jiān, the first ruler of Xún (probably identical with the above mentioned Xúnshū) was the son of Zhōu king Wén 周文王. Destroyed: The state is mentioned in the ZUO for 703 B.C. (Huan 9), and then for 636 B.C. (Xi 24). Later, it was destroyed by Jìn 晉. Location: In the area of modern Línyī 臨猗, Shānxī province (according to the Chūnqīu dì míng kǎolyè). History: After the conquest of Xún, the state of Jìn 晉 gave the area as a fief to the Jìn aristocrat Yuánshì Àn 原氏黯, thereafter known as Xúnshū 荀叔. He founded the Xún 荀 lineage (also known as the Zhōngháng 中行 lineage), which was one of the most powerful lineages in Jìn till its final anihilation in the civil war between 497-490 B.C.

  • NPprXún 荀 (also written as 郇; on the bronzes as 旬 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 454-456)Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the ZUO, Huan 9).Rank: Hóu 侯 (mentioned in the ZUO, Huan 9; in the Máo shī zhuàn; and also in the inscriptions on the bronzes). In Máo shī (Cáo fēng, Xià quán), in the Current Zhū shū jǐnián, and also in some of the inscriptions on the bronzes, the ruler of Xún is also referred to as bó 伯.Founded: The state was obviously already in existence by the Early Western Zhōu period, as in the Wáng huì chapter of the Yì Zhōu shū, Xúnshū 荀叔 is mentioned together with the Duke of Zhōu 周公, Tài gōng 太公, and Kāngshū 康叔. According to the ZUO (Xi 24) and to the Máo shī jiān, the first ruler of Xún (probably identical with the above mentioned Xúnshū) was the son of Zhōu king Wén 周文王. Destroyed: The state is mentioned in the ZUO for 703 B.C. (Huan 9), and then for 636 B.C. (Xi 24). Later, it was destroyed by Jìn 晉. Location: In the area of modern Línyī 臨猗, Shānxī province (according to the Chūnqīu dì míng kǎolyè). History: After the conquest of Xún, the state of Jìn 晉 gave the area as a fief to the Jìn aristocrat Yuánshì Àn 原氏黯, thereafter known as Xúnshū 荀叔. He founded the Xún 荀 lineage (also known as the Zhōngháng 中行 lineage), which was one of the most powerful lineages in Jìn till its final anihilation in the civil war between 497-490 B.C.
   lái OC: rɯɯ MC: ləi 0 Attributions

Lái 萊 (also written as 來, 斄, 郲, 斄, Lí 釐; also called Lái Yí 萊夷, Yí Lái 夷萊, or Lái Yú 萊魚) (CHEN PAN 1969, 775-786) Clan: Uncertain. On the basis of the ZUO's record for 571 B.C. (Xiang 2), it is supposed that the rulers of Lái were of Jiāng 姜 surname. However, the record is rather problematic. It states that when the consort of the lord of Lǔ 魯 who was of Qí 齊 origin and had thus Jiāng surname (in the text, she is called Qí Jiāng 齊姜) died, the lord of Qí called other women of Jiāng surname and those married to the aristocrats of Jiāng surname (諸姜宗婦) to attend the burial. He also called the viscount of Lái, but that did not come. It is not clear whether the ruler of Lái really had Jiāng surname or was just married to the women of that surname. It is even by no means certain that calling of the participants in the burial on the one hand, and that of the viscount of Lái on the other, were related. According to the Shì běn, to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), and to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Lái were affiliated to the Shāng 商 kings and had Zǐ 子 surname. With regard to the fact that Lái is mentioned as a place name already in the oracle bone inscriptions, and that in the early Western Zhōu period it was obviously the non-Zhōu state acting as an enemy of Qí, this opinion seems to me to be more probable. Rank: Zǐ 子 (appears in the ZUO, Xiang 2). In the area of Shandong, there were in the Antiquity place-names containing component Lái wáng 來王 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì); it is possible that the rulers of Lái also referred to themselves as wáng, as was the case of some non-Zhōu states. In the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), the ruler of Lái is referred to as hóu 侯. In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, rulers of Lái are sometimes referred to as bó 伯. Founded: According to the Shì běn, to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), and to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Lái were relatives of the Shāng dynasty. Lái was obviously a non-Zhōu state probably closely associated with the Shāng. Destroyed: In 567 B.C. (Xiang 6) by Qí 齊. Location: In modern Shandong, to the East of Qí, but the precise location of the state is uncertain. According to the Kùo dì zhì and to the Du's commentary, the centre of Lái was located in the modern Huáng 黃 district in the northeastern part of Shandong. History: Lái was an ancient state which preserved its independence on the Zhōu realm late into the Chunqiu period. Its inhabitants belonged to the Dōng Yí 東夷 and were obviously in some way associated with the Shāng. According to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), when the state of Qí was established in the beginning of the Western Zhōu period, its capital was attacked by the Marquis of Lái 來侯. Eventually, Lái was conquered by Qí in 567 B.C. Which was the relationship of this Lái and Lái 來 mentioned as a place-name in the oracle bone inscriptions is not clear. Note that the place-name Lái 來 (or Shí Lái 時來) later existed also in the state of Zhèng 鄭 (CQ, Yin 11).

  • NPprLái 萊 (also written as 來, 斄, 郲, 斄, Lí 釐; also called Lái Yí 萊夷, Yí Lái 夷萊, or Lái Yú 萊魚 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 775-786)Clan: Uncertain. On the basis of the ZUO's record for 571 B.C. (Xiang 2), it is supposed that the rulers of Lái were of Jiāng 姜 surname. However, the record is rather problematic. It states that when the consort of the lord of Lǔ 魯 who was of Qí 齊 origin and had thus Jiāng surname (in the text, she is called Qí Jiāng 齊姜 ) died, the lord of Qí called other women of Jiāng surname and those married to the aristocrats of Jiāng surname ( 諸姜宗婦 ) to attend the burial. He also called the viscount of Lái, but that did not come. It is not clear whether the ruler of Lái really had Jiāng surname or was just married to the women of that surname. It is even by no means certain that calling of the participants in the burial on the one hand, and that of the viscount of Lái on the other, were related. According to the Shì běn, to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), and to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Lái were affiliated to the Shāng 商 kings and had Zǐ 子 surname. With regard to the fact that Lái is mentioned as a place name already in the oracle bone inscriptions, and that in the early Western Zhōu period it was obviously the non-Zhōu state acting as an enemy of Qí, this opinion seems to me to be more probable. Rank: Zǐ 子 (appears in the ZUO, Xiang 2). In the area of Shandong, there were in the Antiquity place-names containing component Lái wáng 來王 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì); it is possible that the rulers of Lái also referred to themselves as wáng, as was the case of some non-Zhōu states. In the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), the ruler of Lái is referred to as hóu 侯. In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, rulers of Lái are sometimes referred to as bó 伯. Founded: According to the Shì běn, to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), and to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the rulers of Lái were relatives of the Shāng dynasty. Lái was obviously a non-Zhōu state probably closely associated with the Shāng. Destroyed: In 567 B.C. (Xiang 6) by Qí 齊.Location: In modern Shandong, to the East of Qí, but the precise location of the state is uncertain. According to the Kùo dì zhì and to the Du's commentary, the centre of Lái was located in the modern Huáng 黃 district in the northeastern part of Shandong.History: Lái was an ancient state which preserved its independence on the Zhōu realm late into the Chunqiu period. Its inhabitants belonged to the Dōng Yí 東夷 and were obviously in some way associated with the Shāng. According to the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā), when the state of Qí was established in the beginning of the Western Zhōu period, its capital was attacked by the Marquis of Lái 來侯. Eventually, Lái was conquered by Qí in 567 B.C. Which was the relationship of this Lái and Lái 來 mentioned as a place-name in the oracle bone inscriptions is not clear. Note that the place-name Lái 來 (or Shí Lái 時來 ) later existed also in the state of Zhèng 鄭 (CQ, Yin 11).
   liǎo OC: ɡ-rɯɯwʔ MC: leu 0 Attributions

Liǎo 蓼 (also written as Liáo 飂/飉) (CHEN PAN 1969, 484-486) Clan: Unknown. According to the tradition recorded in the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Lù shǐ Hòu jì, and in the Qián fū lún, the rulers of Liǎo were descendents of the mythical Zhù Róng 祝融, and had Jǐ 己 surname. However, this is maybe legendary tradition, as Lùshǐ Hòu jì states that this Liǎo was destroyed by the Xià 夏 dynasty. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Mentioned in the ZUO in the record for 701 B.C. Later (in an unknown period), it was conquered by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Tánghé 唐河 district, Henan province.

  • NPprLiǎo 蓼 (also written as Liáo 飂 / 飉 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 484-486)Clan: Unknown. According to the tradition recorded in the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Lù shǐ Hòu jì, and in the Qián fū lún, the rulers of Liǎo were descendents of the mythical Zhù Róng 祝融, and had Jǐ 己 surname. However, this is maybe legendary tradition, as Lùshǐ Hòu jì states that this Liǎo was destroyed by the Xià 夏 dynasty. Rank: Unknown.Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Mentioned in the ZUO in the record for 701 B.C. Later (in an unknown period), it was conquered by Chǔ 楚.Location: In the modern Tánghé 唐河 district, Henan province.
   xiāo OC: sɯɯw MC: seu 0 Attributions

Xiāo 蕭 (CHEN PAN 1969, 508-511) Clan: Zǐ 子 (according to the Yīn shìjiā chapter of the Shǐ jì, to the Hàn zhì, and to the Shì běn). Rank: Dependent state of Sòng 宋. Founded: The founder of the state was the Sòng noble Xiāoshū Dàxīn 蕭叔大心, who received his fief from the ruler of Sòng. According to some later sources (Xīn Táng shū and Guǎng yùn), Xiāoshū Dàxīn 蕭叔大心 was identical with Lè Dàxīn 樂大心 (the descendent of the Duke Dài of Sòng 宋戴公; 799-766 B.C.), and received his fief as a reward for his suppression of Nángōng Wàn 南宮萬 rebellion in 582 B.C. However, there are problems with this statement, because Lè Dàxīn appears in the ZUO in the entries for 535 B.C. (Zhao 7) and 501 B.C. (Ding 9). On the other hand, it cannot be excluded that there were two (or more) persons of this name. Destroyed: In 597 B.C. (Xuan 12) by Chǔ 楚. Later, the area became the part of Sòng. Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Xiāo was located in the modern Xiāo 蕭 district, Anhui province.

  • NPprXiāo 蕭 (CHEN PAN 1969, 508-511)Clan: Zǐ 子 (according to the Yīn shìjiā chapter of the Shǐ jì, to the Hàn zhì, and to the Shì běn).Rank: Dependent state of Sòng 宋. Founded: The founder of the state was the Sòng noble Xiāoshū Dàxīn 蕭叔大心, who received his fief from the ruler of Sòng. According to some later sources (Xīn Táng shū and Guǎng yùn), Xiāoshū Dàxīn 蕭叔大心 was identical with Lè Dàxīn 樂大心 (the descendent of the Duke Dài of Sòng 宋戴公; 799-766 B.C.), and received his fief as a reward for his suppression of Nángōng Wàn 南宮萬 rebellion in 582 B.C. However, there are problems with this statement, because Lè Dàxīn appears in the ZUO in the entries for 535 B.C. (Zhao 7) and 501 B.C. (Ding 9). On the other hand, it cannot be excluded that there were two (or more) persons of this name. Destroyed: In 597 B.C. (Xuan 12) by Chǔ 楚. Later, the area became the part of Sòng.Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Xiāo was located in the modern Xiāo 蕭 district, Anhui province.
   xǔ OC: hŋaʔ MC: hi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

Xǔ 許 (in the bronze inscriptions written as 鄦) (CHEN PAN 1969, 285-290) Clan: Jiāng 姜. Rank: Nán 男 (common in the CQ). In the bronze inscriptions, the rulers of Xǔ are referred to as zǐ 子. Founded: According to the tradition (mentioned in the Zhèng yǔ section of the Guó yǔ and in the ZUO under Yin 11), the founder of Xǔ was Bóyí 伯夷, the descendant of the mythical Tài Yuè 太岳 (or Sì Yùe 四岳). Destroyed: Xǔ was still in existence by the end of the period recorded in CQ, and was destroyed during Zhanguo period probably by Chǔ 楚 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). However, HFZ mentions that Xǔ was conquered by Wèi 魏. Location: According to the ZUO, the capital of Xǔ shifted several times during the Chunqiu period. The first capital called Xǔ 許 was (according to the Dìmíng kǎolyè) located in the modern Xǔchāng 許昌, Henan province. In 576 B.C. (Cheng 15), during the reign of the duke Líng of Xǔ 許靈公, it shifted to Yè 葉 (modern Yè 葉 district, Henan province), then (during the reign of Duke Dào 許悼公), in 533 B.C. (Zhao 9) to Yí 夷, in 524 (Zhao 18) to Báiyǔ 白羽 in the area of the Xiāng 鄉 district in Nányáng 南陽, and in 506 B.C. (Ding 4) to Róngchéng 容城 (location highly uncertain). History: Xǔ was a small state, which is mentioned for the first time in the CQ and ZUO in the record for 712 B.C. (Yin 11). Since the beginning, it was exposed to the attacks of its more powerful neighbors, and in the same year, it was even conquered by Zhèng 鄭. However, the state was re-established later, and it is mentioned again in CQ for 702 B.C. In 531 B.C., Xǔ was annexed by Chǔ, but was again re-established two years later.

  • NPprXǔ 許 (in the bronze inscriptions written as 鄦 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 285-290)Clan: Jiāng 姜.Rank: Nán 男 (common in the CQ). In the bronze inscriptions, the rulers of Xǔ are referred to as zǐ 子.Founded: According to the tradition (mentioned in the Zhèng yǔ section of the Guó yǔ and in the ZUO under Yin 11), the founder of Xǔ was Bóyí 伯夷, the descendant of the mythical Tài Yuè 太岳 (or Sì Yùe 四岳 ). Destroyed: Xǔ was still in existence by the end of the period recorded in CQ, and was destroyed during Zhanguo period probably by Chǔ 楚 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). However, HFZ mentions that Xǔ was conquered by Wèi 魏. Location: According to the ZUO, the capital of Xǔ shifted several times during the Chunqiu period. The first capital called Xǔ 許 was (according to the Dìmíng kǎolyè) located in the modern Xǔchāng 許昌, Henan province. In 576 B.C. (Cheng 15), during the reign of the duke Líng of Xǔ 許靈公, it shifted to Yè 葉 (modern Yè 葉 district, Henan province), then (during the reign of Duke Dào 許悼公 ), in 533 B.C. (Zhao 9) to Yí 夷, in 524 (Zhao 18) to Báiyǔ 白羽 in the area of the Xiāng 鄉 district in Nányáng 南陽, and in 506 B.C. (Ding 4) to Róngchéng 容城 (location highly uncertain).History: Xǔ was a small state, which is mentioned for the first time in the CQ and ZUO in the record for 712 B.C. (Yin 11). Since the beginning, it was exposed to the attacks of its more powerful neighbors, and in the same year, it was even conquered by Zhèng 鄭. However, the state was re-established later, and it is mentioned again in CQ for 702 B.C. In 531 B.C., Xǔ was annexed by Chǔ, but was again re-established two years later.
   tán OC: ɡ-luum MC: dəm 0 Attributions

Tán 譚 (also written as 覃 or 郯) (CHEN PAN 1969, 505-507) Clan: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì and Hòu jì, the rulers of Tán belonged to the Yíng 嬴 clan; on the contrary, Gu's Chūnqiū dà shì biǎo states that they were of Zǐ 子 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (appears in the both CQ and ZUO in the entry for Zhuang 10). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 684 B.C. (Zhuang 10) by Qí 齊. Location: According to the Du's commentary, Tán was located in the area of modern Jìnán 濟南, Shandong province.

  • NPprTán 譚 (also written as 覃 or 郯 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 505-507)Clan: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì and Hòu jì, the rulers of Tán belonged to the Yíng 嬴 clan; on the contrary, Gu's Chūnqiū dà shì biǎo states that they were of Zǐ 子 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (appears in the both CQ and ZUO in the entry for Zhuang 10).Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: In 684 B.C. (Zhuang 10) by Qí 齊.Location: According to the Du's commentary, Tán was located in the area of modern Jìnán 濟南, Shandong province.
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 0 Attributions

Èr 貳 (CHEN PAN 1969, 465-466) Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Èr were of Jī 姬 surname. On the contrary, Lù shǐ Hòu jì suggests that they belonged to the Yǎn 偃 clan. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Unknown. The state is mentioned in the ZUO for the year 701 B.C. (Huan 11). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Guǎngshuǐ 廣水, Hubei province.

  • NPprÈr 貳 (CHEN PAN 1969, 465-466)Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Èr were of Jī 姬 surname. On the contrary, Lù shǐ Hòu jǐ suggests that they belonged to the Yǎn 偃 clan. Rank: Unknown.Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Unknown. The state is mentioned in the ZUO for the year 701 B.C. (Huan 11). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚.Location: In the modern Guǎngshuǐ 廣水, Hubei province.
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions

Jiǎ 賈 (CHEN PAN 1969, 457-458) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Zuǒzhuàn zhēngyì quoting Shì běn, and to the Du's commentary to the ZUO). Rank: Bó 伯 (according to the ZUO, Huan 9). Founded: Uncertain. According to the Xìng yuàn, Tōng zhì shì zú kǎo lyè, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the first ruler of Jiǎ was Gōng Míng 公明, the son of Tángshū Yú 唐叔虞 (the founder of the state of Jìn 晉), who received his fief from the Zhōu king Kāng 周康王. Destroyed: The state is mentioned for 703 B.C. (Huan 9) in the ZUO. Thereafter, in an unknown period, it was conquered by Jìn 晉. Location: In the modern Xiāngfén 襄汾 district, southwestern Shānxī (according to the Xù Hàn Jùn guó zhì). History: A small and unimportant state mentioned only one time in the ZUO.

  • NPprJiǎ 賈 (CHEN PAN 1969, 457-458)Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Zuǒzhuàn zhēngyì quoting Shì běn, and to the Du's commentary to the ZUO). Rank: Bó 伯 (according to the ZUO, Huan 9). Founded: Uncertain. According to the Xìng yuàn, Tōng zhì shì zú kǎo lyè, and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the first ruler of Jiǎ was Gōng Míng 公明, the son of Tángshū Yú 唐叔虞 (the founder of the state of Jìn 晉 ), who received his fief from the Zhōu king Kāng 周康王. Destroyed: The state is mentioned for 703 B.C. (Huan 9) in the ZUO. Thereafter, in an unknown period, it was conquered by Jìn 晉. Location: In the modern Xiāngfén 襄汾 district, southwestern Shānxī (according to the Xù Hàn Jùn guó zhì). History: A small and unimportant state mentioned only one time in the ZUO.
   lài OC: b-raads MC: lɑi 0 Attributions

Lài 賴 (probably identical with Lì 厲; see Lì 厲) (CHEN PAN 1969, 491)

  • NPprLài 賴 (probably identical with Lì 厲; see Lì 厲) (CHEN PAN 1969, 491)
   zhěn OC: kljɯnʔ MC: tɕin 0 Attributions

Zhěn 軫 (CHEN PAN 1969, 467-468) Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Zhěn were of Yǎn 偃 surname. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 701 B.C. (Huan 11). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Dì míng kǎolyè, the state of Zhěn was located in the modern Yīngchéng 應城 district, Hubei province.

  • NPprZhěn 軫 (CHEN PAN 1969, 467-468)Clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng xī, the rulers of Zhěn were of Yǎn 偃 surname.Rank: Unknown.Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 701 B.C. (Huan 11). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚.Location: According to the Dì míng kǎolyè, the state of Zhěn was located in the modern Yīngchéng 應城 district, Hubei province.
   dào OC: ɡ-luuʔ MC: dɑu 0 Attributions

Dào 道 (CHEN PAN 1969, 584) Ruling clan: Unknown. According to the Xìng kǎo quoted in Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, the rulers of Dào belonged to the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: The state was shifted to Chǔ 楚 by King Líng of Chǔ 楚靈王(540-529 B.C.); later, it was reestablished by King Píng of Chǔ 楚平王 (ZUO, Zhao 13, 528 B.C.). Location: Uncertain. Either modern Queshān 確山 district in Henan province (according to the Huán yǔ jì), or Xī 息 district in the same province. History: Mentioned for the first time in the ZUO in the entry for 655 B.C. (Xi 5).

  • NPprState of Da4o
   suì OC: sqluds MC: si 0 Attributions

Suì 遂 (also written as 隧) (CHEN PAN 1969, 512-515) Clan: According to the ZUO (Zhao 3, 8), rulers of Suì were supposed to be descendents of the mythical Emperor Shùn 舜, and should thus have been of Guī 媯 surname. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, there were two states of Suì: one with the surname Guī and another belonging to the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the ZUO (Zhao 3, 8) the rulers of Suì were descendents of Shùn, and they were given their surname by the Zhōu kings. Du's commentary states that the fief in Suì was given to the descendants of Shùn by the Shāng 商 kings. Destroyed: According to the CQ, Suì was conquered by Qí 齊 in 681 B.C. (Zhuang 13). The different story is given in the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā and Cìkè zhuàn), which says that in that year, Lǔ gave the city of Suì to Qí. With regard to the latter statement, some traditional Chinese scholars suggested that the state of Suì was already prior to 681 B.C. conquered by Lǔ 魯. Location: According to the Hàn zhì, Suì was located in the modern Níngyáng 寧陽 district, Shandong province.

  • NPprSuì 遂 (also written as 隧 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 512-515)Clan: According to the ZUO (Zhao 3, 8), rulers of Suì were supposed to be descendents of the mythical Emperor Shùn 舜, and should thus have been of Guī 媯 surname. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, there were two states of Suì: one with the surname Guī and another belonging to the Jī 姬 clan. Rank: Unknown.Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the ZUO (Zhao 3, 8) the rulers of Suì were descendents of Shùn, and they were given their surname by the Zhōu kings. Du's commentary states that the fief in Suì was given to the descendants of Shùn by the Shāng 商 kings. Destroyed: According to the CQ, Suì was conquered by Qí 齊 in 681 B.C. (Zhuang 13). The different story is given in the Shǐ jì (Qí shìjiā and Cìkè zhuàn), which says that in that year, Lǔ gave the city of Suì to Qí. With regard to the latter statement, some traditional Chinese scholars suggested that the state of Suì was already prior to 681 B.C. conquered by Lǔ 魯.Location: According to the Hàn zhì, Suì was located in the modern Níngyáng 寧陽 district, Shandong province.
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 0 Attributions

Xíng 邢 (maybe identical with Jǐng 井 in the inscriptions on the bronzes) (CHEN PAN 1969, 360-368) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Hóu 侯 (in the CQ and the ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronzes, rulers of Jǐng 井 refer to themselves as gōng 公 or bó 伯. Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by the fourth son of the Duke of Zhōu 周公 (according to the Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè; Chūnqiū dì míng kǎolyè quotes Shǐ jì, which says that the name of the son of the Duke of Zhōu enfeoffed by the Zhōu king Chéng 周成王 as a ruler of Xíng was Jìngyuān 靖淵. The sentence is missing in the current text of the Shǐ jì). Destroyed: In 635 B.C. (Xi 25) by Wèi 衛. Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the capital of Xíng was located in the modern Xíngtái 邢臺 district, southern part of Hebei province. However, other sources suggested other locations, mainly the modern Wēn 溫 district in the Henan province, where the first capital of Xíng, called Xíngqiū 邢丘 should have been located (Shuō wén jiě zì; Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì, Xù Hàn shū Jùn guó zhì). This fits quite well with the record that in 718 B.C. (Yin 5), Xíng together with Zhèng supported the Earl of Qūwò 曲沃 in his attack on Yì 翼, the capital of Jìn 晉 located in the southwestern part of Shānxī province. However, in 661 B.C. (Min 1), when Xíng was attacked by the Dí 狄 barbarians, and was given a support from Qí 齊 and Cáo 曹, the state must have been located already in their close neighborhood, apparently in the modern Xíngtái 邢臺. Then the capital of Xíng shifted to the East of the Yellow River, to the Yíyí 夷儀, probably located in the modern Liáochéng 聊城 district in the western part of the Shandong province (according to Gāo Shìqí). History: Note that the state(s) and place(s) called Jǐng 井 and/or Xíng 邢 existed already in the Late Shāng period. Jǐng fāng 井方 is mentioned in the oracle bone inscriptions; Shǐ jì (Yīn běnjì) records that Xíng 邢 was one of the Shāng capitals (under king Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙), and Dìwáng shìjì mentions that the Marquis of Xíng 邢侯 was one of the three high officials in the court of the last Shāng king (however, one should not give much confidence to the last source). Which was the connection between those and the later Zhōu state of Xíng is difficult to decide. In this context it is interesting, that in the site of Xíngtái 邢臺, Hebei province, the continuous settlement dating from the Late Shāng to the Chunqiu period was attested. Note also the inscription on the bronze vessel belonging to the Marquis of Xíng, which can point to the fact that the Xíng was formerly quite strong state. However, in 661 B.C., it was almost exterminated by the Dí barbarians, and in the following year, its capital was shifted under the aegis of Qí to Yíyí (which was one year later fortified by the armies of Qí and Cáo). In 635 B.C., the state was annihilated by Wèi.

  • NPprXíng 邢 (maybe identical with Jǐng 井 in the inscriptions on the bronzes) (CHEN PAN 1969, 360-368)Clan: Jī 姬.Rank: Hóu 侯 (in the CQ and the ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronzes, rulers of Jǐng 井 refer to themselves as gōng 公 or bó 伯. Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by the fourth son of the Duke of Zhōu 周公 (according to the Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè; Chūnqiū dì míng kǎolyè quotes Shǐ jì, which says that the name of the son of the Duke of Zhōu enfeoffed by the Zhōu king Chéng 周成王 as a ruler of Xíng was Jìngyuān 靖淵. The sentence is missing in the current text of the Shǐ jì).Destroyed: In 635 B.C. (Xi 25) by Wèi 衛. Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the capital of Xíng was located in the modern Xíngtái 邢臺 district, southern part of Hebei province. However, other sources suggested other locations, mainly the modern Wēn 溫 district in the Henan province, where the first capital of Xíng, called Xíngqiū 邢丘 should have been located (Shuō wén jiě zì; Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì, Xù Hàn shū Jùn guó zhì). This fits quite well with the record that in 718 B.C. (Yin 5), Xíng together with Zhèng supported the Earl of Qūwò 曲沃 in his attack on Yì 翼, the capital of Jìn 晉 located in the southwestern part of Shānxī province. However, in 661 B.C. (Min 1), when Xíng was attacked by the Dí 狄 barbarians, and was given a support from Qí 齊 and Cáo 曹, the state must have been located already in their close neighborhood, apparently in the modern Xíngtái 邢臺. Then the capital of Xíng shifted to the East of the Yellow River, to the Yíyí 夷儀, probably located in the modern Liáochéng 聊城 district in the western part of the Shandong province (according to Gāo Shìqí). History: Note that the state(s) and place(s) called Jǐng 井 and/or Xíng 邢 existed already in the Late Shāng period. Jǐng fāng 井方 is mentioned in the oracle bone inscriptions; Shǐ jì (Yīn běnjì) records that Xíng 邢 was one of the Shāng capitals (under king Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 ), and Dìwáng shìjì mentions that the Marquis of Xíng 邢侯 was one of the three high officials in the court of the last Shāng king (however, one should not give much confidence to the last source). Which was the connection between those and the later Zhōu state of Xíng is difficult to decide. In this context it is interesting, that in the site of Xíngtái 邢臺, Hebei province, the continuous settlement dating from the Late Shāng to the Chunqiu period was attested. Note also the inscription on the bronze vessel belonging to the Marquis of Xíng, which can point to the fact that the Xíng was formerly quite strong state. However, in 661 B.C., it was almost exterminated by the Dí barbarians, and in the following year, its capital was shifted under the aegis of Qí to Yíyí (which was one year later fortified by the armies of Qí and Cáo). In 635 B.C., the state was annihilated by Wèi.
   zhū OC: to MC: ʈi̯o 0 Attributions

Zhū 邾 (also called Zhūlóu 邾婁; changed its name to Zōu 鄒 in the Zhanguo period) (CHEN PAN 1969, 262-270) Clan: Cáo 曹. Recorded in the ZUO, Guó yǔ (Zhèngyǔ), and Shì běn. Rank: Zǐ 子 (used in the both CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, rulers of Zhū refer to themselves as gōng 公 or bó 伯. Founded: According to the tradition recorded in the Shǐ jì (Chǔ shìjiā), the Cáo clan belonged to the descendants of the mythical ruler Zhuānxú 顓頊. The inscription on the Zhū gōng zhōng 邾公鐘 mentions as an ancestor of the rulers of Zhū Lùzhōng 陸終, who is in the Shǐ jì mentioned as one of the descendants of Zhuānxú in the list of predecessors of the Zhū rulers. It is in accordance with the Wéi's commentary to the Guó yǔ (Zhèng yǔ). According to the Tōng diǎn, Xié 挾, the ruler of Zhū received his fief from King Wǔ of Zhōu 周武王, but the basis for this statement is unknown. Destroyed: The date of the destruction of Zhū (Zōu) and the state which conquered it are unknown. By the end of the period recorded in CQ, the state was still in existence. Later, it changed its name to Zōu 鄒, and still existed by the time of Mencius. According to the Zhànguó cè (Xī Zhōu cè), Zōu was later conquered by Qí 齊; according to the Bao's commentary to the Zhànguó cè, Zhū was destroyed by Chǔ 楚. Location: The first capital of Zhū was called Zhū 邾, and it was probably located to the southeast of the modern Qūfù 曲阜, Shandong province. In 614 B.C. (Wen 14), the capital of the state was shifted by Duke Wén 邾文公 to Yì 譯, which, according to the Du's commentary, was located in the modern Zōu 鄒 district, Shandong province. According to the Chén Qǐ shìjiā zhēng yì, the capital of Zhū shifted more times: from the earliest Zhūchéng 邾城 (which is by the commentary located to the modern Huángāng 黃岡, Hubei province; however, it is probable that in the Chunqiu period there was another state of the same name, located in that area) to Qí 蘄 (supposedly in the modern Xúzhōu 徐州, Anhui province), and later to the modern Téng 滕 district, Shandong province. Eventually, the capital of Zhū was established in Zōu 鄒 (the modern Zōu 鄒 district, Shandong province). However, it is not known on what is this description based. History: Zhū was a small, but not completely unimportant old state, which was generally conceived by other states (at least by Lǔ 魯) as barbarian, belonging to the Eastern barbarians (Dōng Yí 東夷). Some of its customs are criticized in the ZUO: for instance sacrificing of the captured ruler of the small state of Zēng by Zhū in 641 B.C. (Xi 19). Particularly since the 20ties of the 6th century, Zhū was repeatedly invaded by its powerful neighbor, the state of Qí 齊, and gradually became its dependant state. Later, Zōu became famous as the place of Mencius' origin.

  • nprState of Zhu1
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 0 Attributions

Chéng 郕 (also written as 成, or 盛; also called Chéngyáng 郕陽) (CHEN PAN 1969, 369-374) Clan: Jī姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (occurs in the both CQ and ZUO under Wen 12). Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by Shūwǔ 叔武, the son of the Zhōu King Wén 周文王 (according to the Shǐ jì, Guǎn Cài shìjiā chapter). Destroyed: Unknown. In 686 B.C. (Zhuang 8), the state surrendered to Qí 齊, but the rulers of Chéng are again mentioned in 578 B.C. (Cheng 13) and in 502 B.C. (Dìng 8). By that period, Chéng was still in existence. Location: Uncertain. Several locations of Chéng were suggested by traditional Chinese historiography, all within the area of the western Shandong: in the modern Wènshàng 汶上 (Shāndōng tú jīng), Níngyáng 寧陽 (Dì míng kǎolyè based on the Du's commentary), or in the southeastern part of the modern Pú 濮 district, where the later capital Chéngyáng 成陽 should have been located (Kuò dì zhì; Huán yǔ jì).

  • NPprChéng 郕 (also written as 成, or 盛; also called Chéngyáng 郕陽 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 369-374)Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Bó 伯 (occurs in the both CQ and ZUO under Wen 12). Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by Shūwǔ 叔武, the son of the Zhōu King Wén 周文王 (according to the Shǐ jì, Guǎn Cài shìjiā chapter). Destroyed: Unknown. In 686 B.C. (Zhuang 8), the state surrendered to Qí 齊, but the rulers of Chéng are again mentioned in 578 B.C. (Cheng 13) and in 502 B.C. (Dìng 8). By that period, Chéng was still in existence.Location: Uncertain. Several locations of Chéng were suggested by traditional Chinese historiography, all within the area of the western Shandong: in the modern Wènshàng 汶上 (Shāndōng tú jīng), Níngyáng 寧陽 (Dì míng kǎolyè based on the Du's commentary), or in the southeastern part of the modern Pú 濮 district, where the later capital Chéngyáng 成陽 should have been located (Kuò dì zhì; Huán yǔ jì).
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 0 Attributions

Gào 郜 (also written as 告) (CHEN PAN 1969, 391-397) Clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the CQ). Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Zhōu King Wén 周文王 (according to the Shì běn). Destroyed: Unknown. There are only three references to Gào in the CQ. In 713 B.C. (Yin 10), Lǔ 魯 conquered a city of Gào 郜, which belonged to Sòng 宋. Record for 710 B.C. (Huan 2) says that Lǔ 魯 received a bronze tripod of Gào (Gào dǐng 郜鼎) from the state of Sòng. Record for 640 B.C. (Xi 20) refers to the formal visit of the viscount of Gào 郜子 in the court of Lǔ. On the basis of this records, traditional Chinese scholars basically divided into two camps, as one regards the extermination of Gào: one suggested that Gào was conquered by Sòng already prior to the period recorded in the CQ (and Sòng thus got its ritual artifacts), and that its ruler who paid a visit to the Lǔ court was a ruler who lost his state (note a long time which passed between these events); the second propose that the cauldron got to Sòng not by conquest, and that the state of Gào was still in existence by 640 B.C. The record for 713 B.C. would support the first probability, but only if the city of Gào taken by Lǔ was identical with the former capital of the state of Gào, what is not certain (Du's commentary supposes it. On the contrary, Fàn zhì states that later, there were two places of this name distant one from the other about 20 miles; according to the text, one was formerly the capital of Gào and another belonged to Sòng). Generally, it seems to me more probable, that there were two places of this name, and that by 640 B.C., the state of Gào was still in existence. Location: According to the Du's commentary and to the Fàn zhì, the capital of Gào was located in the modern Chéngwǔ 城武 district, Shandong province.

  • NPprGào 郜 (also written as 告 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 391-397)Clan: Jī 姬.Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the CQ).Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Zhōu King Wén 周文王 (according to the Shì běn).Destroyed: Unknown. There are only three references to Gào in the CQ. In 713 B.C. (Yin 10), Lǔ 魯 conquered a city of Gào 郜, which belonged to Sòng 宋. Record for 710 B.C. (Huan 2) says that Lǔ 魯 received a bronze tripod of Gào (Gào dǐng 郜鼎 ) from the state of Sòng. Record for 640 B.C. (Xi 20) refers to the formal visit of the viscount of Gào 郜子 in the court of Lǔ. On the basis of this records, traditional Chinese scholars basically divided into two camps, as one regards the extermination of Gào: one suggested that Gào was conquered by Sòng already prior to the period recorded in the CQ (and Sòng thus got its ritual artifacts), and that its ruler who paid a visit to the Lǔ court was a ruler who lost his state (note a long time which passed between these events); the second propose that the cauldron got to Sòng not by conquest, and that the state of Gào was still in existence by 640 B.C. The record for 713 B.C. would support the first probability, but only if the city of Gào taken by Lǔ was identical with the former capital of the state of Gào, what is not certain (Du's commentary supposes it. On the contrary, Fàn zhì states that later, there were two places of this name distant one from the other about 20 miles; according to the text, one was formerly the capital of Gào and another belonged to Sòng). Generally, it seems to me more probable, that there were two places of this name, and that by 640 B.C., the state of Gào was still in existence. Location: According to the Du's commentary and to the Fàn zhì, the capital of Gào was located in the modern Chéngwǔ 城武 district, Shandong province.
   guō OC: kʷaaɡ MC: kɑk 0 Attributions

Guō 郭 (CHEN PAN 1969, 525-534) Clan: Unknown. Rank: Unknown. In the CQ, Zhuang 24 (670 B.C.), the ruler of Guō is referred to as gōng 公. In the inscription on the Guō bó guǐ 郭伯簋, the ruler of Guō is referred to as bó 伯. Founded: Unknown. The ruler of Guō (Guō bó) is mentioned in the bronze inscriptions dating from the early and middle period of the Western Zhōu; therefore, the state was already in existence by those times. Destroyed: Unknown. The ruler of Guō (Guō gōng) is mentioned only one time in the CQ (for Zhuang 24; 670 B.C.) in a very unclear context (the larger part of the sentence is obviously missing). According to the Du's commentary, it is a mistake; GONGYANG has suggested that the record refers to the ruler who prior to the date lost his state. Xīn xù (Zá shì chapter) records the story how Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 (685-643 B.C.) during a hunt passed the ruins of the Guō capital and asked about the reasons of its downfall. If we should give any credit to this story, by that time Guō already was not in existence. Location: Unknown. According to the later sources, mainly Zá shì chapter of the Xīn xù, the ruins of the capital of Guō were located somewhere in the neighborhood of Qí 齊. The Western Zhōu bronze inscriptions which mention the ruler of Guō (if it is identical with Guō mentioned in the CQ and later sources) also suggest its association with the eastern states.

  • NPprGuō 郭 (CHEN PAN 1969, 525-534)Clan: Unknown.Rank: Unknown. In the CQ, Zhuang 24 (670 B.C.), the ruler of Guō is referred to as gōng 公. In the inscription on the Guō bó guǐ 郭伯簋, the ruler of Guō is referred to as bó 伯. Founded: Unknown. The ruler of Guō (Guō bó) is mentioned in the bronze inscriptions dating from the early and middle period of the Western Zhōu; therefore, the state was already in existence by those times. Destroyed: Unknown. The ruler of Guō (Guō gōng) is mentioned only one time in the CQ (for Zhuang 24; 670 B.C.) in a very unclear context (the larger part of the sentence is obviously missing). According to the Du's commentary, it is a mistake; GONGYANG has suggested that the record refers to the ruler who prior to the date lost his state. Xīn xù (Zá shì chapter) records the story how Lord Huán of Qí 齊桓公 (685-643 B.C.) during a hunt passed the ruins of the Guō capital and asked about the reasons of its downfall. If we should give any credit to this story, by that time Guō already was not in existence. Location: Unknown. According to the later sources, mainly Zá shì chapter of the Xīn xù, the ruins of the capital of Guō were located somewhere in the neighborhood of Qí 齊. The Western Zhōu bronze inscriptions which mention the ruler of Guō (if it is identical with Guō mentioned in the CQ and later sources) also suggest its association with the eastern states.
   yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 0 Attributions

Yún 鄖 (also written as 云, 雲, 伝, 妘, 溳, 運, 員) (CHEN PAN 1969, 469-476) Clan: Uncertain. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yún belonged to the Yún 妘 clan. According to the Shì zú pǔ, they were of Yíng 嬴 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the ZUO, Xuān 4). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Unknown. In 584 B.C. (Cheng 7), the area of Yún already belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: Uncertain. Several possible locations of the state were suggested by the traditional Chinese historiography. According to the Ménghuì tú, to the Shuǐ jīng Yúnshuǐ zhù, to the Yuánhé zhì, to the Tōng diǎn, and to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, Yún was located in the modern Ānlù 安陸 district, Hubei province. On the other hand, Hàn zhì, Dìlì zhì, and Yītǒng zhì suggested its location in the modern Yún 溳 district in the same province. Commentary to the Hàn zhì and commentary to the Xù Hàn shū Jūn guó zhì located it into the modern Jīngshān 京山 district, Hubei province. In any case, the state of Yún was located somewhere in the northern part of Hubei. It should be noted that there were more places of that name also in the Henan area (one in the state of Wèi 衛). The place name Yún already appears in the oracle bone inscriptions together with Hé 河 and Diàn 奠 (Zhèng 鄭), what suggests that it was located somewhere in the eastern part of the central Henan. Whether there was any relationship between those place-names and the state of Yún is not known. History: Yún participated in the coalition of the small states located in the area of the northern Hubei and southern Henan, which was in 701 B.C. (Huan 11) badly defeated by Chǔ 楚. Maybe rather quaint is the fact that Zǐwén 子文, the famous Chǔ minister (lìngyǐn 令尹) of the 7th century B.C., was born of an illegal relationship of the Chǔ minister Dòu Bóbǐ 鬥伯比 with a daughter of the ruler of Yún (see ZUO, Xuan 4).

  • NPprYún 鄖 (also written as 云, 雲, 伝, 妘, 溳, 運, 員 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 469-476)Clan: Uncertain. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì and to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yún belonged to the Yún 妘 clan. According to the Shì zú pǔ, they were of Yíng 嬴 surname. Rank: Zǐ 子 (according to the ZUO, Xuān 4). Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: Unknown. In 584 B.C. (Cheng 7), the area of Yún already belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: Uncertain. Several possible locations of the state were suggested by the traditional Chinese historiography. According to the Ménghuì tú, to the Shuǐ jīng Yúnshuǐ zhù, to the Yuánhé zhì, to the Tōng diǎn, and to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, Yún was located in the modern Ānlù 安陸 district, Hubei province. On the other hand, Hàn zhì, Dìlì zhì, and Yītǒng zhì suggested its location in the modern Yún 溳 district in the same province. Commentary to the Hàn zhì and commentary to the Xù Hàn shū Jūn guó zhì located it into the modern Jīngshān 京山 district, Hubei province. In any case, the state of Yún was located somewhere in the northern part of Hubei.It should be noted that there were more places of that name also in the Henan area (one in the state of Wèi 衛 ). The place name Yún already appears in the oracle bone inscriptions together with Hé 河 and Diàn 奠 (Zhèng 鄭 ), what suggests that it was located somewhere in the eastern part of the central Henan. Whether there was any relationship between those place-names and the state of Yún is not known. History: Yún participated in the coalition of the small states located in the area of the northern Hubei and southern Henan, which was in 701 B.C. (Huan 11) badly defeated by Chǔ 楚. Maybe rather quaint is the fact that Zǐwén 子文, the famous Chǔ minister (lìngyǐn 令尹 ) of the 7th century B.C., was born of an illegal relationship of the Chǔ minister Dòu Bóbǐ 鬥伯比 with a daughter of the ruler of Yún (see ZUO, Xuan 4).
   zhāng OC: kjaŋ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Zhāng 鄣 (also written as 章) (CHEN PAN 1969, 556-559) Ruling clan: According to the Xìng zuǎn, Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, and Lù shǐ Hòu jì, rulers of Zhāng belonged to the Jiāng 姜 clan. Shì běn and Shuǐ jīng zhù say that they were from Rèn 任 clan. According to the Xìng kǎo, the rulers of the Zhāng originally had the Rèn surname, and later, in the beginning of the Zhōu period, the successors of Tài gōng 太公 with the Jiāng surname were established there. Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the Xìng kǎo, the state existed already in the Shāng period. In the beginning of the Western Zhōu, it was given as a fief to the descendants of Tài gōng. Destroyed: 664 B.C. by Qí (according to the CQ, Zhuang 30). Location: In the modern Dōng píng 東平 district in the Shandong province (according to the Du's commentary and Dì míng kǎo lyè). According to the Duan's commentary, the state was located in modern Jiangsu province, in the northern part of Gànyú 贛榆 district. History: A small petty state, mentioned only one time in the CQ (Zhuang 30).

  • NPprZhāng 鄣 (also written as 章 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 556-559)Ruling clan: According to the Xìng zuǎn, Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, and Lù shǐ Hòu jǐ, rulers of Zhāng belonged to the Jiāng 姜 clan. Shì běn and Shuǐ jīng zhù say that they were from Rèn 任 clan. According to the Xìng kǎo, the rulers of the Zhāng originally had the Rèn surname, and later, in the beginning of the Zhōu period, the successors of Tài gōng 太公 with the Jiāng surname were established there. Rank: Unknown.Founded: According to the Xìng kǎo, the state existed already in the Shāng period. In the beginning of the Western Zhōu, it was given as a fief to the descendants of Tài gōng.Destroyed: 664 B.C. by Qí (according to the CQ, Zhuang 30).Location: In the modern Dōng píng 東平 district in the Shandong province (according to the Du's commentary and Dì míng kǎo lyè). According to the Duan's commentary, the state was located in modern Jiangsu province, in the northern part of Gànyú 贛榆 district. History: A small petty state, mentioned only one time in the CQ (Zhuang 30).
   dèng OC: dɯɯŋs MC: dəŋ 0 Attributions

Dèng 鄧 (CHEN PAN 1969, 423-430) Clan: Màn 曼 (according to the Shì běn and to the ZUO: Huan 11; the surname also appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes). Also written as 嫚; according to some opinions, it is identical with Mán 蠻 and Mǐ 羋. Rank: Hóu 侯 (common in both CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, the rulers of Dèng sometimes refer to themselves as gōng 公 or bó 伯. Founded: Unknown. It seems that the state of Dèng could have been established prior to the Western Zhōu period. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the state was founded by the son of the Xià 仲康 ruler Zhòng Kāng 仲康; according to the Xìng jiě and Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the state was established during the reign of the Shāng 商 king Wǔ Dīng 武丁. According to the Chen Pan, the sources can refer to the two different states of the same name. Destroyed: In 678 B.C. (Zhuang 16) by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Dèng was located in the modern Dèng 鄧 district, southern part of Henan province. According to the Chǔ shǐjiā zhēngyì and Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè, it was located in the northern part of modern Hubei province, in Xiāngfán 襄樊. History: Since the beginning of the 80ties of the 7th century, Dèng was exposed to the attacks from the side of Chǔ. In 689 B.C., the ruler of Dèng unwisely did not follow an advice of one of his ministers who recommended killing the king of Chǔ who passed the state during a military campaign. In 678 B.C., the state was destroyed by Chǔ.

  • NPprDèng 鄧 (CHEN PAN 1969, 423-430)Clan: Màn 曼 (according to the Shì běn and to the ZUO: Huan 11; the surname also appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes). Also written as 嫚; according to some opinions, it is identical with Mán 蠻 and Mǐ 羋. Rank: Hóu 侯 (common in both CQ and ZUO). In the inscriptions on the bronze artifacts, the rulers of Dèng sometimes refer to themselves as gōng 公 or bó 伯.Founded: Unknown. It seems that the state of Dèng could have been established prior to the Western Zhōu period. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the state was founded by the son of the Xià 仲康 ruler Zhòng Kāng 仲康; according to the Xìng jiě and Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the state was established during the reign of the Shāng 商 king Wǔ Dīng 武丁. According to the Chen Pan, the sources can refer to the two different states of the same name. Destroyed: In 678 B.C. (Zhuang 16) by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Hàn zhì, the state of Dèng was located in the modern Dèng 鄧 district, southern part of Henan province. According to the Chǔ shǐjiā zhēngyì and Tōng zhì Shì zú lyè, it was located in the northern part of modern Hubei province, in Xiāngfán 襄樊. History: Since the beginning of the 80ties of the 7th century, Dèng was exposed to the attacks from the side of Chǔ. In 689 B.C., the ruler of Dèng unwisely did not follow an advice of one of his ministers who recommended killing the king of Chǔ who passed the state during a military campaign. In 678 B.C., the state was destroyed by Chǔ.
   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 0 Attributions

Yōu 鄾 (also written as 優) (CHEN PAN 1969, 447-449) Clan: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì and Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yōu should have been of the Màn 曼 surname. Rank: Uncertain. According to the Tōng diǎn and Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yōu had zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Some traditional Chinese scholars suppose that the rulers of the state of Yōu were of the same ancestry as those of the neighboring and stronger state of Dèng 鄧. Destroyed: Unknown. In 477 B.C. (Ai 18), when the city of Yōu was attacked by the army of Bà 巴, it already belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: In the area of modern Xiāngyáng 襄陽, northern Hubei province. History: In the ZUO, Yōu is mentioned only one time, in 703 B.C. (Huan 9), when the people of Yōu murdered Chǔ messengers going to the visit to the state of Dèng. Thereafter, Yōu was attacked by Chǔ and - although Dèng sent an army to rescue it - defeated. It is even not certain whether Yōu was an independent state or a petty town of Dèng.

  • NPprYōu 鄾 (also written as 優 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 447-449)Clan: Unknown. According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì and Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yōu should have been of the Màn 曼 surname. Rank: Uncertain. According to the Tōng diǎn and Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the rulers of Yōu had zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Some traditional Chinese scholars suppose that the rulers of the state of Yōu were of the same ancestry as those of the neighboring and stronger state of Dèng 鄧.Destroyed: Unknown. In 477 B.C. (Ai 18), when the city of Yōu was attacked by the army of Bà 巴, it already belonged to Chǔ 楚.Location: In the area of modern Xiāngyáng 襄陽, northern Hubei province. History: In the ZUO, Yōu is mentioned only one time, in 703 B.C. (Huan 9), when the people of Yōu murdered Chǔ messengers going to the visit to the state of Dèng. Thereafter, Yōu was attacked by Chǔ and - although Dèng sent an army to rescue it - defeated. It is even not certain whether Yōu was an independent state or a petty town of Dèng.
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Yáng 陽 (also written as Táng 唐) (CHEN PAN 1969, 567-570) Ruling clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Lǐ jì, Fāng jì chapter); among bronze vessels there is a dǐng 鼎 cauldron made for Shūjī 叔姬, the daughter of the Earl of Yáng (Yáng bó 陽伯). Rank: Hóu 侯 (according to the Lǐ jì, Fāng jì chapter). In the inscription on the above mentioned dǐng 鼎 cauldron, the ruler of Yáng is referred to as bó 伯. Founded: According to the Lù shǐ Hòu jì, the state was founded in the Western Zhōu period by the branch lineage of the rulers of Běi Yàn 北燕. Destroyed: CQ (Min 2; 660 B.C.) mentions the shift of Yáng by Qí 齊. Whether the state was destroyed in that time is not certain. According to the ZUO, in 530 B.C. (Zhao 12), the area already belonged to Qí. Location: In the area on the borders between Qí and Běi Yàn. According to the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, the state was located in the modern Táng 唐 district, Hebei province. Other sources (on the basis of local names) suggested other locations: in the modern Yìdū district 益都, Shandong province (Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì), and in the Yíshuǐ 沂水 district, Shandong province. It is possible that the latter are the areas to which Yáng was shifted by Qí. History: A small state mentioned only one time in CQ.

  • NPprState of Ya2ng
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

Suí 隨 (with the all probability identical with Zēng 曾of the inscriptions on the bronzes) (CHEN PAN 1969, 417-419) Clan: Jī 姬 (on the basis of the ZUO, Ding 4). Rank: Hóu 侯 (usual in the CQ and ZUO). Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 506 B.C. (Ding 4), the state was still in existence. If we accept that Suí was identical with Zēng, the state still existed by 433 B.C. According to the Chūnqiū dìlì kǎo shí, it was (in an unknown period) annexed by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Suí 隨 district, northern Hubei province. History: In the beginning of the Chunqiu period, Suí was a relatively strong state, the most powerful among the states bearing the Jī surname and located to the East of the Hàn River (漢東諸姬姓國). The states were established probably during the Middle Western Zhōu period as a basis of the Zhōu 周 power in that area, and also as a barrier against the southern states, mainly Chǔ 楚. Nonetheless, in 704 B.C. (Huan 8), Suí was defeated by Chǔ, and since that time it became its vassal state. The relationship between those two states was obviously quite strong, as in 506 B.C. (Ding 4), when the Chǔ king defeated by the state of Wú 吳 fled to Suí, the ruler of Suí refused to surrender him to Wǔ. It is mostly accepted that the state of Suí known only from the transmitted texts was identical with the state of Zēng 曾, which was located in the modern Suí district and is known only on the basis of archaeological excavations and inscriptions on the bronzes (for a different opinion see YANG KUAN 1999). One of the most famous archaeological discoveries in China is associated with this Zēng 曾; the tomb dating from 433 B.C. which belonged to Marquis Yǐ of Zēng 曾侯乙, and is particularly remarkable for containing the largest assemblage of bronze bells ever found in China.

  • NPprSuí 隨 (with the all probability identical with Zēng 曾 of the inscriptions on the bronzes) (CHEN PAN 1969, 417-419)Clan: Jī 姬 (on the basis of the ZUO, Ding 4).Rank: Hóu 侯 (usual in the CQ and ZUO).Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 506 B.C. (Ding 4), the state was still in existence. If we accept that Suí was identical with Zēng, the state still existed by 433 B.C. According to the Chūnqiū dìlì kǎo shí, it was (in an unknown period) annexed by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Suí 隨 district, northern Hubei province.History: In the beginning of the Chunqiu period, Suí was a relatively strong state, the most powerful among the states bearing the Jī surname and located to the East of the Hàn River ( 漢東諸姬姓國 ). The states were established probably during the Middle Western Zhōu period as a basis of the Zhōu 周 power in that area, and also as a barrier against the southern states, mainly Chǔ 楚. Nonetheless, in 704 B.C. (Huan 8), Suí was defeated by Chǔ, and since that time it became its vassal state. The relationship between those two states was obviously quite strong, as in 506 B.C. (Ding 4), when the Chǔ king defeated by the state of Wú 吳 fled to Suí, the ruler of Suí refused to surrender him to Wǔ. It is mostly accepted that the state of Suí known only from the transmitted texts was identical with the state of Zēng 曾, which was located in the modern Suí district and is known only on the basis of archaeological excavations and inscriptions on the bronzes (for a different opinion see YANG KUAN 1999). One of the most famous archaeological discoveries in China is associated with this Zēng 曾; the tomb dating from 433 B.C. which belonged to Marquis Yǐ of Zēng 曾侯乙, and is particularly remarkable for containing the largest assemblage of bronze bells ever found in China.
   yòng OC: qoŋs MC: ʔi̯oŋ 0 Attributions

Yōng 雍 (also written as 邕/雝) (CHEN PAN 1969, 651-655) Clan: Jī 姬. It seems that there was also the state of the same name, the rulers of which belonged to the Jí 姞 clan (according to the Huán yǔ jì). One of the consorts of Lord Zhuāng of Zhèng 鄭莊公 (743-701 B.C.) was called Yōng Jí 雍姞 (ZUO, Huan 11). According to the Shǐ jì (Zhèng shìjiā), she was from the aristocratic Yōng 雍 lineage from Sòng 宋. Maybe prior to that period, this second state of Yōng was already conquered by Sòng. Rank: Unknown. In the Hàn shū Rén biǎo, the ruler of Yōng is referred to as zǐ 子. In the inscriptions on the bronzes, the rulers of Yōng (unknown of which of the two states of that name) are referred to as wáng 王, gōng 公, bó 伯, or zǐ 子. Founded: The state of Yōng was founded in the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. In the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, and in the Guǎng yùn (quoting Fēngsú tōng), this person is referred to as Yōng bó 雍伯. The rulers of the Yōng bearing the Jí 姞 surname are said to be the descendants of the mythical Yellow Emperor 黃帝 (according to the Huán yǔ jì). Destroyed: Unknown. Location: Uncertain. According to the Du's commentary, Yōng was located in the modern Xiūwǔ 修武 district, Henan province. However, Huán yǔ jì locates it into the modern Ānkāng 安康 district, Shǎnxī province. It is not improbable that the state of Yōng was originally located close to the Zhōu western capital, and after 771 B.C. it shifted to the East (as was the case of some of the other states). The second state of the same name, the rulers of which belonged to the Jí 姞 clan, is located by Huán yǔ jì into the modern Qǐ 杞 district in the eastern part of Henan province.

  • NPprYōng 雍 (also written as 邕 / 雝 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 651-655)Clan: Jī 姬. It seems that there was also the state of the same name, the rulers of which belonged to the Jí 姞 clan (according to the Huán yǔ jì). One of the consorts of Lord Zhuāng of Zhèng 鄭莊公 (743-701 B.C.) was called Yōng Jí 雍姞 (ZUO, Huan 11). According to the Shǐ jì (Zhèng shìjiā), she was from the aristocratic Yōng 雍 lineage from Sòng 宋. Maybe prior to that period, this second state of Yōng was already conquered by Sòng. Rank: Unknown. In the Hàn shū Rén biǎo, the ruler of Yōng is referred to as zǐ 子. In the inscriptions on the bronzes, the rulers of Yōng (unknown of which of the two states of that name) are referred to as wáng 王, gōng 公, bó 伯, or zǐ 子.Founded: The state of Yōng was founded in the early Western Zhōu period by one of the sons of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王. In the Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, and in the Guǎng yùn (quoting Fēngsú tōng), this person is referred to as Yōng bó 雍伯. The rulers of the Yōng bearing the Jí 姞 surname are said to be the descendants of the mythical Yellow Emperor 黃帝 (according to the Huán yǔ jì). Destroyed: Unknown. Location: Uncertain. According to the Du's commentary, Yōng was located in the modern Xiūwǔ 修武 district, Henan province. However, Huán yǔ jì locates it into the modern Ānkāng 安康 district, Shǎnxī province. It is not improbable that the state of Yōng was originally located close to the Zhōu western capital, and after 771 B.C. it shifted to the East (as was the case of some of the other states). The second state of the same name, the rulers of which belonged to the Jí 姞 clan, is located by Huán yǔ jì into the modern Qǐ 杞 district in the eastern part of Henan province.
   huò OC: qhʷaaɡ MC: hɑk 0 Attributions

Huò 霍 (CHEN PAN 1969, 563-566) Ruling clan: Jī 姬. Rank: Hóu 侯 (according to the Mù Tiānzǐ zhuàn). Shǐ jì (Zhào shìjiā) refers to the ruler of Huò as gōng 公, Shuǐ jīng zhù, Lù shǐ Guó míng jì, and Wèi shìjiā zhēngyì as bó 伯. Founded: In the early Western Zhōu period by Shūchù 叔處, the son of the Zhōu king Wén 周文王 (according to Shì běn and Shǐ jì [Guǎn Cài shìjiā]) . Destroyed: 661 B.C. by Jìn (ZUO Min 1). Location: In the south-west of the modern Huò 霍 district, Shānxī province.

  • NPprState of Huo4
   xiàng OC: ɡrooŋʔ MC: ɦɣɔŋ 0 Attributions

Xiàng 項 (CHEN PAN 1969, 626-628) Ruling clan: Unknown. According to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, Xìng zuǎn, and Guǎng yùn, the rulers of Xiàng belonged to the Zhōu 周 royal clan Jī 姬. Rank: Unknown. Shǐ jì Xiàng Yǔ běnj43 zhēngyì (quoting Kuò dì zhì), Huán yǔ jì, and Lù shǐ Guó míng jì suggest that the rulers of Xiàng were of zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: According to the CQ (Xi 17), the state was conquered by Qí 齊 in 643 B.C. ZUO dates the annihilation of Xiàng into the same year, but states that it was occupied by the state of Lǔ 魯. Later the area belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Xiàngchéng 項城 district, Henan province (according to the Huì zuǎn).

  • NPprXiàng 項 (CHEN PAN 1969, 626-628)Ruling clan: Unknown. According to the Tōng zhì Shìzú lyè, Xìng zuǎn, and Guǎng yùn, the rulers of Xiàng belonged to the Zhōu 周 royal clan Jī 姬. Rank: Unknown. Shǐ jì Xiàng Yǔ běnjǐ zhēngyì (quoting Kuò dì zhì), Huán yǔ jì, and Lù shǐ Guó míng jǐ suggest that the rulers of Xiàng were of zǐ 子 rank. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: According to the CQ (Xi 17), the state was conquered by Qí 齊 in 643 B.C. ZUO dates the annihilation of Xiàng into the same year, but states that it was occupied by the state of Lǔ 魯. Later the area belonged to Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Xiàngchéng 項城 district, Henan province (according to the Huì zuǎn).
   dùn OC: tuuns MC: tuo̝n 0 Attributions

Dùn 頓 (CHEN PAN 1969, 640-641) Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). Xìng yuán states that the rulers of Dùn were of Yǎn 偃 surname, but the source of this statement is unknown. Rank: Zǐ 子 (common in the CQ and ZUO). According to the Xìng jiě, the rulers of Dùn originally possessed hóu 侯 rank, but the source of this statement is unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 496 B.C. (Ding 14) by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Xiàngchéng 項城 district, southern Henan province.

  • NPprDùn 頓 (CHEN PAN 1969, 640-641)Clan: Jī 姬 (according to the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì). Xìng yuán states that the rulers of Dùn were of Yǎn 偃 surname, but the source of this statement is unknown.Rank: Zǐ 子 (common in the CQ and ZUO). According to the Xìng jiě, the rulers of Dùn originally possessed hóu 侯 rank, but the source of this statement is unknown.Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 496 B.C. (Ding 14) by Chǔ 楚. Location: In the modern Xiàngchéng 項城 district, southern Henan province.
   huáng OC: ɡʷaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 0 Attributions

Huáng 黃 (CHEN PAN 1969, 431-435) Clan: Yíng 嬴 (according to the Chǔ shìjiā zhēngyì and Du's commentary to the ZUO. The surname also appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes, where it is sometimes written as 盈 or Yǎn 偃). Rank: Uncertain. In the inscription on the Cì dǐng 刺鼎, the ruler of Huáng is referred to as gōng 公. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 648 B.C. (Xi 12) by Chǔ 楚. Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the state of Huáng was located in the modern Huángchuān 潢川 district, southern Henan province. Two tombs belonging to the lord of Huáng and his consort were also uncovered in this area (see History). History: Huáng was a small and unimportant state. However, it is remarkable for two tombs dating from the mid-seventh century B.C., which were uncovered in Shàngguāngāng 上官岡, Guāngshān 光山. The tombs belonged to Mèng, the lord of Huáng 黃君孟, and to his consort Mèng Jī 孟姬 (see Falkenhausen 1999, 505).

  • NPprHuáng 黃 (CHEN PAN 1969, 431-435)Clan: Yíng 嬴 (according to the Chǔ shìjiā zhēngyì and Du's commentary to the ZUO. The surname also appears in the inscriptions on the bronzes, where it is sometimes written as 盈 or Yǎn 偃 ). Rank: Uncertain. In the inscription on the Cì dǐng 刺鼎, the ruler of Huáng is referred to as gōng 公. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: In 648 B.C. (Xi 12) by Chǔ 楚.Location: According to the Du's commentary to the ZUO, the state of Huáng was located in the modern Huángchuān 潢川 district, southern Henan province. Two tombs belonging to the lord of Huáng and his consort were also uncovered in this area (see History).History: Huáng was a small and unimportant state. However, it is remarkable for two tombs dating from the mid-seventh century B.C., which were uncovered in Shàngguāngāng 上官岡, Guāngshān 光山. The tombs belonged to Mèng, the lord of Huáng 黃君孟, and to his consort Mèng Jī 孟姬 (see Falkenhausen 1999, 505).
南燕   nán yān OC: noom qeen MC: nəm ʔen 0 Attributions

Nán Yān 南燕 (usually called only Yān 燕; distinguish from the Běi Yān , which was originally written as 郾) (CHEN PAN 1969, 375-378) Clan: Jí 姞 (according to the Jìn yǔ section of the Guó yǔ; Yān Jí 燕姞, the wife of Duke Wén of Zhèng 鄭文公, is mentioned in the ZUO, Xuan 3). Rank: Bó 伯 (occurs in the ZUO). Founded: According to the legendary tradition (recorded in the Jìn yǔ chapter of the Guó yǔ and in the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì), the lineages with Jí surname were descendants of the mythical Yellow Emperor 黃帝. In the ZUO (Xuan 3; 606 B.C.), the legendary ancestor of Nán Yàn is called Bóyōu 伯 (or Bóshū 伯儵). Destroyed: Unknown. The state is mentioned in the ZUO in 674 B.C. (Zhuang 20) and in 500 B.C. (Ding 10). By that period, it was still in existence. Location: In the northeastern part of the modern Yánjīn 延津 area, Henan province (CHEN PAN locates it into the Henan province, Wèihuī fǔ 衛輝府, Zuòchéng 胙城 district; is it identical????). History: Nán Yàn was a small and weak state, which relied mainly on alliances with its more powerful neighbors. In the beginning of the period recorded in the CQ, we find Nán Yàn participating in the struggles among the eastern and central states, which resulted into a defeat of the armies of Qí 齊, Sòng 宋, Wèi 衛, and Nán Yàn by the coalition of Zhèng 鄭, Lǔ 魯, and Jǐ 紀 in 699 B.C. (Huan 13). Later, Nán Yàn several times appears in the ZUO; for instance, in 675 B.C. (Zhuang 19), it intervened into the struggle in the Zhōu 周 royal court.

  • NPprNán Yàn 南燕 (usually called only Yàn 燕; distinguish from the Běi Yàn, which was originally written as 郾 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 375-378)Clan: Jí 姞 (according to the Jìn yǔ section of the Guó yǔ; Yàn Jí 燕姞, the wife of Duke Wén of Zhèng 鄭文公, is mentioned in the ZUO, Xuan 3).Rank: Bó 伯 (occurs in the ZUO). Founded: According to the legendary tradition (recorded in the Jìn yǔ chapter of the Guó yǔ and in the Hàn shū Dì lǐ zhì), the lineages with Jí surname were descendants of the mythical Yellow Emperor 黃帝. In the ZUO (Xuan 3; 606 B.C.), the legendary ancestor of Nán Yàn is called Bóyōu 伯 (or Bóshū 伯儵 ). Destroyed: Unknown. The state is mentioned in the ZUO in 674 B.C. (Zhuang 20) and in 500 B.C. (Ding 10). By that period, it was still in existence. Location: In the northeastern part of the modern Yánjīn 延津 area, Henan province (CHEN PAN locates it into the Henan province, Wèihuī fǔ 衛輝府, Zuòchéng 胙城 district; is it identical????). History: Nán Yàn was a small and weak state, which relied mainly on alliances with its more powerful neighbors. In the beginning of the period recorded in the CQ, we find Nán Yàn participating in the struggles among the eastern and central states, which resulted into a defeat of the armies of Qí 齊, Sòng 宋, Wèi 衛, and Nán Yàn by the coalition of Zhèng 鄭, Lǔ 魯, and Jǐ 紀 in 699 B.C. (Huan 13). Later, Nán Yàn several times appears in the ZUO; for instance, in 675 B.C. (Zhuang 19), it intervened into the struggle in the Zhōu 周 royal court.
小邾   xiǎo zhū OC: smewʔ to MC: siɛu ʈi̯o 0 Attributions

Xiǎo Zhū 小邾 (also called Xiǎo Zhū 小朱, Xiǎo Zhūlóu 小邾婁, or Ní 郳) (CHEN PAN 1969, 281-284) Clan: Cáo 曹 (according to the ZUO, Guó yǔ - Zhèng yǔ - and to the Shì běn). Rank: Zǐ 子 (common in the CQ). Founded: The state was founded by Yǒu 友, the son of Duke Wén of Zhū 邾文公 (according to the Dù pǔ). In the Shì běn, the founder of Xiǎo Zhū is called Féi 肥. Destroyed: Xiǎo Zhū was still in existence by the end of the period recorded in the CQ. Six generations later, the state was destroyed by Chǔ 楚. Location: The capital of Xiǎo Zhū is said to be located in the modern Téng 滕 district, Shandong province (according to the Du's commentary to the ZUO Zhuang 5, and to the Guó míng jì). According to the different opinion (Huán yǔ jì Yíchéng xiàn), the capital of Xiǎo Zhū was situated in the northwestern part of the modern Dōngyì 東嶧 district, Shandong province. History: Xiǎo Zhū was a small and weak state, which appears in the CQ for the first time in 689 B.C. (Zhuang 5).

  • NPprXiǎo Zhū 小邾 (also called Xiǎo Zhū 小朱, Xiǎo Zhūlóu 小邾婁, or Ní 郳 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 281-284)Clan: Cáo 曹 (according to the ZUO, Guó yǔ - Zhèng yǔ - and to the Shì běn).Rank: Zǐ 子 (common in the CQ).Founded: The state was founded by Yǒu 友, the son of Duke Wén of Zhū 邾文公 (according to the Dù pǔ). In the Shì běn, the founder of Xiǎo Zhū is called Féi 肥.Destroyed: Xiǎo Zhū was still in existence by the end of the period recorded in the CQ. Six generations later, the state was destroyed by Chǔ 楚.Location: The capital of Xiǎo Zhū is said to be located in the modern Téng 滕 district, Shandong province (according to the Du's commentary to the ZUO Zhuang 5, and to the Guó míng jì). According to the different opinion (Huán yǔ jì Yíchéng xiàn), the capital of Xiǎo Zhū was situated in the northwestern part of the modern Dōngyì 東嶧 district, Shandong province. History: Xiǎo Zhū was a small and weak state, which appears in the CQ for the first time in 689 B.C. (Zhuang 5).
英士   yīng shì OC: qraŋ dzrɯʔ MC: ʔɣaŋ ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions

Yīngshì 英氏 (also called Yīng 英, Yāng 央) (CHEN PAN 1969, 622-625) Ruling clan: Yǎn 偃 (匽) or Yíng 嬴 (according to the Shǐ jì, Xià běnjì chapter). Rank: Unknown. Founded: According to the Shǐ jì (Xià běn jì), the state was founded by the descendants of the mythical Gāo Yáo 皋陶 during the reign of the equally mythical emperor Yǔ 禹. Destroyed: The state was attacked by Qí 齊 and Xú 徐 in 644 B.C. (Xi 16). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚 (according to the Shǐ jì, Chǔ shìjiā). Location: In the modern Liù'ān 六安 district, Anhui province (according to the Huì zuǎn).

  • NPprYīngshì 英氏 (also called Yīng 英, Yāng 央 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 622-625)Ruling clan: Yǎn 偃 ( 匽 ) or Yíng 嬴 (according to the Shǐ jì, Xià běnjǐ chapter). Rank: Unknown.Founded: According to the Shǐ jì (Xià běn jǐ), the state was founded by the descendants of the mythical Gāo Yáo 皋陶 during the reign of the equally mythical emperor Yǔ 禹. Destroyed: The state was attacked by Qí 齊 and Xú 徐 in 644 B.C. (Xi 16). Later, it was destroyed by Chǔ 楚 (according to the Shǐ jì, Chǔ shìjiā). Location: In the modern Liù'ān 六安 district, Anhui province (according to the Huì zuǎn).
西周   xī zhōu OC: sqɯɯl tjɯw MC: sei tɕɨu 0 Attributions

see Zhōu 周

  • NPprname of a state
須句   xū jù OC: so kos MC: si̯o ki̯o 0 Attributions

Xūjù 須句 (written also as Xūqū 須胊) (CHEN PAN 1969, 636-637) Clan: Fēng 風. Rank: Zǐ 子. Founded: According to the tradition, the rulers of Xūjù were descendants of the mythical emperor Tài Hào 太皞. Destroyed: The state was conquered in 639 B.C. (Xi 21) by Zhū 邾. In the following year, it was reestablished by Lǔ 魯. Later, it was again destroyed by Zhū, and in 620 B.C. (Wen 7), the area eventually came under the control of Lǔ. Location: According to the Du's commentary, to the Xù Shāndōng kǎogǔ lù, and to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, Xūjù was located in the modern Dōngpíng 東平 district, Shandong province.

  • NPprXūjù 須句 (written also as Xūqū 須胊 ) (CHEN PAN 1969, 636-637)Clan: Fēng 風.Rank: Zǐ 子.Founded: According to the tradition, the rulers of Xūjù were descendants of the mythical emperor Tài Hào 太皞.Destroyed: The state was conquered in 639 B.C. (Xi 21) by Zhū 邾. In the following year, it was reestablished by Lǔ 魯. Later, it was again destroyed by Zhū, and in 620 B.C. (Wen 7), the area eventually came under the control of Lǔ. Location: According to the Du's commentary, to the Xù Shāndōng kǎogǔ lù, and to the Shuǐ jīng zhù, Xūjù was located in the modern Dōngpíng 東平 district, Shandong province.
顓奧   zhuān ào OC: tjon quuɡs MC: tɕiɛn ʔɑu 0 Attributions

Zhuānyú 顓臾 (CHEN PAN 1969, 638-639) Clan: Fēng 風. Rank: According to the Lún yǔ (Jì shì chapter), Zhuānyú was a vassal state of Lǔ 魯. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì attributes to its rulers zǐ 子 rank, but the source of this statement is unknown. Founded: According to the tradition, the rulers of Zhuānyú were descendants of the mythical emperor Tài Hào 太皞. Destroyed: The state is mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 639 B.C. (Xi 21). By the time of Confucius, it was obviously still in an existence. Location: In the modern Bì 費 district, Shandong province.

  • NPprZhuānyú 顓臾 (CHEN PAN 1969, 638-639)Clan: Fēng 風.Rank: According to the Lún yǔ (Jì shì chapter), Zhuānyú was a vassal state of Lǔ 魯. Lù shǐ Guó míng jì attributes to its rulers zǐ 子 rank, but the source of this statement is unknown. Founded: According to the tradition, the rulers of Zhuānyú were descendants of the mythical emperor Tài Hào 太皞.Destroyed: The state is mentioned in the ZUO in the entry for 639 B.C. (Xi 21). By the time of Confucius, it was obviously still in an existence.Location: In the modern Bì 費 district, Shandong province.
於餘丘   yú yú qiū OC: qa la khɯ MC: ʔi̯ɤ ji̯ɤ khɨu 0 Attributions

Yúyúqiū 於餘丘 (CHEN PAN 1969, 502-504) Clan: Unknown. Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown. Destroyed: Unknown. Location: Very uncertain. According to the Dì míng kǎo lyè, Yúyúqiū was located in the modern Línyí 臨沂 district, Shandong province. History: Yúyúqiū is mentioned only one time in the CQ (Zhuang 2; 692 B.C.). It is even not certain whether it was a state (as is suggested by the Du's commentary) or only a dependent town (as is suggested by the GONGYANG and GULIANG).

  • NPprYúyúqiū 於餘丘 (CHEN PAN 1969, 502-504)Clan: Unknown.Rank: Unknown. Founded: Unknown.Destroyed: Unknown.Location: Very uncertain. According to the Dì míng kǎo lyè, Yúyúqiū was located in the modern Línyí 臨沂 district, Shandong province.History: Yúyúqiū is mentioned only one time in the CQ (Zhuang 2; 692 B.C.). It is even not certain whether it was a state (as is suggested by the Du's commentary) or only a dependent town (as is suggested by the GONGYANG and GULIANG).
   hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 0 Attributions
  • nprname of a very ancient state said to have been enfeoffed in Xia dynasty times...
   wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
  • npr1. small early Shang state in Shanxi; 2. Zhou state in Sichuan;
   yīng OC: qɯŋ MC: ʔɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • nprZUO: small state in Henan Province

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