EXECUTE  死刑大辟

KILL a PRISONER, OBEYING PUBLIC COMMAND.
PUT TO DEATHKILLHANGBEHEADGUILLOTINEELECTROCUTESEND TO THE (ELECTRIC) CHAIRSHOOTPUT BEFORE A FIRING SQUADINFORMAL STRING UPFRY
Taxonoymy

BEHEAD

See also

STRANGLE

Kind Of

KILL

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for legal execution of a person condemned to death is zhū 誅.

2. Lù 戮 refers to public and often even summary execution.

3. Sì 肆 and xùn 徇 refer to public execution followed by exposure of the body to public view, with the focus on the latter.

4. Zú 族 refers to legal execution of the whole clan of a culprit.

5. Dà pì 大辟 is the bureaucratic legal term for capital punishment.

6. Qì shì 棄市 refers to public execution in the market place.

7. Jiǎo 絞 "strangulation"

8. Pēng 烹 "boiling alive"

9. Fēn chǐ 分胣 "cutting up and disembowelling"

10. Kēng 坑 "burying alive"

11. Chē liè 車列 "tearing apart between two vehicles"

12. Zhī jiě 肢解 "dismembering"

13. Fǔ 脯 "cutting into slices"

14. Hǎi 醢 "cutting into small pieces"

15. Zū 菹 "making into minced meat". See also BEHEAD.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 43.

經,懸頸吊死。

縊,被人用手或繩勒頸;或自經。

絞,亦指勒縊人頸。從北齊、北周起絞列為死刑,除元代外,歷朝承而不變。

棄市,秦漢時是斬刑別稱,魏晉起,成絞刑別稱。

當 “ 絞 ” 列為死刑, “ 棄市 ” 之名亦廢。

Modern Chinese Criteria

執行死刑

死刑

死刑

極刑

大辟

大戮

誅鋤

誅除

誅戮

誅滅

誅殺

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 164

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 872

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 255

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 189

CRUCIFICTION

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 381

HANGING

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 65
  • nab : 20
  • VPtoN : 20
  • VPt(oN) : 9
  • NPab : 4
  • VPi : 4
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • NP : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • n : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • v[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 53
  • 春秋左傳 : 24
  • 說苑 : 7
  • 史記 : 7
  • 管子 : 6
  • 晏子春秋 : 5
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 列子 : 2
  • 論語 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1

Words

戮 / 僇   lù OC: ɡ-ruɡ MC: luk lù OC: ɡ-ruɡ MC: luk 26 Attributions
  • viactstage executions
  • nobjecta person guilty of death;
  • nabactpublic execution
  • vtoNpassiveget executed 為戮
  • vtoNiussivehave (someone) killed; order (someone) to be killed
  • v[adN]N=humvictim of execution
   zhū OC: to MC: ʈi̯o 25 Attributions

The current general term for legal execution of a person condemned to death is zhū 誅.

  • nabactexecution (by someone 吏誅 "execution by an official")
  • vt(oN)execute (the contextually defined object)
  • vtoNcondemn to death; have executed
  • vtoNpassivebe punished, get punished; get executed
  • nabpassivethe suffering of execution as a punishment
  • vt[oN]have people executed
誅殺   zhū shā OC: to sreed MC: ʈi̯o ʂɣɛt 17 Attributions
  • VPitransitivekill others, commit murder (typically by authority)
  • VPt(oN)executions
  • VPtoNkill by authority
殺戮   shā lù OC: sreed ɡ-ruɡ MC: ʂɣɛt luk 7 Attributions
  • NPabactexecution by any method [note euphonic word order]
  • VPt[oN]conduct executions of people
  • VPtoNexecute by any method [note euphonic word order]
   hǎi OC: qhɯɯʔ MC: həi 6 Attributions

Hǎi 醢 "cutting into small pieces"

  • nabactthe cutting a person into small pieces
  • vtoNto apply death penalty followed by being cut up into minced meat and then mixed with brine
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget cut into small pieces
   jí OC: kɯɡ MC: kɨk 5 Attributions
  • vtoNconduct a demonstrative execution for a monstrous crime
  • vtoNpassivebe executed
   pēng OC: pqhraaŋ MC: phɣaŋ 4 Attributions

Pēng 烹 "boiling alive"

  • vtoNboil alive
  • vtoNpassiveget broiled; be broiled; receive the punishment of being cooked alive
  • nabpassiveact: being boiled alive
炮烙   páo lào OC: bruu ɡ-raaɡ MC: bɣɛu lɑk 4 Attributions
  • vtoNroast on red-hot metal rod, punishment used by Zhòu, last emperor of the Shāng
  • nabactroasting on red-hot metal rod as punishment
車裂 / 車裂   chē liè OC: khlja b-red MC: tɕhɣɛ liɛt jū liè OC: kla b-red MC: ki̯ɤ liɛt 4 Attributions

Chē liè 車列 "tearing apart between two vehicles" Chē liè 車列 "tearing apart between two vehicles"

  • VPtoNpassivebe torn between two carts
  • npunishment of being torn between two carts
  • VPtoNtear apart between vehicles as punishment
   shā OC: sreed MC: ʂɣɛt 3 Attributions
  • nabactexecutions
  • vtoNsubject=dukeexecute;
枝解 / 支解   zhī jiě OC: kje kreeʔ MC: tɕiɛ kɣɛ zhī jiě OC: kje kreeʔ MC: tɕiɛ kɣɛ 3 Attributions

Zhī jiě 肢解 "dismembering" Zhī jiě 肢解 "dismembering"

  • VPtoNpassivebe dismembered
  • VPtoNdismember
   zhé OC: krlaaɡ MC: ʈɣɛk 2 Attributions
  • nabactdismemberment by pulling apart a person between two carriages
  • vtoNdismember; dismember by pulling apart a person between two carriages
   sì OC: plils MC: si 2 Attributions

Sì 肆 and xùn 徇 refer to public execution followed by exposure of the body to public view, with the focus on the latter.

  • viactexecute people and display their bodies in the market place
  • vtoNexpose the dead body (in the market place)
   fǔ OC: paʔ MC: pi̯o 2 Attributions

Fǔ 脯 "cutting into slices"

  • vtoNZGC: cut into slices
菹 / 菹   zū OC: skra MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ zū OC: skra MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ 2 Attributions

Zū 菹"making into minced meat" Zū 菹"making into minced meat"

  • vtoNto cut up into pieces (vegetables); make into minced meat (sauce) by cutting up
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe cut up into pieces; be make into minced meat (sauce) by being cut up
  • nabactexecution by being cut into pieces
   huàn OC: ɡʷraans MC: ɦɣan 2 Attributions
  • npunishment by being pulled apart in four directions between four carts
  • vtoNtear apart between carts
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

Pēng 烹 "boiling alive"

  • vtoNexecute by submerging into boiling water
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabactexecution
   nú OC: naa MC: nuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmiddle voiceto be punished including one's family members
   zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 1 Attribution

Zú 族 refers to legal execution of the whole clan of a culprit.

  • vt(oN)execute (someone's) whole clan
  • vtoNkill off the whole clan
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

chī

  • vtoNdisembowel by way of punishment
  • vtoNpassivebe disemboweled as punishment
   bó OC: phaaɡ MC: phɑk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdismember and leave unburied to be scorched by the sun
   pì OC: beɡ MC: biɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe executed
執殺   zhí shā OC: tjib sreed MC: tɕip ʂɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeapprehend so as to execute
大戮   dà lù OC: daads ɡ-ruɡ MC: dɑi luk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactpublic execution followed by public display of the dead body
戮死   lù sǐ OC: ɡ-ruɡ pliʔ MC: luk si 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNget executed
掖殺   yè shā OC: k-laɡ sreed MC: jiɛk ʂɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativedetain so as to execute
斬死   zhǎn sǐ OC: tsreemʔ pliʔ MC: ʈʂɣɛm si 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativebe executed
菹戮   zū lù OC: skra ɡ-ruɡ MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ luk 1 Attribution
  • nabactcruel execution
誅戮   zhū lù OC: to ɡ-ruɡ MC: ʈi̯o luk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNhave executed by superior order
體解   tǐ jiě OC: rʰiiʔ kreeʔ MC: thei kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNexecute by having torn limb from limb
斧質   fǔ zhì MC: pjuX tsyit OC: paʔ tjid 1 Attribution
  • NPinstrument=斧鑕 cleaver/axe and executioner's block
   wū OC: qooɡ MC: ʔuk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNexecute an aristocrat
   kēng OC: khraaŋ MC: khɣaŋ 0 Attributions

Kēng 坑 "burying alive"

  • vtoNbury alive
   xùn OC: sɢʷlins MC: zʷin 0 Attributions

Sì 肆 and xùn 徇 refer to public execution followed by exposure of the body to public view, with the focus on the latter.

       zhé OC: prleeɡ MC: ʈɣɛk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNdismember
       jiǎo OC: kreewʔ MC: kɣɛu 0 Attributions

    Jiǎo 絞 "strangulation"

    • vtoNstrangle to death as a form of punishment
       jiě OC: kreeʔ MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpassiveoccasionally, in idiomatic contexts: be dismembered
       fēn OC: pɯn MC: pi̯un 0 Attributions

    Fēn chǐ 分胣 "cutting up and disembowelling"

    • VPtoNpassivebe cut up and disemboweled
    剖心   pōu xīn OC: phɯʔ slɯm MC: phu sim 0 Attributions
    • VPipassivehave one's heart cut out 比干剖心
    定殺   dìng shā OC: deeŋs sreed MC: deŋ ʂɣɛt 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNresultativekill (a sick culprit) by throwing him into the river to drown
    戮殃   lù yāng OC: ɡ-ruɡ qaŋ MC: luk ʔi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactexecution
    抽脅   chōu xié OC: rlʰiw qhlob MC: ʈhɨu hi̯ɐp 0 Attributions
    • vtoNkill someone by pulling out his sinews and bones
    棄市   qì shì OC: khils djɯʔ MC: khi dʑɨ 0 Attributions

    Qì shì 棄市 refers to public execution in the market place.

    • VPipassivebe publicly executed in the market place
    • VPtoNexecute publicly in the marketplace
    腰斬   yāo zhǎn OC: qew tsreemʔ MC: ʔiɛu ʈʂɣɛm 0 Attributions
    • VPipassivebe cut at the waist
    • vtoNcut someone up at the waist
    菹醢   zū hǎi OC: skra qhɯɯʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɤ həi 0 Attributions
    • NPabactthe cutting a person into small pieces
    鑊烹   huò pēng OC: ɢʷaaɡ pqhraaŋ MC: ɦɑk phɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNboil to death in a cauldron
    鑿顛   záo diān OC: dzaawɡ tiin MC: dzɑk ten 0 Attributions
    • vtoNkill by splitting the skull

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: