ACCUSE  控告

To BLAME AND INTEND the PERSON BLAMED to be JUDGED AND CONDEMNED CONFORMING:in accordance with LAW.
CHARGE WITHINDICT FORARRAIGN FORPREFER CHARGES AGAINST FORIMPEACH FOR
Antonymy

FORGIVEDEFENDANT

See also

CRITICISELITIGATESLANDER

Kind Of

BLAME

Old Chinese Criteria

[ASCENDING/DESCENDING]

[BENEVOLENT/MALEVOLENT]

[FALSE/TRUE]

[INFORMAL/OFFICIAL]

[INTENSE/WEAK]

[PUBLIC/PRIVATE]

1. The most current general word for accusing someone of something with either good or evil intent is zé 責.

[GENERAL], [NEUTRAL]

2. Sù 訴 refers to an informal accusation from the party that maintains it has suffered injustice, and this word became current in Han times.

[INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

3. Zuì 罪 typically refers to a superior or king raising criminal charges against someone under his jurisdiction, but occasionally the word is used in an extended way to refer to strong criticism offered by anyone with authority.

[DESCENDING], [NEUTRAL], [OFFICIAL]

4. Hé 劾 refers to formal impeachment and the starting of formal criminal proceedings against a culprit, and the accuser in this case tends to be a person of some social standing, normally of high bureaucratic status; in Han times hé 劾 refers to the passing judgment after such a formal procedure.

[DESCENDING], [INTENSE], [NEUTRAL], [OFFICIAL]

5. Qiǎn 譴 refers to formal more or less serious accusations against officials raised by anyone, including ordinary persons.

[ASCENDING], [INTENSE], [OFFICIAL]

6. Wū 誣 is occasionally used for making false formal accusations against some person, and the word may even refer to false self-incrimination.

[FALSE], [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

7. Zèn 譖 refers generally to slanderous attacks, and sometimes - imperceptibly - the word can refer to something more like slanderous accusations. But the distinctions always seems to remain unclear. See SLANDER.

[FALSE], [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

8. Kòng 控 occasionally refers to a formal complaint directed against the authorities.

[ASCENDING], [OFFICIAL]

9. Ga4o 告 commonly refers to the making of public complaints and accusations.

Modern Chinese Criteria

控告 is the current modern word for making accusations.

指控 is a perhaps slightly literary term for making accusations.

告狀 is a formal legal term referring to the opening of a law-suit against someone, and the word is used verbally with the preposition 向.

告發

譴責 refers to accusations in the form of a denunciation without direct legal implications.

聲討 refers to public denunciation involving serious accusations.

申討 refers to public denunciation involving serious accusations.

攻訐

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The words in this group differ in the degree to which they imply formal legal proceedings (hé 劾 ) or simply consist in the attribution of criminal responsibility (zèn 譖, zé 責, zuì 罪 ).

2. The words differ in the seriousness of the charges implied, some words implying that the charge is comparatively serious (qiǎn 譴, hé 劾, zé 責 ), others being applied indiscriminately to more or less serious charges (zuì 罪, sù 訴, kòng 控 ).

3. The words differ in the justice of the charges brought, some implying that the charge is definitely just (zé 責, tán 彈 ), others being indifferent to the justice of the charge (zuì 罪, kòng 控, sù 訴 ), and others still definitely implying that the charges are false (wū 誣, zèn 譖, chǎn 諂 ).

4. The words differ as to whether the charge is brought against a person who must be present (zé 責 ), against a person who may or may not be present (zuì 罪, sù 訴, kòng 控, wū 誣 ), or against a person who is definitely absent (zèn 譖 ).

5. The words differ as to whether the person making the accusation normally has higher status than the accused (zhé 謫, zuì 罪 ), or whether 厎 he words are indifferent to the status of the accused versus the accuser.

GOVERNMENT AND LAW 36. 訴訟。

訴,將自己所受的不平之事告訴司法部門,最早出現於漢代。

訟,對仲裁人告訴并爭辯彼此的是非曲直。

告,主動告訴他人的犯罪言行,春秋戰國時已見。

發,將他人隱蔽的犯罪言行告訴有關部門。

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 21.31

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 208

I303. Ex Serv., ad ill. I Aen.: Talibus incusat, qui tamen amplius quam noster.

]

303. Inter Incusare et accusare. Incusamus potiores, accusamus pares. Item incusamus verbo, accusamus crimine et facto.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ACCUSE

arguere is the general word for any imputation of guilt, supposed or actual, in courts of justice or not.

incusare and culpare refer to a criminal complaint made outside a court of justice.

criminari is to accuse someone of crimes in a calumnius hostile spirit.

insimulare is to accuse someone slanderously without just cause.

deferre is to bring someone to court for something.

accusare is to impeach someone for a crime in a criminal court.

LW

indico, indicare, indicavi, indicatus V 1 1 [XXXAX]

point out, show, indicate, expose, betray, reveal; inform against, accuse;

accerso, accersere, accersivi, accersitus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

send for, summon; indict/accuse; fetch, import; invite; invoke; bring on oneself

arguo, arguere, argui, argutus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

prove, argue, allege; disclose; accuse, complain of, charge, blame, convict;

alligo, alligare, alligavi, alligatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

bind/fetter (to); bandage; hinder, impede, detain; accuse; implicate/involve in;

adligo, adligare, adligavi, adligatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

bind/fetter (to); bandage; hinder, impede, detain; accuse; implicate/involve in;

defero, deferre, detuli, delatus V 3 2 [XXXAO]

||bring/lodge information (about), report; indict, accuse, denounce; defer (to);

*

ACCUSATION

LW

crimen, criminis N 3 2 N [XLXAO]

indictment/charge/accusation; blame/reproach/slander; verdict/judgment (L+S);

accusatio, accusationis N 3 1 F [XLXBO]

accusation, inditement; act/occasion of accusation; rebuke, reproof;

criminatio, criminationis N 3 1 F [XLXCO]

accusation, complaint, charge, indictment; making of an accusation;

delatio, delationis N 3 1 F [XLXCO]

accusation/denunciation; laying charge; indicting; informing; offering an oath;

reatus, reatus N 4 1 M [XLXCO]

accusation, charge; state/condition of being accused; dress of accused (L+S);

categoria, categoriae N 1 1 F [DLXES]

accusation; predicament; category/class of predicables (logic);

*

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 2

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ACCUSATIO, ACCUSATOR

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 10

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.318.282

ACCUSATEUR.DENONCIATEUR.DELATEUR

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 45

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO. 45

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.179ABC

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 145B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 40
  • nab : 9
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 8
  • vt[oN] : 5
  • VPtoN : 3
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • vtoS : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 23
  • 韓非子 : 20
  • 史記 : 7
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 論語 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   zuì OC: sbuulʔ MC: dzuo̝i 24 Attributions

Zuì 罪 typically refers to a superior or king raising criminal charges against someone under his jurisdiction, but occasionally the word is used in an extended way to refer to strong criticism offered by anyone with authority. [DESCENDING], [NEUTRAL], [OFFICIAL]

  • nabactcriminal accusation
  • vt+prep+N(blame), accuse, charge with a crime
  • vtoNlevel criminal charges against, hold criminally guilty/responsible; charge with a crime, take legal action against 下吏 "turn over to the prosecutor", 定罪; threaten legal action against;
  • vtoNpassivebe accused of a crime, be charged with crimes
  • vt[oN]raise accusations against people
  • v[adN]N=objthe person accused
訴 / 愬   sù OC: sqlaaɡs MC: suo̝ sù OC: sqlaaɡs MC: suo̝ 15 Attributions

Sù 訴 refers to an informal accusation from the party that maintains it has suffered injustice. [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT] Sù 訴 refers to an informal accusation from the party that maintains it has suffered injustice. [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

  • vtoNmake a complaint against someone concerning an injustice one has suffered from that person
  • nabactcomplaint, accusation
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2accuse or malign (someone N1) in front of (someone else N2) 訴公於晉侯 "accuse the Duke in front of the Lord of Jìn"
  • vt+prep+Nraise accusations in the presence of
  • vtoNobject=courtmake accusations before
   hé OC: ɡɯɯɡ MC: ɦək 7 Attributions

Hé 劾 refers to formal impeachment and the starting of formal criminal proceedings against a culprit, and the accuser in this case tends to be a person of some social standing, normally of high bureaucratic status; in Han times hé 劾 refers to the passing judgment after such a formal procedure. [DESCENDING], [INTENSE], [NEUTRAL], [OFFICIAL]

  • nabactimpeachment
  • vt(oN)bring charges against a contextually determinate person
  • vt[oN]impeach; raise charges; state charges
  • vtoNimpeach, raise charges against, start criminal proceedings against, impeach
  • vtoNpassivebe impeached; be charged
  • vtoSimpeach with...; raise charges that...
譴 / 遣   qiǎn OC: khens MC: khiɛn qiàn OC: khens MC: khiɛn 6 Attributions

Qiǎn 譴 refers to formal more or less serious accusations against officials raised by anyone, including ordinary persons. [ASCENDING], [INTENSE], [OFFICIAL] Qiǎn 譴 refers to formal more or less serious accusations against officials raised by anyone, including ordinary persons. [ASCENDING], [INTENSE], [OFFICIAL]

  • vtoNreprimand (inferior), formally accuse of misdeeds; make accusations about (a person)
  • nabactofficial legal reproof
  • vtoNpassivebe accused
  • vt(oN)reprimand formally a contextually determinate person
   zèn OC: skrɯms MC: ʈʂim 4 Attributions

Zèn 譖 refers generally to slanderous attacks, and sometimes - imperceptibly - the word can refer to something more like slanderous accusations. But the distinctions always seems to remain unclear. See SLANDER. [FALSE], [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

  • vtoNaccuse falsely behind someone's back
   zé OC: skreeɡ MC: ʈʂɣɛk 3 Attributions

The most current general word for accusing someone of something with either good or evil intent is zé 責. [GENERAL], [NEUTRAL]

  • vtoNhold responsible; take to task; take (someone) to task
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2omaccuse a contextually determinate person N1 of (a transgression N2)
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]accuse the contextually determinate N of V-ing
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt[oN]make accusations 責望
  • vtoNblame, accuse, bring public charges against
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNdisclose (incriminating) facts
請罪   qǐng zuì OC: tsheŋʔ sbuulʔ MC: tshiɛŋ dzuo̝i 2 Attributions
  • VPt+prep+Naccuse; demand explanation for misdeeds
   zuò MC: dzwaH OC: sɡools 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivebe accused in court, be tried
   kòng OC: khooŋs MC: khuŋ 1 Attribution

Kòng 控 occasionally refers to a formal complaint directed against the authorities. [ASCENDING], [OFFICIAL]

  • vt[oN]make accusations against others
  • vtoNraise a legal accusation and complaints against (typically a higher authority)
  • vtoNpassivehave legal accusations raised against one
   zhū OC: to MC: ʈi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe accused, be inculpated; be incriminated
   wū OC: ma MC: mi̯o 1 Attribution

Wū 誣 is occasionally used for making false formal accusations against some person, and the word may even refer to false self-incrimination. [FALSE], [INFORMAL], [MALEVOLENT]

  • vtoNraise false accusations against someone which could lead to legal action
告愬   gào sù OC: kuuɡs sqlaaɡs MC: kɑu suo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNaccuse and seek redress from
告訴   gào sù OC: kuuɡs sqlaaɡs MC: kɑu suo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]make accusations 告訴不絕 "keep making accusations" (Hanshu)
  • VPtoNobject=courtlaunch an accusation at N
  • VPttoN1.+prep+N2accuse N1 before N2
控告   kòng gào OC: khooŋs kuuɡs MC: khuŋ kɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNaccuse
有辭   yǒu cí OC: ɢʷɯʔ zɯ MC: ɦɨu zɨ 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]N=humthe accused (non-referential)
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNlodge a formal complaint against> accuse
   tán OC: daan MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNaccuse (Hanshu) 據法彈咸等 "raise accusations against Chén Xián and the others"
   cí OC: sɢlɯ MC: zɨ 0 Attributions
  • naccusation; legal deposition against someone
備責   bèi zé OC: brɯɡs skreeɡ MC: bi ʈʂɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNaccuse of crimes; declare criminally responsible
罪死   zuì sǐ OC: sbuulʔ pliʔ MC: dzuo̝i si 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)accuse the contextually determinate N of a capital crime
訴告   sù gào OC: sqlaaɡs kuuɡs MC: suo̝ kɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPiactmake accusations, protest
  • VPtoNobject=courtmake accusations, protest to
訴罪   sù zuì OC: sqlaaɡs sbuulʔ MC: suo̝ dzuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • VPiactmake accusations
譴告   qiǎn gào OC: khens kuuɡs MC: khiɛn kɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNpassivebe accused
   cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 0 Attributions
  • nabtextHan law: written accusation

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: