PRODUCE as a BUILDING.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. The general current word for erecting or rebuilding a permanent structure of any kind is zhú 築.
2. Lì 立 "to erect" focuses on the resulting uprightness of the structure, but the word.
3. Xiū 脩 focusses on the careful finishing work of construction, and the word also applies to reconstruction with careful attention paid to the finish. [See REPAIR]
4. Gòu 構 "make a structure" focusses on the fitting together of different parts, Lothar Ledderose's modules, to make a structured whole.
5. Qǐ 起 "raise (a building)" is an administrative neutral term that can refer to the building of any larger structure, and the word become current in this meaning in Han times.
6. Wéi 為 is currently used to refer specifically to the building of houses or capitals. See PRODUCE
7. Zuò 作 "take the initiative to build" a very general word to use which can refer to all sorts of making of things. See PRODUCE.
8. Jiàn 建 "to establish" is mostly used abstractly and not for concrete physical structures. See ESTABLISH
9. Jīng 經 and yíng 營 are archaic and poetic words focussing on a concerted large-scale public effort.
Modern Chinese Criteria
建筑 refers specifically to the building of a building.
建 is a general modern word for establishing or building anything.
建造 is a formal word referring to the raising of a typically major building.
筑 (lit) refers to raising a building.
建立 is often figurative. See ESTABLISH
确立 focussing on building something on solid foundations.
基于 refers to something being built on certain foundations.
构造 focusses on the establishing of the structure of something.
興建 refers to the raising of a building.
營建 refers in a traditiional way to the erecting of a building.
first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 賢愚經 : 17
- 韓非子 : 16
- 春秋左傳 : 9
- 管子 : 6
- 百喻經 : 6
- 荀子 : 5
- 孟子 : 4
- 說苑 : 4
- 祖堂集 : 4
- 鹽鐵論 : 3
- 戰國策 : 3
- 六祖壇經 : 3
- 禮記 : 2
- 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
- 毛詩 : 2
- 史記 : 2
- 韓詩外傳 : 2
- 楚辭 : 2
- 呂氏春秋 : 1
- 論衡 : 1
- 莊子 : 1
- 淮南子 : 1
- 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
- 尚書 : 1
築 zhù OC: tuɡ MC: ʈuk 26 Attributions
The general current word for erecting or rebuilding a permanent structure of any kind is zhù 築.
- vt[oN]engage in building
- vtoNbuild with earth [SHI]; build from scratch, erect
作 / 作 / 作 zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 9 Attributions
- vt+prep+Nmiddle voicebe built from the stage N
- vtoNOBI 5: take the initiative to build
成 chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 8 Attributions
- vtoNfinish the building process of, get built
- vtoNpassiveget finished as a building
起 qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 8 Attributions
Qǐ 起 "raise (a building)" is an administrative neutral term that can refer to the building of any larger structure, and the word become current in this meaning in Han times.
- vt(oN)raise the contextually determinate building
- vtoNcommon Han usage: raise (a building)
造 zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 8 Attributions
- vtoNpost-Han: arrange for the building of, erect a larger structure, HOUHANSHU 造構
構 gòu OC: koos MC: ku 7 Attributions
Gòu 構 "make a structure" focusses on the fitting together of different parts, Ledderose's modules, to make a structured whole.
- vtoNconstruct, design (a house etc)
- vtoNfigurativecreate (trouble etc)
為 wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 6 Attributions
修 xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 5 Attributions
Xiū 脩 focusses on the careful finishing work of construction, and the word also applies to reconstruction with careful attention paid to the finish. [See REPAIR]
- nabactact of building/producing
- vtoNbuild up and keep in good repair; typically jussive: have built
- vtoNpassivebe built
營 yíng OC: ɢʷleŋ MC: jiɛŋ 4 Attributions
Jīng 經 and yíng 營 focus on the the planning effort required in large-scale construction work.
- nabmethodplan (typically for a building)
- vadNbuilt; constructed; excavated
- vtoNto plan and lay out; to build
- vtoNfigurativebuild up (good relations etc)
起立 qǐ lì OC: khɯʔ ɡ-rub MC: khɨ lip 4 Attributions
- VPt(oN)build the contextually determinate edifice
- VPtoNbuild, raise, erect (a building)
廬 lú OC: k-ra MC: li̯ɤ 2 Attributions
- vt[oN]occasionally verbal: build a small hut
- vt+prep+Nbuild a hut to live in at N
架 jià OC: kraals MC: kɣɛ 2 Attributions
- vtoNbuild (a nest, house, etc.)
立 lì OC: ɡ-rub MC: lip 2 Attributions
- vtoNbuild up physically
- vtoNpassivebe built, be set up
置 zhì OC: tɯɡs MC: ʈɨ 2 Attributions
- vtoNset up, build (city wall etc)
設 shè OC: qhjed MC: ɕiɛt 2 Attributions
- nfigurativewhat is built up as a figment of the imagination: inventions
- vtoNbuild (a house)
建 jiàn OC: kans MC: ki̯ɐn 1 Attribution
- vtoNbuild, erect, set up; establish (a person in a position)
豎 shù OC: djoʔ MC: dʑi̯o 1 Attribution
- vtoNcausativecause to rise up > erect; build
興立 xīng lì OC: qhɯŋ ɡ-rub MC: hɨŋ lip 1 Attribution
- VPtoNbuild, construct, raise (a building)
脩 xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 0 Attributions
- vtoNbuild up again
興 xīng OC: qhɯŋ MC: hɨŋ 0 Attributions
- vtoNbuild; have built
修造 xiū zào OC: sqlɯw sɡuuʔ MC: sɨu dzɑu 0 Attributions
- VPtoNiussivehave built for oneself
改作 gǎi zuò OC: klɯɯʔ tsaaɡ MC: kəi tsɑk 0 Attributions
- VPt(oN)omrebuild something contextually determinate anew
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: