CITY WALL  城郭

FORTIFYING WALL ENCIRCLING a CITY.
FORTIFICATIONRAMPARTBARRICADEBULWARKSTOCKADE

RAMPART

See also

MOAT

Kind Of

WALL

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Chéng 城 refers to the inner city wall. It was originally built of rammed earth, but during the Han there were also walls built of bricks or stones. See also FORTIFY.

2. Guō 郭 is an outer city wall. Sometimes this is also called kuò 廓.

3. Dié 堞 refers both to the battlements on the wall and to the crenels of it. See RAMPART

4. Nuχiáng 女牆 refers to the battlements on the wall. See RAMPART

5. Yú 隅 refers to the corner of the wall, usually raised above the level of the wall and with building on it.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ARCHITECTURE 1.

城,城牆通稱,特指內城牆、內城。郭,外城牆、外城。

郛,郭的別稱,用於漢以前。

Modern Chinese Criteria

城牆

城垣

城郭

古城

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

WALL

murus refers to any sort of wall, merely with reference to its form, without reference to its use.

paries refers specifically to the outer walls in a house, or the walls within a house.

moenia refers to the city walls, used as a defense against an enemy.

munimenta refers to the system of walls in a fortress.

maceria is the outer wall of a compound to mark the boundaries and to exclude thieves, and the word may refer to a garden wall.

parietina is a wall that has crumbled and lies in ruins.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 49

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 35

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 297

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 320ff

PAULY 1894-1973 Realencyklopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft 5.186

BEFESTIGUNG

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.380

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 167

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 38
  • NP : 4
  • vtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 13
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 管子 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 18 Attributions

Chéng 城 refers to the inner city wall. It was originally built of rammed earth, but during the Han there were also walls built of bricks or stones.

  • ninner city wall; wall
  • nfigurativebe a bulwark
   lěi OC: rulʔ MC: li 9 Attributions
  • nbattlements; defensive walls; ramparts; fortifications; entrenchments
   guō OC: kʷaaɡ MC: kɑk 7 Attributions

Guō 郭 is an outer city wall. Sometimes this is also called kuò 廓.

  • nouter city wall; area around the outer city wall
城池   chéng chí OC: djeŋ rlal MC: dʑiɛŋ ɖiɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialcity wall with moats
   guǐ OC: krolʔ MC: kiɛ 2 Attributions
  • nsurrounding wall with gates
   fú OC: pho MC: phi̯o 2 Attributions
  • nouter city wall
   dié OC: leeb MC: dep 1 Attribution

Dié 堞 refers both to the battlements on the wall and to the crenels of it.

  • nbattlements
  • vtoNbuild a defensive wall around (a palace)
郛郭   fú guō OC: pho kʷaaɡ MC: phi̯o kɑk 1 Attribution
  • nouter wall
  • NPfigurativecity wall
   bǎo OC: puuʔ MC: pɑu 0 Attributions

Bǎo 堡 refers to the small castle, but also to the earthen wall enclosing certain area.

       bì OC: peeɡ MC: pek 0 Attributions

    Bì 壁 refers to the unstable earthen wall of certain height built around military encampment. The term began to be used in the Warring States period.

         kuò OC: khʷaaɡ MC: khɑk 0 Attributions

      Guō 郭 is an outer city wall. Sometimes this is also called kuò 廓.

      • ncity wall
         yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 0 Attributions
      • nKarlgren: a curved or angular piece of extra wall as protection to gate in a city
         yú OC: ŋo MC: ŋi̯o 0 Attributions

      Yú 隅 refers to the corner of the wall, usually raised above the level of the wall and with building on it.

      • ncorner of the city wall
      女牆   nǚ qiáng OC: naʔ sɡaŋ MC: ɳi̯ɤ dzi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

      Nǚ qiáng 女牆 refers to the battlements on the wall.

      • NPbattlements

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: