SAFEGUARD  保護

HAVE AND CAUSE NOT TO BECOME DAMAGED.
KEEPPROTECTPRESERVECONSERVESAVESECURESHIELDGUARDKEEP SAFE.RETAINHOLD ON TOKEEP HOLD OFRETAIN POSSESSION OFKEEP POSSESSION OFNOT PART WITHSAVESTORECONSERVEPUT ASIDESET ASIDEINFORMAL HANG ON TOSTASH AWAY
Taxonoymy

DEFENDSHELTERGUARDASYLUMCARE FOR

Antonymy

DISCARDLOSE

See also

SUPPORTKEEP

Kind Of

HAVE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Bǎo 保 (which emphasises safety against dangers or threats) and shǒu 守 (which emphasises good care and the ensuring that something is not lost or impaired) are the two general words for safeguarding things.

2. Quán 全 refers specifically to keeping a thing in perfect undiminished shape.

3. Chí 持 refers specifically to supporting something in a vigorous and sound state.

4. Bì 庇 refers to protection of inferiors by their superiors.

5. Hù 護 typically refers to protection of superiors by inferiors.

Modern Chinese Criteria

保護 is the current general term for safeguarding or protecting anyone or anything.

保衛 refers to safeguarding something by the use of threatened force.

保障 refers to safeguarding something abstract against violation.

捍衛 refers to the energetic safeguarding and supporting of something with commendable determination.

維護 refers to enthusiastic support for something abstract (like rights etc) with the aim of safeguarding it.

愛護 refers to the safeguarding something with loving care.

保證 refers to the assured or guaranteed safeguarding of something abstract like a right etc..

庇護 refers to safeguarding something concrete by offering shelter for it.

掩護 refers to safeguarding something typically by shielding it against external harm.

衛護 refers to safeguarding something concrete by threatening to defend it by violent means.

護衛

護 may refer rather formally to the protection of something endangered.

保安

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 11.24

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 47

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996豐盈 Ea071.02.02豐腴 Ea071.02.03充盈 Ea071.02.04肉頭 Ea071.02.05 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 25

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 380

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 412

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 168
  • VPtoN : 14
  • VPt(oN) : 6
  • nab : 4
  • vt+prep+N : 4
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • vi : 3
  • n : 3
  • v[adN] : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vt+V[0] : 2
  • vtoNab : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 52
  • 春秋左傳 : 38
  • 呂氏春秋 : 10
  • 孟子 : 10
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 莊子 : 8
  • 孝經 : 7
  • 祖堂集 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 6
  • 管子 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 史記 : 4
  • 漢書 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 法言 : 4
  • 法句經 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 國語 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 群書治要 : 1
  • 意林 : 1

Words

   shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 49 Attributions

Bǎo 保 (which emphasises safety against dangers or threats) and shǒu 守 (which emphasises good care and the ensuring that something is not lost or impaired) are the two general words for safeguarding things.

  • nobjectwhat is safeguarded; property; holding
  • nabactdefensive/self-protective measure
  • v[adN]guardians (of some treasured thing)
  • viacttake good care of things/states
  • vt(oN)figurativeguard, preserve (a contextually determinate abstract N)
  • vtoNkeep to and ensure that one does not lose; hold in reserve
  • vtoNconcreteprotect
  • vtoNfigurativekeep in good shape, take good care of; retain carefully, guard
  • vtoNN=placekeep guard at
  • vtoNpassivebe properly safeguarded
  • vt(oN)keep the contextually determinate place safe
  • vtoNreflexive.自take good care of oneself
  • vtoNobject=abstractkeep unchanged, preserve
   bǎo OC: puuʔ MC: pɑu 29 Attributions

Bǎo 保 (which emphasises safety against dangers or threats) and shǒu 守 (which emphasises good care and the ensuring that something is not lost or impaired) are the two general words for safeguarding things.

  • vtoNsafeguard, keep secure; keep to oneself; protect properly; HF 5.2.20: keep (one purposes) secure and secret
  • vtoNmutualprotect (each other)
  • vtoNpassivebe kept safe and secure
  • vtoNpsychsafeguard (oneself)
  • vtoNabfigurativesafeguard and ensure
  • vtoNreflexive.身keep one's person safe
藏 / 藏臧   cáng OC: sɡaaŋ MC: dzɑŋ  OC:  MC:  21 Attributions
  • vtoNstore up; take good care of; store up and collect; store up to keep safe
  • viactto store goods (may be followed by a locative complement) 藏於王之市
  • vtoNpassivebe collected; be stored
  • vttoN1.+N2store and preserve N1 in the place N2
  • vt+prep+Nstore one's wealth in
   quán OC: sɡon MC: dziɛn 16 Attributions

Quán 全 refers specifically to keeping a thing in perfect undiminished shape.

  • vtoNcausative(cause to be safe>) keep safe and unharmed, safeguard so as to keep intact
  • vtoNcausativekeep (oneself) complete, keep out of harm's way
   fèng OC: boŋʔ MC: bi̯oŋ 8 Attributions
  • vtoNuphold (the law)
   cún OC: sɡɯɯn MC: dzuo̝n 8 Attributions
  • vtoNcause to persist> cause to survive, preserve, safeguard
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to persist
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2psychpreserver N1 in (oneself)
  • vtoNfigurativepreserve from being discarded
自愛   zì ài  MC: dzijH 'ojH  OC: sblids qɯɯds  8 Attributions
  • VPtoNreflexive.自pejorative: be preoccupied with one's own safety; care (above all) for one's own safety, pejorative, unlike modern 保重
   bì OC: pis MC: pi 6 Attributions

Bì 庇 refers to protection of inferiors by their superiors.

  • vtoNprovide shelter for, protect 庇民
  • vtoNreflexive.身protect (oneself)
   ài OC: qɯɯds MC: ʔəi 6 Attributions
  • vtoNtake good care of, care well for, keep well and intact
  • vtoNderivedspare, keep safe (those who might be harmed)
   bǎo OC: puuʔ MC: pɑu 6 Attributions
  • nabactpreservation
  • vtoNpreserve
   wèi OC: ɢods MC: ɦiɛi 6 Attributions
  • vtoNguard, protect ZUO 衛其足ZHUANG 衛生
  • nabsocialthe safeguard, the "bulwark", the (abstract) defence
  • v[adN]N=humsafeguarder
   hù OC: ɢʷaaɡs MC: ɦuo̝ 6 Attributions

Hù 護 typically refers to protection of superiors by inferiors.

  • vtoNtake good care of (inferiors), preserve, protect
  • vtoNreflexive.自take good care of oneself
   huán OC: ɡʷraan MC: ɦɣan 4 Attributions
  • vtoNmake safe plans for; guard on all sides
  • vtoNreflexive.自be (self-)protective
護持   hù chí OC: ɢʷaaɡs ɡrlɯ MC: ɦuo̝ ɖɨ 4 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)omprotect, preserve (a contextually determinate N)
  • VPtoNprotect and preserve, take good care of
   wán OC: ɡoon MC: ɦʷɑn 3 Attributions
  • vtoNtake complete care of, look properly after; preserve completely intact
   huái OC: ɡruul MC: ɦɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • vtoNshow affectionate care for, treat with loving care
  • vtoNfor oneselfkeep to oneself
  • vtoNfigurativecherish as important
   zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNsafeguard against attacks from all directions, guard (a granary); safeguard against all ills
   zhí OC: tjib MC: tɕip 2 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]keep in the shape indicated by V, maintain as V-ing
   shōu OC: qjiw MC: ɕɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNtake in and protect
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNhold down, keep with one
   kān OC: khaan MC: khɑn 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nlook properly after
  • vtoNlook after (so as to care for)
   gù OC: klaas MC: kuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNhave an eye on, be fond of, look well after
覆護   fù hù OC: phuɡs ɢʷaaɡs MC: phɨu ɦuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactprotection
  • VPt(oN)provide shelter and protection for the contextually determiante N
鎮撫   zhèn fǔ OC: tins mʰaʔ MC: ʈin phi̯o 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNtake good care of and safeguard
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • n(mobile) armoured guard???
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNprotect, look well after 天佑下民
宿   sù OC: suɡ MC: suk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNkeep overnight
誡 / 戒   jiè OC: krɯɯɡs MC: kɣɛi jiè OC: krɯɯɡs MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNguard against mishap
   zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativekeep (something) in a place
   bì OC: peds MC: piɛi 1 Attribution
  • nprotection
  • vtoNshield against, guard against
   yùn OC: quns MC: ʔi̯un 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstore up
   zài OC: sɡlɯɯs MC: dzəi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe kept
侍衛   shì wèi OC: ɡljɯs ɢods MC: dʑɨ ɦiɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)resultativeserve so as to safeguard
保任   bǎo rèn OC: puuʔ njɯms MC: pɑu ȵim 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)omprotect, safeguard, take care of (a contextually determinate N)
  • vtoNtake good care of
守伺   shǒu sì OC: qhjuʔ sqlɯs MC: ɕɨu sɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativekeep guard at, watch over
居守   jū shǒu OC: ka qhjuʔ MC: ki̯ɤ ɕɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)safeguard the contextually determinate place N
擁護   yǒng hù OC: qoŋʔ ɢʷaaɡs MC: ʔi̯oŋ ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactrescue and protection
  • VPt(oN)protect the contextually determinate person
護惜   hù xī OC: ɢʷaaɡs sqaɡ MC: ɦuo̝ siɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自protect and show concern for
愛己   ài jǐ MC: 'ojH kiX OC: qɯɯds kɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNkeep oneself safe, German: "sich schadlos halten"
   jǐng OC: kreŋʔ MC: kɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmaintain properly
  • viacttake precautions
   yìn OC: qrɯms MC: ʔim 0 Attributions
  • nabactprotection???
  • vtoNprovide protection for, cherish and foster
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 0 Attributions

Chí 持refers specifically to supporting something in a vigorous and sound state.

       yì OC: p-lɯɡ MC: jɨk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNkeep wings over: protect
       bì OC: piids MC: pei 0 Attributions
    • vtoNlock up (either for storing something, or for keeping someone from escaping)
       xián OC: ɢreen MC: ɦɣɛn 0 Attributions
    • nagentprotector, guardian (of a ruler etc)
    保惜   bǎo xī OC: puuʔ sqaɡ MC: pɑu siɛk 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNsafeguard and show affection for
    保持   bǎo chí OC: puuʔ ɡrlɯ MC: pɑu ɖɨ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNtake care of; take care of oneself
    守攝   shǒu shè OC: qhjuʔ qhljeb MC: ɕɨu ɕiɛp 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNreflexive.其心guard well (one's own mind)

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: