INVESTIGATE  考察審/察

TRY SYSTEMATICALLY to UNDERSTAND.
INQUIRE INTOLOOK INTOGO INTOPROBEEXPLORESCRUTINIZECONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION INTOMAKE INQUIRIES ABOUTINSPECTANALYZESTUDYEXAMINECONSIDERRESEARCHINFORMAL CHECK OUTSUSS OUTSCOPE OUTDIGGET TO THE BOTTOM OF
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general words for investigating something are chá 察 "sort out clearly" and shen 審 "investigate carefully".

2. Kǎo 考 and jī 稽 refer to an objective investigation into something on the basis of the best available evidence.

3. Xǐng 省 typically refers to investigation by introspection.

4. Jiū 究 and qióng 窮 emphasise the thoroughness and exhaustiveness of an investigation.

5. Xiáng 詳, xī 悉, and dì 諦 focus on the detailed nature of an investigation without insisting on its exhaustiveness.

6. Yuán 原 refers to a principled investigation into all aspects of a topic, getting to the bottom of a matter.

NB: pàn 判涄 ome to a result in an investigation � does not refer to the investigation itself but only the final act of judgment on the result; d“ng 定洖 etermine (the truth of a matter) is a resultative verb. Duàn 斷烒 each a conclusion on an investigation � is close to pàn 判.

Modern Chinese Criteria

檢查

檢察

檢討

調查

考察

查明

踏看

踏勘

查證

偵查

偵探

偵緝

查訪

察訪

內查外調

明查暗訪

微服私訪

私行察訪

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

  • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 27

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 227

  • Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian ( Mel'cuk 1984) p. 689

  • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 78

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 4.30

  • Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy ( ZHANG DAINIAN 2002) p. 451

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 225

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 234
  • VPtoN : 19
  • vtoNPab{S} : 10
  • vt+prep+N : 10
  • VPt(oN) : 8
  • vt[oN] : 7
  • VPi : 7
  • vttoN1. prep N2 : 5
  • vt(oN) : 5
  • vtoS : 4
  • nab : 3
  • vi : 3
  • VPt[oN] : 3
  • vtoN : 2
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vt.red(:oN) : 1
  • n : 1
  • VPtoS : 1
  • vt[oN{REFLEX}] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 61
  • 祖堂集 : 24
  • 論語 : 20
  • 說苑 : 20
  • 孟子 : 17
  • 春秋左傳 : 16
  • 管子 : 16
  • 論衡 : 15
  • 荀子 : 14
  • 呂氏春秋 : 13
  • 禮記 : 10
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 9
  • 尚書 : 9
  • 莊子 : 7
  • 楚辭 : 7
  • 六祖壇經 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 韓詩外傳 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 法句經 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 孫子 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 春秋繁露 : 1
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 鶡冠子 : 1

Words

   chá OC: skhreed MC: ʈʂhɣɛt 51 Attributions

The most general words for investigating something are chá 察 "sort out clearly" and shen 審 "investigate carefully".

  • nabactinvestigation; discursive investigation, intellectual investigation
  • vt(oN)investigate the contextually determinate matter
  • vt[oN]conduct an investigation; be investigative; be searching
  • vt+prep+Ninvestigate
  • vtoNlook closely into, pay close attention to and investigate
  • vtoNpassivebe carefully investigated
  • vtoNpsychinvestigate oneself
  • vtoSinvestigate the question whether S
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 40 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actcareful observations and investigations 八觀
  • viactBUDDH: engage in analytical mediation, contemplate
  • vt[0]oNimperativelet us consider the N
  • vtoNcritically observe, watch carefully; look over carefully and systematically, make an overall investigation; survey and examine
  • vtoNpassivebe looked into carefully, be investigated properly
  • vtoNpsychobserve (oneself)
  • vtoNPab{S}observe whether S; investigate how S;
   shì OC: ɡljils MC: dʑi 27 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Ninvestigate, look closely into
  • vtoNlook closely (into a matter); examine (something); have a close look (on something), observe (something) closely; keep an eye on
  • vtoNfigurativelook into and deal with (as an official)
  • vtoNPab{S}invstigate the abstract feature NPab; investigate whether; see whether (with nominalised sentential object)
  • vtoSinvestigate whether; see whether (with sentential object)
   xǐng OC: seŋʔ MC: siɛŋ 26 Attributions

Xǐng 省 typically refers to investigation by introspection.

  • nabactLIJI, zhongyong 15: trial
  • vt(oN)ominspect, investigate, examine (a contextually determinate N)
  • vt[oN{REFLEX}]reflexiveinvestigate oneself
  • vtoNto inspect (something) carefuly, to examine (something) in details
  • vtoNfigurativeexamine (oneself in three respects etc)
  • vt(oN)figurativeinvestigate oneself
  • vtoNpsychinvestigate (oneself), examine (oneself) morally
  • vtoNreflexive.內investigate oneself
  • vt[oN]investigate things
   shěn OC: qhjɯmʔ MC: ɕim 18 Attributions

The most general words for investigating something are chá 察 "sort out clearly" and shen 審 "investigate carefully".

  • vadVjudiciously
  • vt[oN]investigate things carefully
  • vt+prep+Ninvestigate
  • vtoNstudy meticulously, determine distinctly; study carefully; pay consistent careful attention to; investigate closely and with deep concern
  • vtoNpsychinvestigate (oneself) carefully
   fǎn OC: panʔ MC: pi̯ɐn 15 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativeto investigate one's mind; look back at one's behaviour
  • vtoNpsychreflect upon (oneself)
  • vtoNpsychturn to (oneself) and examine oneself
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2psychturn round and investigate things in (oneself)
考 / 考   kǎo OC: khuuʔ MC: khɑu kǎo OC: khuuʔ MC: khɑu 15 Attributions

Kǎo 考 and jī 稽 refer to an objective investigation into something on the basis of the best available evidence. Kǎo 考 and jī 稽 refer to an objective investigation into something on the basis of the best available evidence.

  • vtoNto submit to a close examination; to investigate strictly Shiji: 考信
  • vtoNpassiveget investigated
  • viactconduct investigations
  • vttoN1. prep N2investigate N1 by the measure of N2
   qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 10 Attributions

Jiū 究and qióng 窮 emphasise the thoroughness and exhaustiveness of an investigation.

  • vtoNinvestigate thoroughly (often used in analytical contexts)
   lǎn OC: ɡ-raamʔ MC: lɑm 10 Attributions
  • vtoNgain an intellectual survey of, investigate comprehensively; make a comprehensive investigative survey of
   jié OC: khid MC: khit 9 Attributions
  • vtoNinquire into; ask for details about a matter, ask in order to get to the bottom of a matter
  • vtoNpassivebe investigated into
觀察   guān chá OC: koon skhreed MC: kʷɑn ʈʂhɣɛt 9 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)ominvestigate, inspect (a contextually determinate N)
  • VPt[oN]observe and investigate things
  • VPtoNinvestigate, inspect, check out
內省   nèi xǐng OC: nuubs seŋʔ MC: nuo̝i siɛŋ 7 Attributions
  • VPiactinvestigate oneself inwardly
   jī OC: kii MC: kei 6 Attributions

Kǎo 考 and jī 稽 refer to an objective investigation into something on the basis of the best available evidence.

  • nobjectthings to investigate, things that must be investigated
  • vtoNinvestigate (e.g. antiquity)
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 5 Attributions

Yuán 原 refers to a principled investigation into all aspects of a topic, getting to the bottom of a matter.

  • vt(oN)get to the bottom of something contextually determinate
  • vtoNinvestigate to the bottom, investigate systematically; determine through investigation
   tàn OC: kh-luum MC: thəm 5 Attributions
  • vtoNspy out and investigate, explore carefully
   kàn OC: khaans MC: khɑn 5 Attributions
  • vt.red(:oN)investigate the contextually determinate matter N a little
  • vt(oN)investigate a contextually determinate matter
  • vtoNobserve (from a distance), survey from a distance; find out about through observationBUDDH: view (the mind), investigate (one's thoughts)
  • vtoNclose-upinvestigate at small distance
  • vtoNimperativelook into> i.e. investigate (oneself)
   suǒ OC: saaɡ MC: sɑk 4 Attributions
  • nabactinquiry
  • vtoNinquire into, try to find out about
   běn OC: pɯɯnʔ MC: puo̝n 3 Attributions
  • vtoNget to the bottom of, investigate fundamentally, investigate the reasons of
   xún OC: sqʷlin MC: sʷin 3 Attributions
  • nabactconsultation; investigation; (result of an consultation:) opinion
  • vtoNascertain the facts concerning
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 3 Attributions
  • viactto carry out an inspection
  • vtoNmiddle voicethere are inspections carried out ??
審察   shěn chá OC: qhjɯmʔ skhreed MC: ɕim ʈʂhɣɛt 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNinvestigate carefully
  • VPt(oN)investigate carefully
觀照   guān zhào OC: koon kljews MC: kʷɑn tɕiɛu 3 Attributions
  • NPabactenlightening (self-)investigation
  • VPt(oN)investigate so as to throw light upon
觀見   guān jiàn OC: koon keens MC: kʷɑn ken 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultative?? investigate and come to an understanding > investigate and conclude (or should that rather be interpreted as 'visually investigate' ??)
  • VPtoSinvestigate and understand that > come to the conclusion that
   gé  MC: kaek  OC: kraaɡ  3 Attributions
  • vtoNinvestigate the principles of
  • vtoNpassivebe properly investigated with regard to the principles
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe properly investigated
   kàn OC: khluums MC: khəm 2 Attributions
  • vtoNinspect, investigate, check carefully (German: mustern); test
   wèn OC: mɯns MC: mi̯un 2 Attributions
  • vtoNtake into proper account; show proper intellectual concern for
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 2 Attributions
  • vtoNestablish the facts concerning something> investigate (in concrete detail?); verify, confirm
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)inquire legally into a contextually determinate matter N
  • vtoNexamine; inquire legally into
   jiǎn OC: kromʔ MC: kiɛm 2 Attributions
  • vtoNinvestigate
   jié OC: ɡad MC: gi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNexhaust > thoroughly invistigate
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget properly investigated
   tīng OC: theeŋ MC: theŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNtry to get all the news about, investigate secretly cf. 打聽
   dì OC: k-leeɡs MC: tei 2 Attributions

Xiáng 詳, xī 悉, and dì 諦 focus on the detailed nature of an investigation without insisting on its exhaustiveness.

  • vtoNinvestigate carefully
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe not properly investigated or understood
推窮   tuī qióng OC: kh-luul ɡʷɯŋ MC: thuo̝i guŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNlogicthoroughly investigate; analyse(the very nature of)
考實   kǎo shí OC: khuuʔ ɢljiɡ MC: khɑu ʑit 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNinvestigate so as to establish the facts about> investigate
   sì OC: sqlɯs MC: sɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcarry out surveilance on, keep under close surveilance; wait for and keep under surveilance
   cún OC: sɡɯɯn MC: dzuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vtoNreflexive.自investigate (onself)
   liǎn OC: ɡ-romʔ MC: liɛm 1 Attribution
  • vtoNexamine and sort out properly (compare 檢)
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinvestigate
   jiàn OC: dzamʔ MC: dziɛm 1 Attribution

immerse oneself into> study in detail

  • vtoNfigurativeread qia2n 潛delve into> delve deeply into so as to investigate
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

chī

  • vtoN(poetic, rare:) survey throughout
   jiǎn OC: kreenʔ MC: kɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNexamine; investigate; muster
   yuàn OC: k-lons MC: jiɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtrace to its details and principles, investigate
   xiáng OC: sɢlaŋ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Xiáng 詳, xī 悉, and dì 諦 focus on the detailed nature of an investigation without insisting on its exhaustiveness.

  • vtoNinvestigate to find out
   lùn OC: ɡ-ruuns MC: luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtake into proper account; pay attention to and be intellectually concerned with; pay proper attention to and investigate as one should;
參合   cān hé OC: tshuum ɡloob MC: tshəm ɦəp 1 Attribution
  • NPabactinvestigation comparison and collation
參省   cān xǐng OC: tshuum seŋʔ MC: tshəm siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Npsychinvestigate (oneself)
審合   shěn hé OC: qhjɯmʔ ɡloob MC: ɕim ɦəp 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcollate and investigate, investigate by collating different facts
審驗   shěn yàn OC: qhjɯmʔ ŋɡroms MC: ɕim ŋiɛm 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNinvestigate critically
探知   tàn zhī OC: kh-luum te MC: thəm ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNconduct investigations
有意   yǒu yì OC: ɢʷɯʔ qɯɡs MC: ɦɨu ʔɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Npay close attention to and investigate closely 有意焉
燭察   zhú chá OC: tjoɡ skhreed MC: tɕi̯ok ʈʂhɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNthrow light on so as to investigate
省視   xǐng shì OC: seŋʔ ɡljils MC: siɛŋ dʑi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpsychexamine (oneself)
覽揆   lǎn kuí OC: ɡ-raamʔ ɡʷilʔ MC: lɑm gi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNlook over, inspect closely
觀鑒   guān jiàn OC: koon kraams MC: kʷɑn kɣam 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNobserve carefully so as to draw lessons from
諦察   dì chá OC: k-leeɡs skhreed MC: tei ʈʂhɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNinvestigate closely
諦觀   dì guān OC: k-leeɡs koon MC: tei kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)investigate carefully
退見   tuì jiàn OC: thuubs keens MC: thuo̝i ken 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)distance oneself from and look at> investigate from a distance; shrink back from and investigate
   zài OC: sɡɯɯʔ MC: dzəi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinvestigate
   kǎo MC: khawX OC: khuuʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN=攷 "investigate"
   xí MC: zip OC: sɢlɯb 1 Attribution
  • vtoNderivedbecome more familiar with through close attention
   xùn MC: sinH OC: sɯns 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]"interrogate", i.e. investigate things; enter into a questioning 'dialogue' with things"
   xùn MC: sinH OC: sɯns 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]"interrogate", i.e. investigate things; enter into a questioning 'dialogue' with things"
   miǎo MC: mjiewX OC: mewʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinvestigate meticulously
   zhēn OC: theŋ MC: ʈhiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNHOUHANSHU: investigate visually, observe
   xī OC: sid MC: sit 0 Attributions

Xiáng 詳, xī 悉, and dì 諦 focus on the detailed nature of an investigation without insisting on its exhaustiveness.

  • vtoNtry to understand in detail
   hé OC: ɡrɯɯɡ MC: ɦɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNget to the kernel> investigate
   zhǔ OC: tjoɡ MC: tɕi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmake a close visual examination of; more generally to (be able to) see. It appears that the general sense is earlier than the specific.
   jiū OC: kus MC: kɨu 0 Attributions

Jiū 究and qióng 窮 emphasise the thoroughness and exhaustiveness of an investigation.

  • vtoNto make a careful complete investigation, have a complete understanding
  • vtoNpassivebe got to the bottom of; be investigated completely
   xiōng OC: qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNenquire into; scrutinize (SHI) a
   zhěn OC: kljɯnʔ MC: tɕin 0 Attributions
  • vtoNinvestigate carefully to find possible faults with CC: zì zhěn 自診
  • vtoNpsychseek self-knowledge
   tōng OC: kh-looŋ MC: thuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmake a pervasive study of, get to the bottom of
察省   chá xǐng OC: skhreed seŋʔ MC: ʈʂhɣɛt siɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNinvestigate carefully
審悉   shěn xī OC: qhjɯmʔ sid MC: ɕim sit 0 Attributions
  • VPiactconduct meticulous investigations
審知   shěn zhī OC: qhjɯmʔ te MC: ɕim ʈiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativeinvestigate so as to understand/identify properly
看省   kàn xǐng OC: khaans seŋʔ MC: khɑn siɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)investigate
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoN=攷 "investigate"
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNinvestigate the principles of
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNderivedbecome more familiar with through close attention
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vt[oN]"interrogate", i.e. investigate things; enter into a questioning 'dialogue' with things"

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: