COMPARE  對比

EXPLAIN HOW TWO OR MORE THINGS MUTUALLY RESEMBLE:are-similar OR are MUTUALLY DIFFERENT.
COMPARISONALLEGORYMETAPHORCONTRASTJUXTAPOSECOLLATEDIFFERENTIATE
Kind Of

EXPLAIN

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard word for lining up things for comparison is bǐ 比, and the comparison may be expressed in language or pure psychological. Any two things compared may often be of similar importance to the person who is doing the comparing.

2. Yù 喻 is to illustrate a point by the rhetorical means of comparison (and thus make one's meaning clear).

3. Pì 譬 is close in meaning to bǐ 比, but the word always refers to comparisons that are made linguistically explicit, and there is always one thing (typically something hard to understand) which is illustrated by something else that is much easier to understand. Syntactically, pì 譬 is special in that it standardly takes the object pronoun zhī 之.

Modern Chinese Criteria

對比 refers standardly to comparison between two items only.

對照 focusses on contrastive comparison.

相比 focusses on the mutuality of the comparing or comparability.

相形

比照 is a rather literary word focussing on the contrastiveness of comparison.

比擬 refers to drawing a comparison, and the word is very special in that although transitive, its object can never be explicit.

相對而言

相比之下

比較 is the current modern word for comparison, and that comparison can be between more than two items.

打比 is a colloquial intransitive word for making a comparison.

比擬 focusses on juxtaposing and matching things by way of comparison.

比 is a colloquial current variant for 比較.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 243

COMPARAISON

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 488

COMPARATIO est diversorum ad unam communem, sed ooccultam formam clara reductio.

Requiruntur ergo 1. duo comparata Subjecta. 2. qviddam tertium in quo comparantur. 3. reductio illorum ad invicem sive illius rei in utraqve similiter habentis demonstratio.

Ax.

1. Comparatio in tertio fit.

2. Comparatio duorum fit respectu tertij.

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.43

ANALOGIE

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.223

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.676

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 109

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 68

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.204.164

PARABOLE.ALLEGORIE

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 18
  • VPt+Nab.adV : 11
  • vt[0]onpro.adVtoN : 10
  • vt+prep+N : 10
  • nab : 9
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 8
  • NPab : 6
  • vi : 4
  • vtt[0]oNpro.+prep+N : 4
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2 : 3
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 2
  • vtt[0]oN1.+prep+N2 : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 1
  • nab : 1
  • PPadS1.adS2 : 1
  • vtoN1.postN2:+V : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • vt[0]oN1.ad:Vt[0]oN2 : 1
  • vtt[0](oN1.)+N2:adV : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • VPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 15
  • 論語 : 11
  • 祖堂集 : 11
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 春秋左傳 : 7
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 5
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 五行 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   pì OC: pheɡs MC: phiɛ 26 Attributions

Pì 譬 is close in meaning to bǐ 比, but the word always refers to comparisons that are made linguistically explicit, and there is always one thing (typically something hard to understand) which is illustrated by something else that is much easier to understand. Syntactically, pì 譬 is special in that it standardly takes the object pronoun zhī 之.

  • vtoNab{S1}.adS2compare a situation S1 to another situation S2
  • nabcomparison, metaphorical image
  • nabactcomparison; taking something as an example or point of comparison
  • vt[0]oN1.ad:Vt[0]oN2be like
  • vt[0]onpro.adVtoNone may compare (it) to; one may offer a comparison for (it) 譬之若"making a comparison of them they are like"
  • vtoNoffer comparisons for something
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003
  • vtt[0](oN1.+N2:)adVwhen [you] compare the contextually determinate N1 to the contextually determinate N2, then N1 turns out to V (i.e. resemble N2)
  • vtt[0]oNpro.+prep+Ncompare (something) to (something)
  • vttoN1.+N2compare N1 to N2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2compare N1 to N2
  • viactmake comparisons; use examples
  • vt[0]onpro.adVtoVone may compare it to V-ing
   bǐ OC: piʔ MC: pi 23 Attributions

The standard word for lining up things for comparison is bǐ 比, and the comparison may be expressed in language or pure psychological. Any two things compared may often be of similar importance to the person who is doing the comparing.

  • nabcomparison; point of comparison
  • vt{PASS}oN1.postadN2compared to
  • vt+prep+Nbe comparable to
  • vtoNjuxtapose and compare as similar; make comparisons with
  • vtoNpassivebe juxtaposed and considered as comparable, be compared
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omcompare the contextually determinate object N1 to (something N2)
  • vtt[0](oN.)+prep+N:adVto V by comparison with N
  • vtt[0](oN1.)+N2:adVif one compares it with; by comparison with
  • vtt[0]oN1.+prep+N2one can compare/liken N1 to N2
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2compare
  • vttoN1.+N2compare (something N1) to (something else N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2compare (something or somebody N1) to (something or somebody N2)爾何曾比予於管仲
喻 / 諭   yù OC: los MC: ji̯o yù OC: los MC: ji̯o 14 Attributions

Yù 喻 is to illustrate a point by the rhetorical means of comparison (and thus make one's meaning clear). Yù 喻 is to illustrate a point by the rhetorical means of comparison (and thus make one's meaning clear).

  • vtoNillustrate through a comparison; make one's meaning plain; analogy compare to
  • vt+prep+Ncompare to; be a metaphor for
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe illustrated by
  • nabtextillustration; illustrative story, parable
  • nabderivedrhetorical: metaphor, metaphorical meaning
與其   yǔ qí OC: k-laʔ ɡɯ MC: ji̯ɤ gɨ 12 Attributions
  • VPt+Nab.adVrather than, instead of (it is better to...)
  • PPadS1.adS2rather than
譬喻   pì yù OC: pheɡs los MC: phiɛ ji̯o 6 Attributions
  • NPabtextcomparison; metaphor parable, simile
   fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe compared to
  • vtoNillustrate by comparison
   yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • vtoN1.postN2:+VN1 and N2 > N1 compared to N2 (in constructions were N1 is compared to a N2)
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2compare with
猶較   yóu jiào OC: k-lu kraawɡs MC: jɨu kɣɛu 3 Attributions
  • VPadNcomparable to N; approximately like N, nearly like N, along the line of N
  • VPadVcomparatively, quite
  • VPtoNbe comparable to, be rather like, resemble
儗 / 擬   nǐ OC: ŋɡɯʔ MC: ŋɨ nǐ OC: ŋɡɯʔ MC: ŋɨ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNto compare
  • vt(oN1.)+prep+N2compare the contextually determinate N1 with N2
   jiào OC: kraawɡs MC: kɣɛu 2 Attributions
  • vadVrelatively, comparably
  • vtoNpost-Han: compare
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe comparable to, can be compared to
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vadVcomparatively
   hé OC: ɡloob MC: ɦəp 1 Attribution
  • vifit together
   jiào OC: kreews MC: kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcompare competitively
   kuàng OC: qhʷaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNrare in pre-Buddhist literature make a comparison with
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNlook at so as to compare
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

jiào

  • vtoNcompare (LJ)
   chǒu OC: khljuʔ MC: tɕhɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNrare, derived meaning make analogies between
取喻   qǔ yù OC: skhoʔ los MC: tshi̯o ji̯o 0 Attributions
  • VPiactmake comparisons
引譬   yǐn pì OC: liŋʔ pheɡs MC: jin phiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactmake comparisons
比擬   bǐ nǐ OC: piʔ ŋɡɯʔ MC: pi ŋɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN.+prep+N2)compare one contextually determinate thing to the other
課分   kè fēn OC: khlools pɯn MC: khʷɑ pi̯un 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
引譬取喻   yǐn pì qǔ yù OC: liŋʔ pheɡs skhoʔ los MC: jin phiɛ tshi̯o ji̯o 0 Attributions
  • VPiactmake all sorts of comparisons
   jiē OC: kriid MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2DUNHUANGBIANWEN: compare N1 to N2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: