CRITICISE  批評

SPEAK about something as being BAD and AVOIDABLE.
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for criticism is fēi 非 (ant. shì 是 "approve of").

2. Fěi 誹 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend") is to criticise someone's views in a condescending humiliating way. See also SLANDER.

3. Jī 譏 is part of the historian's standard repertoire and refers typically to historian's censure of the behaviour of historical personalities.

4. Zuì 罪 may sometimes come to refer to strong criticism of a person's views and achievements. See ACCUSE

5. Bàng 謗 refers to slanderous criticism, typically not to the fact but behind one's back. See also SLANDER.

Modern Chinese Criteria

批評 is the current modern word referring to criticism.

批判 emphasises the element of repudiation and judgment in criticism.

提意見 "raise objections against" emphasises the "ad rem" and not ad hominem nature of criticism.

開炮 "open fire on" dramatises ad hominem criticism in a hyperbolic and sometimes jocular manner.

放炮 "shoot the canon" dramatises ad hominem criticism in a hyperbolic and sometimes jocular manner.

批判

批駁

駁斥

駁倒

反駁

指摘

挑剔

挑眼

挑刺兒

找碴兒

找岔子

吹毛求疵

挑毛揀刺

挑字眼兒

咬字眼兒

洗垢求瘢

雞蛋裡挑骨頭

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some words express criticism that is presupposed to be correct (zé 責 ) or is at least typically supposed to be incorrect (bàng 謗 ), others express criticism that is clearly presupposed to false (zèn 譖, chán 讒, zhuó 諑 ).

2. Some words primarily denote face-to-face criticism (jié 訐 ); others always denote criticism behind one's back (fěi 誹 ).

3. Some words express strong criticism likely to lead to punitive action or open conflict (huǐ 毀 ), others express slight dissatisfaction without any implication of future strong punitive action (zǐ 訾 ).

MO 2, ed. Zhōu Cáizhū and Q’ Ru“duān 1995: 10

譖慝之言, Maligning vituperative words

無入之耳; will not enter his ears;

批扦之聲, aggressive sounds

無出之口; will not come out of his mouth

殺傷人之孩,

無存之心,

雖有詆訐之民,

無所依矣。

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 202;583;729;853

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CRITICISE

obiicere is to charge a person with something, from which he must indicate himself as against an accusation.

exprobare refers to upbraiding a person with something about which he can do nothing.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 210

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CORRECTIO

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 133

objecter

objection

M's definition must be made more precise as follows.

In negative response to the affirmation of W by Z, with which X is not in agreement, X affirms the argument Y which is inconsistent with W.

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.1249

KRITIK

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 298

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 339

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 3.450

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.121:81

CRITIQUE.CENSURE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.230.189

DIFFAMATOIRE.DIFFAMANT.INFAMANT

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 351

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 67
  • nab : 24
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 14
  • vt[oN] : 11
  • vtoNPab{S} : 5
  • vt(oN) : 4
  • VPtoN : 4
  • NPab : 3
  • vt+prep+N : 3
  • vtoNab{S} : 3
  • vt-V{SUFF} : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 37
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 15
  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 淮南子 : 9
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 管子 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 鹽鐵論 : 4
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 45 Attributions

The current general term for criticism is fēi 非 (ant. shì 是 "approve of").

  • nabactcriticism; the act of criticising
  • vt+prep+Nputativetake a negative attitude towards, criticise
  • vtoNdeclarativedeclare wrong> criticise; disagree with, deny; disapprove, be opposed to; oppose
  • vtoNpassivebe criticised
  • vtoNpsychcriticise (oneself) LH
  • vtoNputativeconsider wrong
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2criticise N1 in the agent N2
   fěi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 23 Attributions

Fěi 誹 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend") is to criticise someone's views in a condescending humiliating way, and this form of criticism is notably less malicious than that involved in slander while being less formal and moralistic than in blame. See also SLANDER

  • nabactcensure, public criticism
  • vt[oN]engage in censure, engage in public criticism
  • vtoNcensure, express disapproval
  • nabpassiveact, negative: being unjustly criticised> defamation
   bàng OC: paaŋs MC: pɑŋ 23 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actcriticism; public criticism; public blame; points of public criticism
  • vadNactcritical, full of public criticism 謗言 "speeches full of public criticism"
  • vadNpassivemuch criticised, publicly criticised 謗政 "much criticised government"
  • vt[oN]voice public criticism
  • vtoNraise public criticism against, show public dissatisfaction with
  • nabactcriticism suffered
毀 / 譭   huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ 8 Attributions
  • vtoNsometimes: vituperate officially, criticise severely
  • nabactbeing criticised> criticism/slander
  • nabactstrong criticism
  • vt[oN]criticise people
   biǎn OC: promʔ MC: piɛm 7 Attributions
  • vt(oN)disapprove of a contextually determinate person; express disapproval
  • vtoNspeak of in a negative manner
   zǐ OC: tseʔ MC: tsiɛ 6 Attributions
  • nabactsharp criticism
  • vt[oN]engage in petty criticism
  • vtoNfind (often minor) faults with a person or thing, make petty insulting criticisms, insult openly with insinuating remarks
  • vtoNpassiveget pettily insulted
  • vt[oN]swear at others
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 5 Attributions

Jī 譏 is part of the historian's standard repertoire and refers typically to historian's censure of the behaviour of historical personalities.

  • vtoNN=humanattack sharply with words, criticise poignantly
  • vtoNPab{S}to criticise that (with sentential object)
  • vttoN.+V[0]criticise N for V-ing
  • vtoNN=actcriticise
   wù OC: qaaɡs MC: ʔuo̝ 4 Attributions
  • nabactblame and criticism
  • vtoNab{S}criticise the act of S; disapprove of Nab
   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 3 Attributions

Jí 疾 (ant. měi 美 "praise the splendid qualities of someone") refers to strong personal stricture.

  • vtoNtake strong exception (to somebody), be highly critical of
  • vtoNpassivebe the object of strong criticism
  • vtoNpsychblame (oneself)
  • vtoNPab{S}be critical of S
   jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn 3 Attributions
  • vt-V{SUFF}criticize
  • vt(oN)criticize
誹謗   fěi bàng OC: pɯl paaŋs MC: pɨi pɑŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabactpublic criticism 誹謗之木
   cì OC: skhleɡs MC: tshiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfig: criticise; reprimand
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotfig: to criticise; castigate
   shèn OC: ɡljums MC: dʑim 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbe hard on, be especially hard on
  • vtoNbe hard on; raise serious critical objections against someone; make grave charges against someone; pass strong negative judgment against somneone
   suì OC: squds MC: si 2 Attributions
  • vtoNreprimand
  • vtoNpassivebe reprimanded
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfind fault with
   zuì OC: sbuulʔ MC: dzuo̝i 1 Attribution

Zuì 罪 may sometimes come to refer to strong criticism of a person's views and achievements. See ACCUSE

  • vtoN(of persons with a certain authority) make strong criticism of
  • vtoNpassivebe criticised by
毀訾   huǐ zǐ OC: qhʷralʔ tseʔ MC: hiɛ tsiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassiveslander and criticism
非悔   fēi huǐ OC: pɯl hmɯɯʔ MC: pɨi huo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpsychcriticise (oneself) so as to show signs of regret or remorse
非斥   fēi chì OC: pɯl khljaɡ MC: pɨi tɕhiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcriticise
非笑   fēi xiào OC: pɯl sqows MC: pɨi siɛu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNmake mocking criticism of
   jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbring out into the open and criticise, hold up for criticism
   tán OC: daan MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNreprimand (an official)
   cī OC: dze MC: dziɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdeclarativedeclare defective> criticise
   xuǎn OC: sqonʔ MC: siɛn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivebe criticised; be found fault with
間然   jiān rán OC: kreen njen MC: kɣɛn ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
  • NPabactcriticism one wants to make
   xià OC: ɢraas MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoN
   wèn OC: mɯns MC: mi̯un 0 Attributions
  • vtoNquestion the validity of; censure; criticise
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNGUIGUZI: blame, criticise

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: