BLAME  責怪

CRITICISE someone as GUILTY of a WICKED:reprehensible MISTAKE OR a CRIME.
HOLD RESPONSIBLEHOLD ACCOUNTABLECONDEMNACCUSEFIND/CONSIDER GUILTYASSIGN FAULT/LIABILITY/GUILT TOINDICTPOINT THE FINGER ATFINGERINCRIMINATEARCHAIC INCULPATE
Taxonoymy

ACCUSESCOLD

Antonymy

PRAISEFORGIVE

See also

GUILTCURSECOMPLAINGRUMBLE

Kind Of

CRITICISE

Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[DRAMATIC/UNDRAMATIC]

[ELEVATED/FAMILIAR]

[FACE-TO-FACE/NOT-FACE-TO-FACE]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[PRIVATE/PUBLIC]

1. The current general word for declaring someone morally rather than criminally responsible for a misdeed is jiù 咎 (ant. yù 譽 "praise").

[ARCHAIC?], [NOT-FACE-TO-FACE!], [PRIVATE]

2. Shǔ 數 refers to the recounting and publicly recounting and listing up of the misdeeds or mistakes someone has made.

[FACE-TO-FACE], [HIGH-DEGREE]

3. Zé 責 (ant. chēng 稱 "praise someone for something") often refers to the public apportioning of blame without the threat of legal action. [see ACCUSE]

[FORMAL], [FACE-TO-FACE]

4. Ràng 讓 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend strongly, in public") refers to strong public blame and abuse.

[DRAMATIC], [FACE-TO-FACE], [PUBLIC],

5. Qiào 誚 refers to a strong and often abusive public reprimand.

[DRAMATIC], [FACE-TO-FACE], [FAMILIAR]; [[RARE]]

5. Yóu 尤 often refers to official blame and censure, but there are archaic generalised uses of the word where it simply means "to apportion blame for something".

[ARCHAIC+], [ELEVATED], [NOT-FACE-TO-FACE]

6. Jí 疾 (ant. měi 美 "praise the splendid qualities of someone") refers to strong personal stricture.

[DRAMATIC], [FACE-TO-FACE], [INFORMAL]

7. Guò 過 (ant. yù 譽 ) typically refers to a mild and/or subjective moral disagreement with someone. See MISTAKE

[LOW-DEGREE], [MARGINAL]

Modern Chinese Criteria

怪 is the current colloquial modern word for blaming someeone.

責怪 is the standard modern word for blaming someone.

責備 refers in a neutral way to holding someone responsible for a misdeed without necessarily distancing oneself from that person.

怪罪 focusses strongly on the guilt/crime attributed.

見罪 refers specifically to exposure to blame, in the passive mode.

見怪 refers specifically to exposure to blame, in the passive mode.

嗔怪 refers to hot-headed angry blaming.

賴 refers to blaming someone wrongly.

嗔 (cl)

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The censure may be primarily a public act (qiào 誚, ràng 讓, shǔ 數, zé 責 ); or it may be primarily private and psychological act (guò 過, jiù 咎 ).

2. The censure may be serious and powerful (jiù 咎, ràng 讓, shǔ 數, yóu 尤, zé 責 ); or it may be admit of the possibility of the censure being cursory and transitory (qiào 誚, zhé 謫 ).

3. The censure may be primarily directed against a transgression (zhé 謫, guò 過, shù 數, zé 責 ); or it may be predominantly ad hominem (ràng 讓, qiào 誚, jiù 咎 ).

4. The censure may be impulsive and face-to-face (shǔ 數, ràng 讓, qiào 誚, zé 責 ); or it may be well-considered and normally not accompanied by a face-to-face confrontation (jiù 咎, guò 過, yóu 尤, zhé 謫 ).

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.78

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 21.32

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 452

ACCUSARE aliqvem, malae rei causam illi tribuere.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BLAME

reprehendere refers to blame with a view to the amendment of a fault or a warning for the future.

vituperare "rebuke" refers to blame with the aim of calling forth acknowledgement of a fault, bett er judgment, shame and repentance.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 137?

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 17

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 192

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

OBJURGATIO

REPREHENSIO

VITUPERIUM

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 9

467

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 51

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.214.174

CORRIGER, REPRENDRE.REPRIMANDER

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 60B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 82
  • nab : 29
  • VPtoN : 5
  • vt+prep+N : 4
  • NPab : 4
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vtt(oN1.)(+N2) : 2
  • vttoN1. N2 : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 41
  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 管子 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 楚辭 : 6
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 法句經 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 論語 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 穆天子傳六卷(郭璞注) : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   jiù OC: ɡlɯwʔ MC: gɨu 26 Attributions

The current general word for declaring someone morally rather than criminally responsible for a misdeed is jiù 咎 (ant. yù 譽 "praise").

  • nabactmoral blame; recriminations
  • vadNblameworthy
  • vtoNberate, upbraid, raise serious moral criticism against, blame morally 國人皆咎公。
  • vtoNpsychblame (oneself)
   yóu OC: ɢʷɯ MC: ɦɨu 23 Attributions

Yóu 尤 often refers to official blame and censure, but there are archaic generalised uses of the word where it simply means "to apportion blame for something".

  • nabactblame, official reproach; supernatural disapproval
  • vt+prep+Nto blame, to hold morally guilty
  • vtoNberate, to blame, to hold morally guilty See also GUILT
   zuì OC: sbuulʔ MC: dzuo̝i 19 Attributions
  • nabactthe blame for things that go wrong
  • vtoNpsychblame (oneself) 自罪
  • vtoNpsychblame (oneself) 罪己
  • vtoNputativeregard as guilty, hold (a person) guilty
  • vtoNdeclarativedeclare guilty
   zé OC: skreeɡ MC: ʈʂɣɛk 15 Attributions

Zé 責 (ant. chēng 稱 "praise someone for something") often refers to the public apportioning of blame without the threat of legal action. [see ACCUSE]

  • vadNdisparaging
  • vt(oN)make complaints against a contextually determinate person
  • vtoNdeclare responsible for misdeeds (without proposing legal action)
  • vtoNpassivebe blamed
  • vtoNpsychblame (oneself)
   ràng OC: njaŋs MC: ȵi̯ɐŋ 12 Attributions

Ràng 讓 and qiào 誚 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend strongly, in public") refers to strong public blame and abuse, Cultural Revolution style.

  • nabactpublic reprimand, public moral accusation; public reproof
  • vtoNupbraid; reprove, criticise openly; reprimand publicly
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2complain about the contextually determinate matter N1 to N2
  • vt+prep+Nblame
  • vt(oN)arraign the contextually determinate N; make a public show of disapproval to N
誚 / 誚譙   qiào OC: dzewɡs MC: dziɛu  OC:  MC:  10 Attributions

Ràng 讓 and qiào 誚 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend strongly, in public") refers to strong public blame and abuse, Cultural Revolution style. Ràng 讓 and qiào 誚 (ant. zàn 贊 "commend strongly, in public") refers to strong public blame and abuse, Cultural Revolution style.

  • vtoNblame publicly, reprimand; swear at
   shǔ OC: sqroʔ MC: ʂi̯o 4 Attributions

Shǔ 數 refers to the recounting and publicly listing up of the misdeeds or mistakes someone has made.

  • viactrecount the faults of someone
  • vtoNrecount the crimes or mistakes of; blame and attack face-to-face
怨咎   yuàn jiù OC: qons ɡlɯwʔ MC: ʔi̯ɐn gɨu 4 Attributions
  • NPabactresentful recrimination
   yuàn 4 Attributions
  • vtoNto blame N with resentment
   guài OC: kruuds MC: kɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • vtoNto declare responsible for a misdeed
  • vtt(oN1.)(+N2)omblame a contextually determinate N1 for for the contextually determinate N2
  • vttoN.+V[0]blame N for V-ing
   zhé OC: krleeɡ MC: ʈɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • nabacta reproach, censure (very often written 適)
  • vtoNupbraid, reprimand
   qiān OC: khran MC: khiɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe blamed
   shuō OC: lʰod MC: ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNblame
剋責   kè zé OC: khɯɯɡ skreeɡ MC: khək ʈʂɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自blame
受罪   shòu zuì OC: djuʔ sbuulʔ MC: dʑɨu dzuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe blamed
悔責   huǐ zé OC: hmɯɯʔ skreeɡ MC: huo̝i ʈʂɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自regret and blame (oneself)> repent [PERHAPS NOT REALLY A COMPOUND TO BE ANALYSED TOGETHER!]
訶責   hē zé OC: qhlaal skreeɡ MC: hɑ ʈʂɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe blamed
誣咎   wū jiù OC: ma ɡlɯwʔ MC: mi̯o gɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNblame wrongly; blame fraudulently
   fǎn MC: pjonX OC: panʔ 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1. N2find fault (N1) with N2
   nù OC: naas MC: nuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)SHI 211: be angry at a contextually determinate person and blame him for an improper act
   chì OC: khljaɡ MC: tɕhiɛk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNblame rudely and publicly
   dū OC: k-luuɡ MC: tuok 0 Attributions
  • vtoNblame
   chuán OC: djon MC: dʑiɛn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNto blame
患苦   huàn kǔ MC: hwaenH khuX OC: ɢroons khaaʔ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNblame for troubles and hardship

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: