ADMIRE  仰慕

APPRECIATE AND DELIGHT in what one BELIEVES is MORE GOOD IN-RELATION-TO either ONESELF OR IN-RELATION-TO what is COMMON.*Admiration by the admirer X of the admired person Y for an admired characteristic Z
ESTEEMAPPROVE OFRESPECTTHINK HIGHLY OFRATE HIGHLYHOLD IN HIGH REGARD
Taxonoymy

RESPECT

Antonymy

DESPISEENVYJEALOUS

Kind Of

APPRECIATE

Old Chinese Criteria

[ACTIVIY/STATE]

[AESTHETIC/MORAL]

[ASCENDING/HORIZONTAL/DESCENDING]

[EMOTIONAL/RATIONAL]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[MENTAL/OVERT]

[OBJ=HU/OBJ=NONHU]

[OBJECTIVE/SUBJECTIVE]

[OVERT/COVERT]

[PRIVATE/PUBLIC]

1. The standard general word for admiration is mù 慕 (ant. bǐ 鄙 "hold in low esteem"), and this word often connotes emulation.

[ASCENDING], [EMOTIONAL], [OBJ=HU], [STATE], [SUBJECTIVE]

2. Wàng 望 refers to an intense distant admiration of some heroic or in any way especially elevated figure.

[ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [HIGH-DEGREE], [OBJ=HU], [RATIONAL], [SUBJECTIVE]

3. Yǎng 仰 (ant.* yì 易 "have no special respect for") refers to a distant veneration of some heroic or in any way especially elevated figure.

[ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [HIGH-DEGREE], [OBJ=HU], [RATIONAL], [SUBJECTIVE]

4. Shàng 尚 (ant. qīng 輕 "have no special respect for") refers to giving high practical priority to something or someone out of a sense of admiration or appreciation.

[ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [OBJ=HU], [OVERT] [PUBLIC]

5. Shàng 上 (ant. xià 下 "despise, have no special respect for") refer to giving high practical priority to something out of a sense of admiration or appreciation.

[ASCENDING], [OBJ=NON-HU], [OBJECTIVE], [OVERT], [PUBLIC]

6. Yòu 右 (ant. qīng 輕 "have no special respect for") refer to giving high practical priority to something or someone out of a sense of admiration or appreciation.

[ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [OVERT], [PUBLIC]

7. Měi 美 (ant. è 惡 "find despicable an dislikable") refers to an intense expressly subjective aesthetic or moral appreciation for something as admirable.

[COVERT], [STATE], [SUBJECTIVE]

8. Duō 多 (ant. shǎo 少 "feel no respect for") refers to an objective assessment of something as worthy of admiration.

[COVERT], [OBJECTIVE], [RATIONAL], [STATE]

9. Xiàn 羨 refers to rather personal and private admiration for something, and this admiration is sometimes mixed with envy.

[COVERT], [EMOTIONAL], [STATE], [SUBJECTIVE]

Modern Chinese Criteria

佩服

向慕 refers to loving devoted admiration.

敬佩

欽佩

贊佩

嘆服

推服

傾倒

心折

心醉 refers to enchanted admiration.

肅然起敬

心悅誠服

五體投地

敬仰

欽仰

景仰

宗仰

仰慕

企慕

敬慕

景慕

慕名

心儀

想望

向往

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some verbs can take non-human objects (měi 美, shàng 尚, yòu 右 ), others (mù 慕, wàng 望, yǎng 仰, zhān 瞻 ) are largely restricted to human or human-action objects.

2. Some verbs designate distant admiration (gāo 高, shàng 尚, wàng 望 ), others include the aspiration to equal the object admired (mù 慕 ).

3. Some verbs designate an admiration for something that need not be distant (měi 美 ), others empasise the distance between admirer and the admired (yǎng 仰, zhān 瞻 ).

4. Some verbs tend to designate a permanent or lasting admiration (mù 慕, yǎng 仰, wàng 望 ), others typically express a temporary reaction (měi 美 ).

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 145

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ADMIRE

vereri refers to respect bordering on fear and bashfulness.

revereri refers to fear and bashfulness as arising from respoect.

venerari refers to demonstrative reverence whown towards gods and sacred things, mostly or typically in gestures.

observare refers to demonstrative reverence towards men.

colere refers to demonstrative reverence towards gods or men as manifested in action.

adorare is the most general expression for any sort of worship.

LW

intueor, intueri, intuitus sum V 2 1 DEP [XXXAX]

look at; consider, regard; admire; stare;

ammiror, ammirari, ammiratus sum V 1 1 DEP [XXXBO]

admire, respect; regard with wonder, wonder at; be surprised at, be astonished;

admiror, admirari, admiratus sum V 1 1 DEP [XXXBO]

admire, respect; regard with wonder, wonder at; be surprised at, be astonished;

suspicio, suspicere, suspexi, suspectus V 3 1 [XXXBX]

look up to; admire;

miror, mirari, miratus sum V 1 1 DEP [XXXCX]

be amazed at; admire; wonder; marvel at; look on with admiration;

adamo, adamare, adamavi, adamatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXBO]

fall in love/lust with; love passionately/adulterously; admire greatly; covet;

*

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 214ff

voschishchat'

voskhishtshenie

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 54

ADMIRATION

Admiration by the admirer X of the admired person Y for an admired characteristic Z

Emotional attitude of X, which is favourable to Y, this attitude being caused by the following fact: X believes that the actions, the state, or the characteristics of Z of Y are absolutely extraordinary; this atitude being one that one would normally have under such circumstances.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 22

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.221

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 10.116

STAUNEN; BEWUNDERUNG; VERWUNDERUNG

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 233

尚,上

1. The explanation in WL that 尚 is mostly abstract while 上 tends to be concrete and spatial is misleading as it stands. Sha4ng 上 is very often used in transferred abstract senses. The point is that sha4ng 尚 tends to be verbal and never has a purely spatial meaning at all.

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 337

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 50A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 81
  • n : 4
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vadN : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vtoS : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 31
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 法言 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 管子 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1

Words

   mù OC: maaɡs MC: muo̝ 19 Attributions

The standard general word for admiration is mù 慕 (ant. bǐ 鄙 "hold in low esteem"), and this word often connotes emulation. [ASCENDING], [EMOTIONAL], [OBJ=HU], [STATE], [SUBJECTIVE]

  • vtoNbe full of admiration for (an ideal, a value, a thing); sometimes also: strive towards as one's main ambition; yearn for
   měi OC: mriʔ MC: mi 13 Attributions

Měi 美 (ant. è 惡 "find despicable an dislikable") refers to an intense expressly subjective aesthetic or moral appreciation for something as admirable. [COVERT], [STATE], [SUBJECTIVE]

  • vtoNputativeadmire the beauty of; admire the moral qualities of; regard as beautiful, regard as wonderful
  • vtoNpassivebe admired as beautiful
  • vtoNputative.reflex.自admire (oneself) as beautiful
  • vadNadmirable
   shàng OC: djaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 11 Attributions

Shàng 尚(ant. qīng 輕 "have no special respect for") refers to giving high practical priority to something or someone out of a sense of admiration or appreciation.

  • vt(oN)admire the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNgive high priority to; prize highly; give highest priority to; admire more than other things; show admiration for
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe esteemed; enjoy high status
   gāo OC: koow MC: kɑu 10 Attributions
  • vtoNputativeregard highly; give high priority to; esteem;
   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 9 Attributions

Duō 多 (ant. shǎo 少 "feel no respect for") refers to an objective assessment of something as worthy of admiration. [COVERT], [OBJECTIVE], [RATIONAL], [STATE]

  • vtoNpsychhave high (self-)esteem; be too full of oneself
  • vtoNputativethink much of, regard as important, regard highly; have an inflated opinion of
  • vtoNpassivebe regarded as important
  • vtoSappreciate that S
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 9 Attributions

Wàng 望 refers to an intense distant admiration of some heroic or in any way especially elevated figure. [ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [HIGH-DEGREE], [OBJ=HU], [RATIONAL], [SUBJECTIVE] Wàng 望 refers to an intense distant admiration of some heroic or in any way especially elevated figure. [ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [HIGH-DEGREE], [OBJ=HU], [RATIONAL], [SUBJECTIVE]

  • vtoNadmire from a distance; look up to admiringly from a distance; look up to and place one's hopes in
  • nobjectobject of admiration 民之望也 "the object of the people's admiration" ZUO
  • vt+prep+Nbe full of admiration for N
   xī OC: qhlɯl MC: hɨi 5 Attributions
  • vtoNadmire and emulate
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋʔ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions

Shàng 上 (ant. xià 下 "despise, have no special respect for") refer to giving high practical priority to something out of a sense of admiration or appreciation. [ASCENDING], [OBJ=NON-HU], [OBJECTIVE], [OVERT], [PUBLIC]

  • vtoNputativeREGARD AS ELEVATED loan for shàng 尚> put high or highest in one's intellectual hierarchy, exalt, value highly
   yǎng OC: ŋaŋʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

Yǎng 仰 (ant.* yì 易 "have no special respect for") refers to a distant veneration of some heroic or in any way especially elevated figure. [ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [HIGH-DEGREE], [OBJ=HU], [RATIONAL], [SUBJECTIVE]

  • vtoNlook up towards and admire
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions

Yòu 右 (ant. qīng 輕 "have no special respect for") refer to giving high practical priority to something or someone out of a sense of admiration or appreciation. [ACTIVITY], [ASCENDING], [OVERT], [PUBLIC]

  • vtoNputativeconsider as superior; esteem and appreciate
   wěi OC: ɢulʔ MC: ɦɨi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNputativeHANSHU, Dongfang Shuo zhuan: admire as outstanding
   qīn OC: khrɯm MC: khim 1 Attribution
  • vtoNSHU: be full of admiration for, be devoted to
   zhān OC: kljam MC: tɕiɛm 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfigurativelook upwards towards in admiration
以為   yǐ wéi OC: k-lɯʔ ɢʷal MC: jɨ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNesteem highly????
服媚   fú mèi OC: bɯɡ mrils MC: buk mi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNbe full of admiration
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbehold, regard with respect
  • vtoNpassivebe observed with respect, be admired
   fú MC: bjuwk OC: bɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNadmire
   pèi OC: bɯɯs MC: buo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vtoNSUWEN 9: admire, be full of admiration for
   shì OC: ɡljils MC: dʑi 0 Attributions
  • vtoNadmire
   xǔ OC: hŋaʔ MC: hi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vtoN(of superiors, vis-a-vis inferiors) be full of admiration for
可憐   kě lián OC: khlaalʔ riin MC: khɑ len 0 Attributions
  • VPadNlovely, admirable, likeable
  • VPican be sympathized with > be lovely, admirable, likeable
器重   qì zhòng OC: khrɯds doŋʔ MC: khi ɖi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNadmire; value highly; regard as important
歎賞   tàn shǎng OC: mqhlaans lʰaŋʔ MC: thɑn ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)admire a contextually determinate person
重望   zhòng wàng OC: doŋʔ maŋs MC: ɖi̯oŋ mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNpassivebe admired; enjoy a high reputation
可憐許   kě lián xǔ OC: khlaalʔ riin hŋaʔ MC: khɑ len hi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPiadmirable, lovely
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNadmire

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: