DIFFERENT  差別

RELATION of NOT MUTUALLY RESEMBLING.
DISSIMILARUNALIKEUNLIKECONTRASTINGCONTRASTIVEDIVERGENTDIFFERINGVARYINGDISPARATEPOLES APARTINCOMPATIBLEMISMATCHEDCONFLICTINGCLASHINGDISSIMILARITYCONTRASTDISTINCTIONDIFFERENTIATIONVARIANCEVARIATIONDIVERGENCEDISPARITYDEVIATIONPOLARITYGULFGAPIMBALANCECONTRADICTIONCONTRADISTINCTION
Taxonoymy

CONTRARYOTHERCRAZYHETERODOXSPECIAL

Antonymy

SAME

See also

DISTINGUISH

Kind Of

RELATION

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant general term for difference is yì 異 (ant. tóng 同 "be the same").

2. Fēn 分 and bié 別 is a difference established by humans through convention or by an intellectual effort. See DISTINGUISH

3. Chà 差 (ant. děng 等 "be without difference established by social conventions") refers to a difference established through social practice.

4. Shū 殊 (ant. jìn 近 "essentially close to", yī 一 "be one and the same") refers abstractly to a categorial distance.

Modern Chinese Criteria

殊異

各別

兩樣

不等

不一樣

不同

差別

異樣

區別

出入

差異

異樣

歧異

差距

距離

千差萬別

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 508

DIFFERENTIA est duorum aut plurium ab invicem, re aliqua distantia.

Constat 1. Duobus, qui conferuntur. et 2. Uno tertio, in quo conferuntur 3. Illorumqve hinc et hinc Discessu a media forma.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DIFFERENT

varium refers to differences within a given thing, "varied".

versicolor refers to something that is varied in colour, or changes in colour.

diversum refers to something different from other things "distinct".

contrarium refers to something that is not only distinct but directly the opposite of something else.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 332

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 298

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.235

DIFFERENZ

See also UNTERSCHIED, SPEZIFISCHER

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 262

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.16:15

DIFFERENCE.INEGALITE.DISPARITE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.245.201

DIFFERENCE.DIVERSITE.VARIETE.BIGARRURE

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 248

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO. 56

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 26
  • nab : 24
  • vi2 : 23
  • vadN : 21
  • nab.t : 19
  • vi : 14
  • vt+prep+N : 13
  • NPab : 9
  • vt(oN) : 6
  • vt2 : 4
  • VPi2 : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • VPi : 3
  • VPtoN : 3
  • nab.t:+prep+N : 3
  • vpostadV : 2
  • n : 2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 2
  • VPi0 : 1
  • vtpostN{OBJ} : 1
  • VPt prep N : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • vt+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 荀子 : 20
  • 論衡 : 19
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 論語 : 11
  • 六祖壇經 : 11
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 9
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 臨濟錄 : 5
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
  • 法言 : 4
  • 管子 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 沈約集九卷 : 1
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   yì OC: p-lɯɡs MC: jɨ 90 Attributions

The dominant general term for difference is yì 異 (ant. tóng 同 "be the same").

  • nsubjectsomething different; different things
  • nab.t:+prep+Nrelationaldifference from N
  • nab.trelationaldifference from N
  • nabconceptdifference
  • nabfeaturedifference
  • vadNdifferent
  • vadVin different ways; different object
  • vistand out; be different from the ordinary, extraordinary, exceptional, phenomenal
  • viactDELETE
  • vichangebecome different
  • virepeatedbe different... be different: the two are different from one another
  • vi2(of several subejcts) diverge, differ from each other, be different; be extraordinary, be remarkable
  • vt+prep+Nstativeto be different from, to differ from something 異於 [also: 異乎][CA]
  • vt2differ from each other as to (e.g. customs etc) see also 異乎
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat as special and different
  • vtoNcausativecause the N to be different; make sure that the N should be different
  • vtoNcausativebe caused to differ: be made different
  • vtoNstativediffer with respect to; differ in respect of; be different from
   shū OC: djo MC: dʑi̯o 17 Attributions

Shū 殊 (ant. jìn 近 "essentially close to", yī 一 "be one and the same") refers abstractly to a categorial distanc

  • nabfeaturedifference; point of difference
  • vadNdifferent
  • vi2be different
  • vt+prep+Nmark oneself out from; be different from
  • vtoNstativediffer with respect to
  • vttoN1.+N2attitudinaltreat (something/somebody N1) as different from (something else N2)
  • vt(oN)be different from the contextually determinate N
  • v[adN]different features
   bié OC: pred MC: piɛt 14 Attributions

Fēn 分and bié 別 is a difference established by humans through convention or by an intellectual effort. See DISTINGUISH

  • nabconceptdifference
  • nabfeaturedifference
  • vad.VtoNreference=N(verb) a different object N
  • vadNalternative, different 別名
  • vadVdifferently, in a different way
  • vi2(of two subjects) be different
  • vt(oN)be different from the contextually determinate N
  • vt+prep+Nbe different from N
  • vt+prep+Ncausativemake (oneself) different from N
  • vtoNcausativemake different, ensure that (something) becomes different> modify (note the contrast with DISTINGUISH)
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be distinct
  • vtoNstativediffer with respect to
  • vistand out as different
   fēn OC: pɯn MC: pi̯un 12 Attributions

Fēn 分and bié 別 is a difference established by humans through convention or by an intellectual effort. See DISTINGUISH

  • nabmetaphysicaldistinction; distinguishing features, difference
  • vadVseparately; in different places
  • vi2be different (from each other)
  • vttoN1.+N2causativecause (oneself) to remain different from N2
差別   chā bié OC: skhraal pred MC: ʈʂhɣɛ piɛt 7 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistnon-discrimination
  • NPabrelationaldifference
  • VPi2they are different
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 5 Attributions
  • vadNdualistic
  • vibe two > be different (from each other); dualistic
    OC:  MC:  5 Attributions

Chà 差 (ant. děng 等"be without difference established by social conventions") refers to a difference established through social practice.

  • nab.t:post-Nmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: differenceThis word occurs only in the commentaries, and not in JZ. One might think of 差 as the result the operation of substraction. In the formulation xy 差 "difference between x and y" the reference is to the result of subtracting the smaller one of x and y from the larger.JZ 9.5, Liu Hui's comm: 是其冪以股弦差為廣股弦并為袤 "As for this its quantified extension one takes the difference between the height and the hypotenuse as width, and one takes the sum of the height and the hypotenuse as length." Note that while bìng 并 is used both before and after the two terms added, and can even intervene between the two, chà 差 only occurs in "inverse Polish notation" word order, after the two terms between which the difference is calculated.JZ 9.15: 句弦差減股為圓徑 "Subtracting the difference between the base and the hypotenuse from the height makes the diameter of a circle."JZ 9.15, Liu Hui's comm: 以句弦差乘股弦差而倍之,開方除之... "Multiplying the difference between the base and the hypotenuse by the difference between the height and the hypotenuse, doubling this and dividing the result (note that 之 regularly refers to the result of the operation immediately preceding, thus not being strictly anaphoric) by extraction of the square root..."When the difference between x and y itself becomes a term in further calculation, it can be referred to only by chà 差, never by 減. The operation itself, also, must then always be designated with chà 差.
  • nabactdistinction made; differentiation in practice
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: differenceJZ 9.6, Liu Hui's comm: 減此差冪於矩冪 "One subtracts the square of this difference from the quantified extension of the gnomon."
  • vt(oN)be different; be an exception
  • vi2deviate from each other, be inconsistent with each other
   qù OC: khas MC: khi̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNstativebe different from
   yuǎn OC: ɢʷanʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • vpostadVby a wide margin of difference
  • vtoNfigurativebe figuratively distant from> be widely different, be far different
不同   bù tóng OC: pɯʔ looŋ MC: pi̯ut duŋ 3 Attributions
  • vt+Nstativebe different from; be at variance with
  • vi2be at variance
二三   èr sān OC: njis saam MC: ȵi sɑm 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNcause to be various/multifarious> make different, make vary
   lí  MC: lje  OC: b-rel  3 Attributions
  • vtoNabstractbe different from
   xuán MC: hwen OC: ɢʷeen 3 Attributions
  • vtoNmutualdiffer from each other
  • vtoNdiffer from
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativedissociate (oneself) from
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2causativedissociate (oneself) from N2
   jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+N間於 be different from
  • nabconceptdifference HN: 醜美有間焉 "There is a difference between the ugly and the beautiful"
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Nstativeseparate oneself from; be separate from; be divided in
   biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstativediffer with respect to
出入   chū rù OC: khljud njub MC: tɕhʷit ȵip 1 Attribution
  • VPiactdeviate
有殊   yǒu shū OC: ɢʷɯʔ djo MC: ɦɨu dʑi̯o 1 Attribution
  • VPi2be widely different
殊別   shū bié OC: djo pred MC: dʑi̯o piɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPibe different
異姓   yì xìng OC: p-lɯɡs seŋs MC: jɨ siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPi2[vt+N] "differ from each other with respect to surname" [probably no need for this entry!]
楚越   chù yuè MC: tsrhjoX hjwot OC: skhras ɢʷad 1 Attribution
  • VPi0be different (as the states of Chu from Yue, who were constantly at war)
區分   qū fēn MC: khju pjun OC: kho pɯn 1 Attribution
  • NPabdistinctions
絕殊   jué shū MC: -- dzyu OC: dzod djo 1 Attribution
  • vtpostN{OBJ}be absolutely different from
有異   yǒu yì MC: hjuwX yiH OC: ɢʷɯʔ p-lɯɡs 1 Attribution
  • VPt prep Nbe different from N
相去   xiāng qù qǔ  MC: sjang khjoX  OC: sqaŋ khaʔ  1 Attribution
  • NPabdifference, contrast
不然   bù rán MC: pjut nyen OC: pɯʔ njen 1 Attribution
  • VPibe different, behave differently
相懸   xiāng xuán  MC: sjang hwen  OC: sqaŋ ɢʷeen  1 Attribution
  • VPi2differ from each other
   yì OC: k-lɯs MC: jɨ 0 Attributions
  • vidifferent (SHU ??)
   jiào OC: kraawɡs MC: kɣɛu 0 Attributions
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: (in later (seventh cent. or Song) mathematical texts:) difference
具異   jù yì OC: ɡos p-lɯɡs MC: gi̯o jɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPibe neatly different
分別   fēn bié OC: pɯn pred MC: pi̯un piɛt 0 Attributions
  • NPabrelationaldistinction
列差   liè chā OC: b-red skhraal MC: liɛt ʈʂhɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
參差   cēn cī OC: tshrum skhral MC: ʈʂhim ʈʂhiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPimathematical termCHEMLA 2003: of different width (taille)
各別   gè bié OC: klaaɡ pred MC: kɑk piɛt 0 Attributions
  • VPi2be different from each other
   yì OC: p-lɯɡs MC: jɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturedifference from the ordinary, extraordinariness; uniqueness
懸殊   xuán shū OC: ɢʷeen djo MC: ɦen dʑi̯o 0 Attributions
  • VPisubject=pluralbe quite different
設差   shè chā OC: qhjed skhraal MC: ɕiɛt ʈʂhɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
雲泥   yún ní OC: ɢun niil MC: ɦi̯un nei 0 Attributions
  • VPigradedcloud and mud > be as different as cloud and mud > be different
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNabstractdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNabstractdiffer from
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPi0be different (as the states of Chu from Yue, who were constantly at war)
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPabdistinctions

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: