HIGH  

BIG VERTICALLY.
TALLLOFTYTOWERINGSOARINGELEVATEDGIANTBIGMULTISTORYHIGH-RISE
Taxonoymy

CRAGGY

Antonymy

BELOWLOW

See also

STEEP

Kind Of

BIG

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The manifestly dominant general word is gāo 高 (ant. bēi 卑 "low" and xià 下 "low") which refers to concrete as well as abstract elevation.

2. Shàng 上 (ant. xià 下 "lower") refers to the relatively high position of something, both abstractly and concretely.

3. Chóng 崇 (ant. bēi 卑 "lowly") and lóng 隆 (ant. wū 污 ) adds the notion of impressiveness to that of high elevation.

4. Qiáo 喬 refers specifically to the imposing tallness of trees.

5. Jùn 峻, wéi 巍, yán 巖, é 峨 are among the large number of poetic words referring to the imposing height of mountains.

6. Wēi 危 adds to the notion of the imposing (almost threatening) hight of something that of steepness of the slope, and the difficulty of access.

7. Lóng 隆 refers to imposing and impressive height, typically - but not always - of something artificial.

Modern Chinese Criteria

高級 is always figurative referring to a high level.

高矮

高低

高度

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 12.31

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 191

ALTUS, EXCELSUS, SUBLIMIS, ARDUUS

14. Inter Altum et excelsum, sublime et arduum. Altum ex superiori parte et inferiori est, excelsum ex superiori tantum; sublime excelsum est cum aliqua dignitate; arduum, excelsum est 4 cum aliqua [col. 12A] difficultate. Item altus puteus, murus excelsus. Summa videbis in excelso, ima in alto.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

HIGH/DEEP

altus refers to height or depth as opposed to breadth

editurs "elevated" refers to high elevation as opposed to levelledness.

procerus "tall" refers to height or length as a result of growth.

arduus refers to height as associated with steepness and difficulty of access.

altitudo refers abstractly to height as such.

editum "something high" refers to height as associated with bulk"

proceritas "abundant height" refers to natural height associated with natural bulk and luxurious growth.

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 237

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 242

vysota "height"

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 334

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

altus 'high' [adj. o/a] (Andr.+; 'old' in Acc.)

Derivatives: altitudo 'height, depth' (Cato+).

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 17
  • vadN : 14
  • v[adN] : 7
  • vadV : 5
  • nab : 5
  • vi.red : 5
  • nadN : 4
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 3
  • VPi : 2
  • vtoN : 2
  • vi.red:adN : 2
  • vadN : 1
  • VPi.red : 1
  • n[adN] : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • NP : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • vi-N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 論語 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 周易 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   gāo OC: koow MC: kɑu 31 Attributions

The manifestly dominant general word is gāo 高(ant. bēi 卑 "low" and xià 下 "low") which refers to concrete as well as abstract elevation.

  • v[adN]that which is high; the high thing; high point, elevation
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • nabstativegreat height; highness
  • vadNhigh; tall; sticking out high
  • vadNelevatedelevated
  • vadVhigh up in the air
  • vi-Nreach the height of (so-and-so many 仞)
  • vi.red:adNREDUP: high, very high
  • vibe high
  • vichangerise higher
  • vigradedbe high, be elevated
  • vifigurativebe elevated; be of a high degree; be on a high abstract level
  • vtoNcausativemake higher, cause to become higher, heighten
  • vadNhighest, utmost
  • vadVhigh up (on a tree etc)
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions

Shàng 上(ant. xià 下 "lower") refers to the relatively high position of something, both abstractly and concretely.

  • vadVup to the highest level, to its utmost
  • nabfigurativehighness of musical pitch
  • nadNhigh 上天
  • nadNfigurativebelonging to a superior or higher sphere of reality; belonging to a higher moral sphere
  • n[adN]high [rank]> leading position
   chóng OC: dzruŋ MC: ɖʐuŋ 4 Attributions

Chóng 崇 (ant. bēi 卑 "lowly") and lóng 隆 (ant. wū 污) adds the notion of impressiveness to that of high elevation.

  • vadNhigh and impressive, imposing (of mountains or buildings)
  • vi.redintensitivebe very high, be imposinly high: Yang Xiong, 甘泉賦
  • vigradedbe high and impressive, imposing (of mountains or buildings); [be higher than][CA]
  • vtoNgradedhave a hight of
   wéi OC: ŋɡul MC: ŋɨi 4 Attributions

Jùn 峻, wéi 巍, yán 巖, é 峨 are among the large number of poetic words referring to the imposing height of mountains.

  • vi.red:adNhigh and lofty, towering
  • vi.redfigurativebe high and lofty
  • vihigh and impressive (of mountains)
   qiáo OC: ɡrew MC: giɛu 3 Attributions

Qiáo 喬refers specifically to the imposing tallness of trees.

  • vadNhigh and impressive (primarily of trees)
  • vibe high and impressive (primarily of trees)
   jùn OC: sqluns MC: sʷin 2 Attributions

Jùn 峻, wéi 巍, yán 巖, é 峨 are among the large number of poetic words referring to the imposing height of mountains.

  • vadNhigh, outstanding and dangerous (as of mountains)
  • vibe high, outstanding and dangerous (as of mountains)
   qiáo OC: ɡew MC: giɛu 2 Attributions
  • vi.redbe piled up very high
  • vibe high up; distant; tall-rising
   lóng OC: ɡ-rum MC: luŋ 2 Attributions

Lóng 隆 refers to imposing and impressive height, typically - but not always - of something artificial.

  • vadNhigh and imposing
  • vibe high and imposing
高卑   gāo bēi OC: koow pe MC: kɑu piɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative height
   zhuō OC: rteewɡ MC: ʈɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • vihigh; tall (LUNYU)
  • vifigurativetower high above one (morally)
   kǎi OC: khɯɯlʔ MC: khəi 1 Attribution
  • vihigh and dry (place)
   zūn OC: tsuun MC: tsuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vigradedbe high and imposing 益尊
   cuí OC: sɡluul MC: dzuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • vadNhigh and craggy
  • vibe high
崢 / 崢   chéng OC: sɡraaŋ MC: ɖʐɣaŋ zhēng OC: sɡreeŋ MC: ɖʐɣɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe high; lofty ??
   róng OC: ɢʷeŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe high; steep; lofty ??
   yán OC: ŋɡraam MC: ŋɣam 1 Attribution

Jùn 峻, wéi 巍, yán 巖, é 峨 are among the large number of poetic words referring to the imposing height of mountains.

  • vadNhigh and craggy
  • vibe high and craggy
   bá OC: breed MC: bɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Nstativestand (above something or somebody); protrude (among something or somebody)
   xiǎn OC: qhromʔ MC: hiɛm 1 Attribution
  • v[adN]precariously high and inaccessible terrain, or mountains
  • vadNprecariously high
卑高   bēi gāo OC: pe koow MC: piɛ kɑu 1 Attribution
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptrelative status, relative elevatedness; the dimension of being high or lowly
堂堂   táng táng OC: daaŋ daaŋ MC: dɑŋ dɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativebe elevated and dignified
崇高   chóng gāo OC: dzruŋ koow MC: ɖʐuŋ kɑu 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]what is elevated
   xiāo OC: smew MC: siɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPelevated and deserted places
高下   gāo xià OC: koow ɢraaʔ MC: kɑu ɦɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturerelative height
  • NPabfigurativeelevation of character, moral elevation; moral distinction
高峻   gāo jùn OC: koow sqluns MC: kɑu sʷin 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativehigh > outstanding
巍巍   wéi wēi wéi wēi MC: ngjw+j ngjw+j OC: ŋɡul ŋɡul 1 Attribution
  • VPi.redbe high and lofty
   yǎng 1 Attribution
  • visubject=inanimatestand high
   wēi OC: ŋɡrol MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions

Wēi 危adds to the notion of the imposing (almost threatening) hight of something that of steepness of the slope, and the difficulty of access.

  • vadNprecariously high, high and precipitous, liable to collapse, or liable to cause people to fall down (of mountains)
  • vibe precariously high, high and precipitous, liable to collapse, or liable to cause people to fall down (of mountains)
嶢 / 堯   yáo OC: ŋɡeew MC: ŋeu yáo OC: ŋɡeew MC: ŋeu 0 Attributions
  • vilofty, imposingly high
   yì OC: ŋɡɯd MC: ŋɨt 0 Attributions
  • vistand high, majestically and alone
   cén OC: sɡrɯm MC: ɖʐim 0 Attributions
  • nadNhigh
   jí OC: ŋɡrɯb MC: ŋip 0 Attributions
  • viCC: lofty (as a hat); precipitous and high
   é OC: ŋaal MC: ŋɑ 0 Attributions

Jùn 峻, wéi 巍, yán 巖, é 峨 are among the large number of poetic words referring to the imposing height of mountains.

  • vi(mountains) be high and lofty
   sōng OC: suŋ MC: suŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe large and high
   zú OC: sɡud MC: dzʷin 0 Attributions

"high and precipitous"

  • vihigh and precipitous
   jué OC: ɡlud MC: gi̯ut 0 Attributions
  • virise high, abruptly
   wēi OC: qruul MC: ʔɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • vihigh; lofty
   wéi OC: ŋɡuul MC: ŋuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vibe high
   cuó OC: sɡaal MC: dzɑ 0 Attributions
  • vi(mountains) be high and craggy
   sōng OC: suŋ MC: suŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe high; lofty
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • vihigh [and craggy][CA]
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

sǒng

  • vi(mountain) be high and lofty
   lǒng OC: b-rooŋʔ MC: luŋ 0 Attributions
  • vi(mountain) be high; lofty
   kuǐ OC: khrulʔ MC: khi 0 Attributions
  • vihigh
   chù OC: tshruɡ MC: ʈʂhuk 0 Attributions
  • viabruptly high
   sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vielevated, sticking out (of mountains)
   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   qí OC: ɡɯl MC: gɨi 0 Attributions
  • virare, archaic, poetic: (of a person) tall and handsome
   xiāo OC: qhreew MC: hɣɛu 0 Attributions
  • vihigh (of the head; mostly in connection with 胡人)
正廣   zhèng guǎng OC: tjeŋs kʷaaŋʔ MC: tɕiɛŋ kɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
正從   zhèng zòng OC: tjeŋs dzoŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ dzi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 0 Attributions
  • vadNhigh up in the air

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: