BIG  龐大

Old Chinese Criteria







1. The general word is dà 大 (ant. xiǎo 小 "small").


2. Jù 巨 "huge" (ant. xì 細 "slight") indicates a higher degree of size.


3. Kuí 魁 and páng 龐 (ant. wēi 微 "small and slight"), both rare, add to the notion of vertical size that of impressiveness.


4. Hóng 洪 refers to the size of water masses, and the word is often used in metaphorical senses.


5. Hào 昊 refers to the vastness of the sky, as a poetic elevated epithet (sometimes perhaps confused by scribes with 旻 ).


6. Jù 巨 "huge" (ant. xì 細 "slight") indicates a very high degree of size.

Modern Chinese Criteria









rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 12.55

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 196


362. Inter Magnum et grandem. Magnum ad animum referimus [ Al., refertur], grandem ad corpus.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien


magnus refers to large size without ancy accessory notion.

grandis refers to greatness with the accessory notion of intrinsic strength and grandeur.

amplus refers to great size with the accessory notion of comeliness and an imposing impression.

ingens refers to excessive greatness merely as extraordinary.

immanis refers to excessive size as exciting fear.

vastus refers to excessive size as wanting regularity and fixed form.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 109

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 337

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 276



HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 255

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadN : 39
  • vi : 29
  • vtoN : 15
  • vt+prep+N : 10
  • ncc : 9
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 7
  • v[adN] : 6
  • VPi : 6
  • nab : 6
  • v-p.adV : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vpostadN : 1
  • : 1
  • : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 春秋左傳 : 17
  • 孟子 : 17
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 7
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 孝經 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1


   dà OC: daads MC: dɑi 57 Attributions

The general word is dà 大 (ant. xiǎo 小 "small").

  • vadNfigurativebig, strong, intense (e.g. of rain)
  • nabfeaturebeing big; big size (of a state etc.); large range
  • nccsubjectthe big one; a big power; what is big; specifically: a big state
  • vadNlarge, big
  • vadNnon-restrictivelarge
  • viactmanage to become big
  • vichangebecome larger, become big
  • vigradedbe large, big 甚大
  • vpostadNlarge
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe greater than 大於
  • vtoNcausativemake larger; make large; allow to be large
  • vtoNcausativebe made large or important
  • vtoNgradedbe larger than N
  • vtoNputativeregard as significant/big
  • v[adN]N=statebig one of the contextually determinate kind (often a state)
  • vifigurativebe substantial, be significant; be big
  • v[adN]what is big
  • vadNnon-restrictivethe known-to-be-big N; the N which, as is well known, is big
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 13 Attributions

Jù 巨 "huge" (ant. xì 細 "slight") indicates a higher degree of size.

  • vadNdialect word: very large, huge, vast
  • vibe huge
   hóng OC: ɡooŋ MC: ɦuŋ 8 Attributions

Hóng 洪 refers to the size of water masses, and the word is often used in metaphorical senses.

  • vadNvast; typical only in 洪水 'flood'
  • vadNfigurativebig > magnificent, great
  • viexpansive and large
小大   xiǎo dà OC: smewʔ daads MC: siɛu dɑi 8 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptsmall matters or big ones
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative size
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative importance
  • NPadVin matters small and large, important and unimportant
   shuò OC: djaɡ MC: dʑiɛk 7 Attributions
  • vadNgrand; big; large
  • vibe great; large; big
   yán OC: lan MC: jiɛn 5 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativebuild so as to enlarge what exists> extend, enlarge
   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 3 Attributions
  • nabgradedCHEMLA 2003: be larger than
  • vigradedbe greater, be the greater; increase
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe greater or more than (that of) N
   chì OC: khljaɡ MC: tɕhiɛk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNexpand; spread
   hào OC: ɡuuʔ MC: ɦɑu 3 Attributions

Hào 昊 refers to the vastness of the sky, as a poetic elevated epithet (sometimes perhaps confused by scribes with 旻).

  • vadNvast (of the sky); august
   fén OC: bɯn MC: bi̯un 2 Attributions
  • vadNgreat, big, large ???
   hóng OC: ɡʷrɯɯŋ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • vifor 宏 "grand"
巨大   jù dà OC: ɡaʔ daads MC: gi̯ɤ dɑi 2 Attributions
  • VPadNhuge
  • VPibe immense
   pī OC: phrɯ MC: phi 1 Attribution
  • vadNgreat; grand 丕績 "great achievements"
  • vadVgreatly (the subject is usually a ruler)
  • vifigurativerare and archaic, but resumed as a poetic archaism later: impressive; great
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vadNbig, large (deer)
   yíng OC: leŋ MC: jiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactexpand
   fù OC: pɯɡs MC: pɨu 1 Attribution
  • vifigurativebe large, be broad, be extensive
  • vt prep Nbe more substantial
   hào OC: ɡuuʔ MC: ɦɑu 1 Attribution
  • > extensive
  • vibe extensive
   fǔ OC: paʔ MC: pi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vadNlarge
  • vibe large; be big; be wide
   pó OC: baal MC: bʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • vibe bulging (of stomach)
   hàn OC: ɡronʔ MC: ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • vibe bulging and protruding (of eyes)
   cū OC: skhaa MC: tshuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vibe large and unsubtle; (of a vessel) crude and large;
   yì OC: laɡ MC: jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • vifigurativegrandly continuous; ample; amply mellifluous
   sì OC: plils MC: si 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativeenlarge
   pì OC: beɡ MC: biɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativeenlarge
   kuí OC: khuul MC: khuo̝i 1 Attribution

Kuí 魁 and páng 龐 (ant. wēi 微 "small and slight"), both rare, add to the notion of vertical size that of impressiveness.

  • nplurthe giants
  • nadNhuge
  • nccsubjectthat which is big (of bright stars)
  • vitall and impressive; be huge 魁然
  • v-p.adVimpressively
太山   tài shān OC: thaads sreen MC: thɑi ʂɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPadNhuge big 泰山之惡
泱泱   yāng yāng OC: qaŋ qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ ʔi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe vast
碩大   shuò dà OC: djaɡ daads MC: dʑiɛk dɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPichangegrow big; get very large
軒敞   xuān chǎng OC: qhan thjaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐn tɕhi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe spacious and bright
闊大   kuò dà OC: khood daads MC: khʷɑt dɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativebe huge, vast
高大   gāo dà OC: koow daads MC: kɑu dɑi 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturelarge size
  • VPibe very tall
高廣   gāo guǎng OC: koow kʷaaŋʔ MC: kɑu kɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPispacious (of buildings)
   jué MC: kaewk OC: kruuɡ 1 Attribution
  • vadNbig, great: a marginal, archaic usage known from the Book of Odes
   wěi OC: ɢulʔ MC: ɦɨi 0 Attributions
  • vibe huge, gigantic; great[is only used metaphorically; should be maybe moved to GREAT or EXCELLENT][CA]
   guī OC: kuul MC: kuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vivery rare: imposing; magnificent
   pǐ OC: phrɯʔ MC: phi 0 Attributions
  • viP: great
   kǒng OC: khooŋʔ MC: khuŋ 0 Attributions
  • viarchaic: immense; numerous
   hóng OC: ɡʷrɯɯŋ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vivoluminous, high and large
  • vifigurativebe majestic
   páng OC: brooŋ MC: bɣɔŋ 0 Attributions

Kuí 魁 and páng 龐 (ant. wēi 微 "small and slight"), both rare, add to the notion of vertical size that of impressiveness.

  • vilarge and fat
   pí OC: bii MC: bei 0 Attributions
  • viSHI: be large, abundant
   mò OC: maaɡ MC: mɑk 0 Attributions
  • vadNwide; vast; extensive
   qí OC: ɡɯl MC: gɨi 0 Attributions
  • virare, archaic, poetic: tall and handsome
丈尺   zhàng chǐ OC: daŋʔ thjaɡ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ tɕhiɛk 0 Attributions
  • NPa large amount
可大   kě dà OC: khlaalʔ daads MC: khɑ dɑi 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturethe capacity of being made large
微巨   wēi jù OC: mɯl ɡaʔ MC: mɨi gi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturetininess versus enormous size; relative size
恢詭   huī guǐ OC: khʷɯɯ krolʔ MC: khuo̝i kiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPi(of literature) be long-winded
細大   xì dà OC: snɯɯs daads MC: sei dɑi 0 Attributions
  • NPabrelative size
   xià OC: ɡraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • viFANGYAN: be big

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: