BUILDING  建築物

BIG ARTEFACT PRODUCED FOR HUMANS OR ANIMALS to DWELL in OR BE-IN, or MOVE ON.
HOUSESTRUCTURECONSTRUCTIONEDIFICEERECTIONPROPERTYPREMISES
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general current word for a building of any kind is gōng 宮. Any gōng 宮 must have an outer wall other than the wall of the house itself. Moreover gōng 宮 may contain minor shì 室 "individual houses" and constitute a kind of traditional "clan condominium". In the Western Zhou and Chunqiu period gōng 宮 referred apparently both to the temples and living mansions of aristocracy: see XIANG 1997: 192; HUANG 1995: 993. During the Warring States, the word was mainly used for palaces of aristocracy and the ruler: see HUANG 1995: 993. After Qin times the word came to refer specifically to palaces. Reference to the outer wall of the gōng 宮 is in the HAOLING chapter of the MOZI. See HUANG 1995: 993. [ill.: HAYASHI 1976: 4-32]

2. Shì 室 is any building, can be smaller than gōng 宮, need not have an outer surrounding wall. It seems that when inside gōng 宮, shǐ 室 was located behind the main hall táng 堂 : HUANG 1995: 994; ZHGD 1993: 99; ill.: HAYASHI 1976: 4-3. The term can also refer to the family or household: HUANG 1995: 994. See CLAN

3. Fáng 房 refers to one of the wings on the sides of the main building shì 室, sometimes used as bedrooms. There may be many such xiāng fáng 廂房. [HUANG 1995: 995]

4. Wū 屋 refers originally to the roof, but from Han times onwards this word can come to replace gōng 宮 in its archaic meanings "family complex of buildings with a surrounding wall". [Evidence is in the ZHOULI: HUANG 1995: 995]

5. Táng 堂 refers to the hall which seems to serve mainly ceremonial and since the Warring States also political purposes. From Han times táng 堂 in its original meaning was replaced by diàn 殿. [HUANG 1995: 981 - 982; YANG 2000: 170 - 171.]

6. Diàn 殿 is a large and tall hall, often for audiences, in the palace or in the temple. In this meaning the word came to use in the late Warring States, and in Han times it replaced the term táng 堂. [HUANG 1995: 983 - 984]

7. Lóu 樓 refers to any building higher than two flooors. It was common in the Han period, and could serve various purposes. [ZHGD 1995: 98; SUN 1991: 186 - 189; ill.: SUN 1991: tab. 47]

8. Què 闕 are the buildings on both sides of the gate. The oldest textual evidence comes from the Western Zhou (see XIANG 1997: 523), but què 闕 were most common in the Han. Originally, què 闕 were wooden constructions raised on platforms of rammed earth; in the Han period, they were often stone buildings. [HUANG 1995: 988 - 991; SUN 1991: 179 - 182; ill.: SUN 1991: tab. 45.]

9. Guàn 觀 in the Chunqiu and Warring States referred to the building raised on a platform in front of the gate of the palace. In the Han, guàn 觀 was used as another term for què 闕; besides this, it also referred to other buildings raised on a terrace: HUANG 1995: 986 - 988]

10. Shà 廈 refers to any high building.

11. Láng 廊 perhaps refers to any building with column corridor; but textual evidence for Han and pre-Han period is scanty. [HUANG 1995: 1005]

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ARCHITECTURE 4.

堂,上古主要稱君王宮室的廳堂,戰國起可指君王治政的殿堂。漢以後,堂降級作中央到地方各級官府治事廳堂之稱,并常可指稱一段民居的廳堂。

殿,從戰國起專稱宮中有高大并棱角分明的臺基的主體建築,相當上古的 “ 堂 ” ,不指稱一般民居的廳堂。

堂皇是獨立的、無四壁的、帝王非正式的治政殿堂,引申指官吏治事的廳堂。

宮,秦以後成為宮殿總稱;明清時,可專稱帝王居處。

榭,無室的殿堂。

ARCHITECTURE 9. SIDE BUILDING 附屬建築。

廊,檐下廊屋和各種獨立廊的總稱。

廡,圍繞主體建築構成庭院,有獨立屋檐、并間隔成室。

庌,廊屋。

廈,門屋。

Modern Chinese Criteria

建築物

房屋

房子

屋宇

樓房

大樓

樓台

城樓

箭樓

角樓

更樓

鼓樓

鐘樓

譙樓

大廈

高樓

摩天樓

高樓大廈

廣廈

夏屋

高堂

深宅大院

前廊後廈

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 7.12

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 455

AEDIFICIUM:

Comenius gives a detailed subclassification.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

HOUSE

aedificium is the generic term for any building.

domus is the residence of a family.

aedes refers to the large residence of a family, typically consisting of several buildings.

HOUSE

villa refers to a country house, usually with a real estate attached to it.

fundus refers to a real estate, usually with a country house.

praedium refers to landed property of any kind, with or without a house on it.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 112

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 200

Architektur: here are found all relevant entries.

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 229

Pfahlhaus:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 744

Gebaeude; Gebaeude, im Aufriss wiedergegeben:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 785

Pfahlhaus:

FRANKE 1974 China Handbuch 486

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 218

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.275

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 292

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 313ff

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 120B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 55
  • NP{N1=N2} : 29
  • NP : 2
  • ncc : 1
  • NPpr : 1
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 17
  • 管子 : 10
  • 史記 : 9
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 論語 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

宮室   gōng shì OC: kuŋ qhljiɡ MC: kuŋ ɕit 27 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}indefiniteany building
  • NP{N1=N2}nonreferentialbuildings; all kinds of buildings, any kind of building
   shì OC: qhljiɡ MC: ɕit 22 Attributions

Shì 室 is any building, can be smaller than gōng 宮, need not have an outer surrounding wall. It seems that when inside gōng 宮, shǐ 室 was located behind táng 堂. The term can also refer to the family or household. See CLAN

  • ngeneral term for a house or living space (of a commoner, an aristocrat or even the emperor); one's living space within a house; private quarters; home
   gōng OC: kuŋ MC: kuŋ 7 Attributions

The most general current word for a building of any kind is gōng 宮. Any gōng 宮 must have an outer wall other than the wall of the house. Moreover gōng 宮 may contain shì 室 and constitute a kind of traditional "clan condominium". After Qin times the word came to refer especially to palaces. In the Western Zhou and Chunqiu period gōng 宮 referred apparently both to the temples and living mansions of aristocracy During the Warring States, the word was mainly used for palaces of aristocracy and the ruler. Reference to the outer wall of the gōng 宮 is in the HAOLING chapter of the MOZI.

  • nstately building; palace
   lóu OC: ɡ-roo MC: lu 6 Attributions

Lóu 樓 refers to any building higher than two flooors. It was common in the Han period, and could serve various purposes. [ZHGD 1995: 98; SUN 1991: 186 - 189; ill.: SUN 1991: tab. 47]

  • nbuilding with several storeys
  • nadVplacein high buildings 樓居
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 5 Attributions

Què 闕 are the buildings on both sides of the gate. The oldest textual evidence comes from the Western Zhou (see XIANG 1997: 523), neverthless què 闕 were most common in the Han. Originally, què 闕 were wooden constructions raised on platforms of rammed earth; in the Han period, they were often stone buildings.

  • npalace gate> palace towers
   fáng OC: baŋ MC: bi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions

Fáng 房 refers to one of the wings on the sides of the main building shì 室, sometimes used as bedrooms. There may be many such xiāng fáng 廂房.

  • nwing of a dwelling
  • nfigurativehouse; building
廈 / 廈   shà OC: sqraas MC: ʂɣɛ xià OC: ɡraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • nhigh building
殿   diàn OC: dɯɯns MC: den 2 Attributions

Diàn 殿 is a large and high hall, often for audiences, in the palace or in the temple. In this meaning the word came to be used in the late Warring States, and in Han times it replaced the term táng 堂.

  • nlarge hall, part of a gōng 宮
   yíng OC: ɢʷleŋ MC: jiɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • nguardhouse (near a gate)
室屋   shì wū OC: qhljiɡ qooɡ MC: ɕit ʔuk 2 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}pluralall sorts of buildings
甲第   jiǎ dì OC: kraab liils MC: kɣap dei 2 Attributions
  • NPofficial mansion
亭 / 停   tíng OC: deeŋ MC: deŋ tíng OC: deeŋ MC: deŋ 1 Attribution
  • nmilitary outpost buildings, fort
   guī OC: klul MC: kɨi 1 Attribution
  • nccresidence
   zhù OC: tuɡ MC: ʈuk 1 Attribution
  • nbuilding; permanent structure to live in
   xuān OC: qhan MC: hi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • nlong simple hut with windows
   yóu OC: ɢʷɯ MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • npostal station
   jiàn OC: kreens MC: kɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifierclassifier for buildings
  • ncpost-V{NUM}(.+N)building
雪宮   xuě gōng OC: sqled kuŋ MC: siɛt kuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPprname of a palace in Qí
   táng OC: daaŋ MC: dɑŋ 0 Attributions

Táng 堂 refers to the hall which seems to serve mainly ceremonial and since the Warring States also political purposes. From Han times táng 堂 in its original meaning was replaced by diàn 殿.

       yǎ OC: ŋɡraaʔ MC: ŋɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • nZHOULI: a verandah, a shed (for horses)
       guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions

    Guàn 觀 in the Chunqiu and Warring States referred to the building raised on a platform in front of the gate of the palace. In the Han, guàn 觀 was used as another term for què 闕; besides this, it also referred to other buildings raised on a terrace: HUANG 1995: 986 - 988]

    • vtoNmake one's dwelling
       yì OC: laɡ MC: jiɛk 0 Attributions
    • npostal relay station

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: