MOUNTAIN  

INTENSELY HIGH PART of a LANDSCAPE, TYPICALLY WITH STEEP SIDES.
MOUNDPEAKHEIGHTMOUNTPROMINENCESUMMITPINNACLEALP(MOUNTAINS) RANGESIERRACORDILLERAMASSIF
Hypernym

N/A

Hyponym
  • DIKE ARTIFICIAL LONG MOUNTAIN NEAR SEA OR RIVER FOR SAFEGUARDING AGAINST FLOOD.
    • MOUND INTENSELY SMALL MOUTAIN, TYPICALLY PRODUCED by HUMANS.
      • HEAP ARTIFICIAL MOUND of MANY THINGS ACCUMULATED in the SAME PLACE.
      Old Chinese Criteria

      1. The general term for a mountain of any kind, large or small, is shān 山.

      2. Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China, and the word typically functions as the head word in a noun phrase, as in 五岳. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳 ) the two characters are not interchangeable.)

      3. Fù 阜 refers to a large non-rocky mountain with an elevated plain on top.

      4. Ā 阿 refers to a very large non-rocky mountan with an elevated plain on top.

      5. Qiū 丘 refers to a small non-rocky earth mound.

      6. Yuán 原 can refer to the highlands and is marginal in this group.

      7. Lǐng 嶺, later sometimes written 領, is not a post-Han word, as many dictionaries might lead one to suppose, but the word is very rare in pre-Han times. The word refers to mountains as forming a series, often connoting a road along the ridge.

      黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

      HUANG JINGUI 2006

      GEOGRAPHY 6. 地面上由土石構成的隆起部分。

      山,總稱;可特指五岳。

      巒,小而易登之山,漢代起可泛指山,使用頻率較低。

      岳,專稱 “ 四岳 ” 或 “ 五岳 ” ,後作高山通稱。

      GEOGRAPHY 7. 巒,迂回連綿的山。

      領,山體有道路回繞的山。

      岑,小而高的山。

      巘,形狀如甑的山。

      嵕,數峰并峙的山。

      嵩,高大的山。

      嶠,山頂尖而長的高山。

      Modern Chinese Criteria

      地脊

      山脈

      山峰

      青山

      蒼山

      翠微

      高山

      山岳

      嶠岳

      山陵

      崇山峻嶺

      rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

      • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 1.22

      • 《說文段注》“渾言”“析言”在漢語詞義研究中的意義 "Shuowen Duan zhu" "hun yan" "xi yan" zai Hanyu ci yi yanjiu zhong de yiyi 杭州大學學報 Hangzhou daxue xuebao ( CHI CHANGHAI 1991) p. 164

      • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

        MOUND

        collis is an elevation in opposition to a surrounding plain.

        clivus is a sloping plain forming a gentle elevation.

        tumulus refers to a typically striking natural or artificial elevation.

        grumus can only refer to an artificial elevation.

      • Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen ( FINSTERBUSCH 1966) p. 202

        Berge; Berggipfel:

      • Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen ( FINSTERBUSCH 2000) p. 726

        Berg/Berge

      • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 37

      • 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao ( HUANG JINGUI 1995) p. 34

      • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 84

      • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 44

      • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 244

        岳,嶽

      • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 256

        山,嶺

        1. Li3ng 嶺 is indeed the uppermost part of a sha1n 山.

      • Encyclopedia of Religion ( JONES 2005) p.

      • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.311:207

        MONT.MONTAGNE

      Attributions by syntactic funtion

      • n : 75
      • npost=Npr : 5
      • NP : 4
      • NPpr : 2
      • n : 1
      • nadV : 1
      • n{PLACE}adV : 1
      • ncc : 1
      • nab : 1

      Attributions by text

      • 毛詩 : 26
      • 史記 : 13
      • 管子 : 8
      • 荀子 : 6
      • 穆天子傳 : 5
      • 尚書 : 4
      • 禮記 : 4
      • 說苑 : 3
      • 祖堂集 : 3
      • 呂氏春秋 : 3
      • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
      • 楚辭 : 2
      • 論衡 : 2
      • 鹽鐵論 : 2
      • 孟子 : 2
      • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
      • 淮南子 : 1
      • 法言 : 1
      • 韓詩外傳 : 1
      • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
      • : 1

      Words

      岳 / 嶽   yuè OC: ŋruuɡ MC: ŋɣɔk yuè OC: ŋrooɡ MC: ŋɣɔk 27 Attributions

      Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳) the two characters are not interchangeable.) Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳) the two characters are not interchangeable.)

      • ngreat mountain, also written 嶽
         shān OC: sreen MC: ʂɣɛn 19 Attributions

      The general term for a mountain of any kind, large or small, is shān 山.

      • nmountain of rock; mountain (occasionally not of rock, and even man-made)
      • nabthe mountain (as such)
      • nadVplacein the mountains
      • npost=NprN=placethe Mountain X
      岡 / 岡   gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 14 Attributions
      • nlevel mountain ridge ERYA: 山脊岡 The spine of a hill
      • npost=NprMount N
      • nprMount Gang
         ā OC: qlaal MC: ʔɑ 6 Attributions

      Ā 阿 refers to a very large non-rocky mountan with an elevated plain on top.

      • nwinding mountain ridge; sloping hill???
         jīng OC: kraŋ MC: kɣaŋ 5 Attributions
      • n(artificial) hill or pile (even of corpses) 京丘
         líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 4 Attributions
      • nlarge mountain
      巖 / 巖岩喦 / 巖岩喦   yán OC: ŋɡraam MC: ŋɣam  OC:  MC:   OC:  MC:  2 Attributions
      • ncraggy high mountain
      • n{PLACE}adV(live) in the mountains or among the cliffs
         qióng OC: ɡoŋ MC: gi̯oŋ 2 Attributions
      • nmound; hill
      太山   tài shān OC: thaads sreen MC: thɑi ʂɣɛn 2 Attributions
      • NPprMt. Tai
         cén OC: sɡrɯm MC: ɖʐim 1 Attribution
      • nsubstantial mountain, but not one of the five big ones
         wéi OC: ŋɡuul MC: ŋuo̝i 1 Attribution
      • nmountain
         lǐng OC: ɡ-reŋʔ MC: liɛŋ 1 Attribution

      Lǐng 嶺, later sometimes written 領, is not a post-Han word, as many dictionaries might lead one to suppose, but the word is very rare in pre-Han times. The word refers to mountains as forming a series, often connoting a road along the ridge.

      • nccmountain  五嶺 refers to a place characterised by five interleinkted mountain peaks
         pí OC: bi MC: bi 1 Attribution
      • nhillside
      京丘   jīng qiū OC: kraŋ khɯ MC: kɣaŋ khɨu 1 Attribution
      • NP(artificial) hill
      山丘   shān qiū OC: sreen khɯ MC: ʂɣɛn khɨu 1 Attribution
      • NPmountains
      山岳 / 山嶽   shān yuè OC: sreen ŋruuɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk shān yuè OC: sreen ŋrooɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk 1 Attribution
      • NPnonreferentialmountains
         fù MC: bjuwX OC: buʔ 1 Attribution
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
      丘山   qiū shān MC: khjuw srean OC: khɯ sreen 1 Attribution
      • NPhills and mountains generally
         chǎn MC: -- OC: -- 1 Attribution
      • nhigh mountain
         yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions

      Yuán 原 can refer to the highlands and is marginal in this group.

        部 / 培   pòu OC: bɯʔ MC: bu pǒu OC: bɯʔ MC: bu 0 Attributions
        • nhillock; in 部婁
           yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 0 Attributions
        • nmound, artificial small mountain;
           qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
        • nhill without vegetation ??
           qí OC: ɡe MC: giɛ 0 Attributions
        • ntwin-topped mountain
           hù OC: ɡaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 0 Attributions
        • nwooded hill
           qū OC: skha MC: tshi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
        • nearth-clad mountain
           xiù OC: ljiwɡs MC: zɨu 0 Attributions
        • nmountain peak, cliff
           dài OC: lɯɯɡs MC: dəi 0 Attributions
        • nproper namename of one of the five sacred mountains
           kūn OC: kuun MC: kuo̝n 0 Attributions
        • nproper namename of a mountain; in 崑崙
           lún OC: ɡ-ruun MC: luo̝n 0 Attributions
        • nproper namename of a mountain; in:崑崙
           yú OC: ŋo MC: ŋi̯o 0 Attributions
        • nmountain recess; corner or bend of a hill
           zhàng OC: kjaŋs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
        • nridge, mountain peak
           cēn OC: tshrum MC: ʈʂhim 0 Attributions
        • nsteep high mountain
           duò OC: ɡ-loolʔ MC: dʷɑ 0 Attributions
        • nlong and narrow mountain; ridge ?????
           luán OC: b-roon MC: lʷɑn 0 Attributions
        • nmountain ridge; also: sharp pointed mountain
            OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
        • nmountain top; summit of mountain (SHI): 巔
           yǎn OC: ŋranʔ MC: ŋiɛn 0 Attributions
        • nmountain with large top and without a very large base
           fèn OC: bɯnʔ MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions
        • nhill
           shí OC: djaɡ MC: dʑiɛk 0 Attributions
        • npluralrocky mountains (lexicalised synekdoche!)
           lì OC: reeɡ MC: lek 0 Attributions
        • nproper namename of a mountain
           huá OC: ɢʷraal MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
        • nproper namename of a mountain
           bǎn OC: braanʔ MC: bɣan 0 Attributions
        • nhilly terrain
           lǐng OC: ɡ-reŋʔ MC: liɛŋ 0 Attributions
        • nmountain range which may be passed by a regular road. (Standardly written 嶺)
        五獄 / 五嶽 / 五岳   wǔ yù OC: ŋaaʔ ŋoɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋi̯ok wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋrooɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋruuɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
        • NPthe Five Mountains 指東岳 泰山 、南岳 衡山 、西岳 華山 、北岳 恒山 、中岳 嵩山 。
        五嶽   wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋrooɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
        • NPthe Five Mountains
        山嶽   shān yuè OC: sreen ŋrooɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
          山野   shān yě OC: sreen laʔ MC: ʂɣɛn jɣɛ 0 Attributions
          • NPmountainous wilderness
          山阜   shān fù OC: sreen buʔ MC: ʂɣɛn bɨu 0 Attributions
          • NP(small) mountains
          山陵   shān líng OC: sreen b-rɯŋ MC: ʂɣɛn lɨŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPhill
          崤塞   xiáo sài OC: ɡraaw sɯɯɡs MC: ɦɣɛu səi 0 Attributions
          • NPmountainous impassable area
          眾山   zhòng shān OC: tjuŋs sreen MC: tɕuŋ ʂɣɛn 0 Attributions
          • NPdefiniteall the mountains (of the empire)
          部婁   pòu lóu OC: bɯʔ ɡ-roo MC: bu lu 0 Attributions
          • NPsmall hillock
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • nmountain (large like Kunlun)

          Existing SW for

          Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: