MOUNTAIN  

INTENSELY HIGH PART of a LANDSCAPE, TYPICALLY WITH STEEP SIDES.
MOUNDPEAKHEIGHTMOUNTPROMINENCESUMMITPINNACLEALP(MOUNTAINS) RANGESIERRACORDILLERAMASSIF
Taxonoymy

DIKEMOUND

Kind Of

N/A

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general term for a mountain of any kind, large or small, is shān 山.

2. Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China, and the word typically functions as the head word in a noun phrase, as in 五岳. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳 ) the two characters are not interchangeable.)

3. Fù 阜 refers to a large non-rocky mountain with an elevated plain on top.

4. Ā 阿 refers to a very large non-rocky mountan with an elevated plain on top.

5. Qiū 丘 refers to a small non-rocky earth mound.

6. Yuán 原 can refer to the highlands and is marginal in this group.

7. Lǐng 嶺, later sometimes written 領, is not a post-Han word, as many dictionaries might lead one to suppose, but the word is very rare in pre-Han times. The word refers to mountains as forming a series, often connoting a road along the ridge.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GEOGRAPHY 6. 地面上由土石構成的隆起部分。

山,總稱;可特指五岳。

巒,小而易登之山,漢代起可泛指山,使用頻率較低。

岳,專稱 “ 四岳 ” 或 “ 五岳 ” ,後作高山通稱。

GEOGRAPHY 7. 巒,迂回連綿的山。

領,山體有道路回繞的山。

岑,小而高的山。

巘,形狀如甑的山。

嵕,數峰并峙的山。

嵩,高大的山。

嶠,山頂尖而長的高山。

Modern Chinese Criteria

地脊

山脈

山峰

青山

蒼山

翠微

高山

山岳

嶠岳

山陵

崇山峻嶺

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 1.22

CHI CHANGHAI 1991 《說文段注》“渾言”“析言”在漢語詞義研究中的意義 "Shuowen Duan zhu" "hun yan" "xi yan" zai Hanyu ci yi yanjiu zhong de yiyi 杭州大學學報 Hangzhou daxue xuebao 164

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

MOUND

collis is an elevation in opposition to a surrounding plain.

clivus is a sloping plain forming a gentle elevation.

tumulus refers to a typically striking natural or artificial elevation.

grumus can only refer to an artificial elevation.

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 202

Berge; Berggipfel:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 726

Berg/Berge

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 37

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 34

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 84

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 44

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 244

岳,嶽

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 256

山,嶺

1. Li3ng 嶺 is indeed the uppermost part of a sha1n 山.

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.311:207

MONT.MONTAGNE

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 82
  • NP : 6
  • npost=Npr : 5
  • n{PLACE}adV : 3
  • NPpr : 2
  • nadV : 2
  • n : 1
  • npr : 1
  • ncc : 1
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 毛詩 : 26
  • 史記 : 13
  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 管子 : 8
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 穆天子傳 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
  • : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

岳 / 嶽   yuè OC: ŋruuɡ MC: ŋɣɔk yuè OC: ŋrooɡ MC: ŋɣɔk 28 Attributions

Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳) the two characters are not interchangeable.) Yuè 岳/嶽 refers is a positive way to one of the great mountains of China. (Note that obviously in proper names and designations of titles (e.g. the title sì yuè 四岳) the two characters are not interchangeable.)

  • ngreat mountain, also written 嶽
   shān OC: sreen MC: ʂɣɛn 21 Attributions

The general term for a mountain of any kind, large or small, is shān 山.

  • nmountain of rock; mountain (occasionally not of rock, and even man-made)
  • nabthe mountain (as such)
  • nadVplacein the mountains
  • npost=NprN=placethe Mountain X
岡 / 岡   gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 15 Attributions
  • nlevel mountain ridge ERYA: 山脊岡 The spine of a hill
  • npost=NprMount N
  • nprMount Gang
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 7 Attributions
  • nlarge mountain
   jīng OC: kraŋ MC: kɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • n(artificial) hill or pile (even of corpses) 京丘
   ā OC: qlaal MC: ʔɑ 6 Attributions

Ā 阿 refers to a very large non-rocky mountan with an elevated plain on top.

  • nwinding mountain ridge; sloping hill???
巖 / 巖岩喦 / 巖岩喦   yán OC: ŋɡraam MC: ŋɣam  OC:  MC:   OC:  MC:  4 Attributions
  • ncraggy high mountain
  • n{PLACE}adV(live) in the mountains or among the cliffs
   qióng OC: ɡoŋ MC: gi̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • nmound; hill
太山   tài shān OC: thaads sreen MC: thɑi ʂɣɛn 2 Attributions
  • NPprMt. Tai
   yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 1 Attribution
  • nmound, artificial small mountain;
   cén OC: sɡrɯm MC: ɖʐim 1 Attribution
  • nsubstantial mountain, but not one of the five big ones
   wéi OC: ŋɡuul MC: ŋuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • nmountain
   lǐng OC: ɡ-reŋʔ MC: liɛŋ 1 Attribution

Lǐng 嶺, later sometimes written 領, is not a post-Han word, as many dictionaries might lead one to suppose, but the word is very rare in pre-Han times. The word refers to mountains as forming a series, often connoting a road along the ridge.

  • nccmountain  五嶺 refers to a place characterised by five interleinkted mountain peaks
   pí OC: bi MC: bi 1 Attribution
  • nhillside
   bǎn OC: braanʔ MC: bɣan 1 Attribution
  • nhilly terrain
京丘   jīng qiū OC: kraŋ khɯ MC: kɣaŋ khɨu 1 Attribution
  • NP(artificial) hill
山丘   shān qiū OC: sreen khɯ MC: ʂɣɛn khɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPmountains
山岳 / 山嶽   shān yuè OC: sreen ŋruuɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk shān yuè OC: sreen ŋrooɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialmountains
崤塞   xiáo sài OC: ɡraaw sɯɯɡs MC: ɦɣɛu səi 1 Attribution
  • NPmountainous impassable area
部婁   pòu lóu OC: bɯʔ ɡ-roo MC: bu lu 1 Attribution
  • NPsmall hillock
   fù MC: bjuwX OC: buʔ 1 Attribution
  • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
丘山   qiū shān MC: khjuw srean OC: khɯ sreen 1 Attribution
  • NPhills and mountains generally
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions

Yuán 原 can refer to the highlands and is marginal in this group.

    部 / 培   pòu OC: bɯʔ MC: bu pǒu OC: bɯʔ MC: bu 0 Attributions
    • nhillock; in 部婁
       qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
    • nhill without vegetation ??
       qí OC: ɡe MC: giɛ 0 Attributions
    • ntwin-topped mountain
       hù OC: ɡaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 0 Attributions
    • nwooded hill
       qū OC: skha MC: tshi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • nearth-clad mountain
       xiù OC: ljiwɡs MC: zɨu 0 Attributions
    • nmountain peak, cliff
       dài OC: lɯɯɡs MC: dəi 0 Attributions
    • nproper namename of one of the five sacred mountains
       kūn OC: kuun MC: kuo̝n 0 Attributions
    • nproper namename of a mountain; in 崑崙
       lún OC: ɡ-ruun MC: luo̝n 0 Attributions
    • nproper namename of a mountain; in:崑崙
       yú OC: ŋo MC: ŋi̯o 0 Attributions
    • nmountain recess; corner or bend of a hill
       zhàng OC: kjaŋs MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • nridge, mountain peak
       cēn OC: tshrum MC: ʈʂhim 0 Attributions
    • nsteep high mountain
       duò OC: ɡ-loolʔ MC: dʷɑ 0 Attributions
    • nlong and narrow mountain; ridge ?????
       luán OC: b-roon MC: lʷɑn 0 Attributions
    • nmountain ridge; also: sharp pointed mountain
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
    • nmountain top; summit of mountain (SHI): 巔
       yǎn OC: ŋranʔ MC: ŋiɛn 0 Attributions
    • nmountain with large top and without a very large base
       fèn OC: bɯnʔ MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions
    • nhill
       shí OC: djaɡ MC: dʑiɛk 0 Attributions
    • npluralrocky mountains (lexicalised synekdoche!)
       lì OC: reeɡ MC: lek 0 Attributions
    • nproper namename of a mountain
       huá OC: ɢʷraal MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • nproper namename of a mountain
       lǐng OC: ɡ-reŋʔ MC: liɛŋ 0 Attributions
    • nmountain range which may be passed by a regular road. (Standardly written 嶺)
    五獄 / 五嶽 / 五岳   wǔ yù OC: ŋaaʔ ŋoɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋi̯ok wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋrooɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋruuɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • NPthe Five Mountains 指東岳 泰山 、南岳 衡山 、西岳 華山 、北岳 恒山 、中岳 嵩山 。
    五嶽   wǔ yuè OC: ŋaaʔ ŋrooɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • NPthe Five Mountains
    山嶽   shān yuè OC: sreen ŋrooɡ MC: ʂɣɛn ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
      山野   shān yě OC: sreen laʔ MC: ʂɣɛn jɣɛ 0 Attributions
      • NPmountainous wilderness
      山阜   shān fù OC: sreen buʔ MC: ʂɣɛn bɨu 0 Attributions
      • NP(small) mountains
      山陵   shān líng OC: sreen b-rɯŋ MC: ʂɣɛn lɨŋ 0 Attributions
      • NPhill
      眾山   zhòng shān OC: tjuŋs sreen MC: tɕuŋ ʂɣɛn 0 Attributions
      • NPdefiniteall the mountains (of the empire)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nmountain (large like Kunlun)

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: