RELATION of being at a SMALL DISTANCE of SPACE OR TIME IN-RELATION-TO something.
DISTANTRELATION between TWO THINGS that are NOT MUTUALLY NEAR.
SIDEPLACE to the LEFT OR RIGHT, AND NOT IN FRONT OR BEHIND.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. The dominant general word is jìn 近 (ant. yuǎn 遠 "far") which refers to any concrete or abstract proximity in space, time or quality.
2. Jī 幾 typically refers to an abstract closeness or relatedness with relates neither to space nor to time.
3. Pò 迫 and "precariously close" refer to spatial proximity of a potentially dangerous kind.
4. Bó 薄 "very close" refers to spatial proximity primarily but is occasionally used in transferred metaphorical senses to refer to abstract proximity.
5. Lín 鄰 is permanent geographical proxity.
6. Eψ 邇 is an archaic and elevated general term for closeness.
7. Proximity to a city can be expressed by the "postposiiton" xià 下.
Modern Chinese Criteria
守 is to be close to (water etc).
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH ／
- A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages
- Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques
HUANG XIAODONG 2003)
- Lateinische Synonymik
- Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik
WANG TONGWEI 2010)
WANG LI 2000)
- Using Chinese Synonyms
GRACE ZHANG 2010)
- Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary
TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996)
HONG CHENGYU 2009)
Attributions by syntactic funtion
vt( prep N): 1
Attributions by text
- 說苑 : 6
- 淮南子 : 3
- 鹽鐵論 : 3
- 孟子 : 3
- 荀子 : 2
- 阮籍集四卷 : 2
- 老子 : 2
- 禮記 : 2
- 莊子 : 2
- 賢愚經 : 2
- 山海經 : 2
- 韓非子 : 1
- 記纂淵海 : 1
- 史記 : 1
- 祖堂集 : 1
- 孫子 : 1
- 列子 : 1
- 論衡 : 1
- 管子 : 1
- 戰國策 : 1
近 jìn OC: ɡɯnʔ MC: gɨn 12 Attributions
The dominant general word is jìn 近 (ant. yuǎn 遠 "far") which refers to any concrete or abstract proximity in space, time or quality.
- nabstativecloseness of relationship
- v[adN]nonreferentialone who is close at hand; what is near
- vadNclose at hand, near one; concretely
- vadNgradedcloser at hand
- vadSclose at hand
- vadVclose at hand; concretely
- vi(spatial) be close, near; be a small distance
- vifigurativebe (emotionally) close 最近
- vt(oN)(temporal) be close (in time) to the contextually determinate object
- vt(oN)figurativecome close to the relevant point
- vt(oN)figurativekeep close to a contextually determinate person
- vt+prep+Nspacebe situated close to
- vt+prep+Nfigurativecome close to, be close to, keep close to (something abstract, e.g. Goodness)
- vtoNfigurativecome close to (something abstract like humaneness)
- vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
- vtoNstativebe situated close to; keep close to
- vtoNabstracttry to keep close to (psychologically), try to keep close to
- vt( prep N)be close to the contextually determinate N
- vadVgetting close to in space
邇 ěr OC: mljelʔ MC: ȵiɛ 6 Attributions
Eψ 邇 is an archaic and elevated general term for closeness.
- vt(oN1.)[adN2]what is near; those who are near NB: the two readings seem lexicalised.
- vt+prep+Nstativeto close to, be near to, lie in the vicinity of 邇於
- vtoNbe close up to
- vt(oN)be near to the contextually determinate N
鄰 lín OC: rin MC: lin 5 Attributions
Lín 鄰 is permanent geographical proxity.
- vadNneighbouring; adjacent
- vt1post.vt2oNget close to
- vtoNstativebe neighbour to, be next to
下 xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 3 Attributions
Proximity to a city can be expressed by the "postposiiton" xià 下.
- npost-.N+ZHIvicinity of N
- npost-Nplacethe vicinity; near (a city); in front of (a tent etc)
迫 pò OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 3 Attributions
Pò 迫 and "precariously close" refer to spatial proximity of a potentially dangerous kind.
- vibe very close together
- vt+prep+Nbe squeezed in
- vtoNstativebe geographically very close to so as to be possibly or typically threatened by
幾 jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 2 Attributions
Jī 幾 typically refers to an abstract closeness or relatedness with relates neither to space nor to time.
- vichange(not) get anywhere near one's aim 不幾
- vt+prep+Nfigurativecome close to (e.g. the truth, a virtue, one's aim), approximate 幾於死亡 We are close to death.
依 yī OC: qɯl MC: ʔɨi 1 Attribution
- vtoNbe close to
向 xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
- vtoNcome close to
旁 páng OC: baaŋ MC: bɑŋ 1 Attribution
- nsubjectthose who are close to and beside
望 / 望 wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
- vtoNstativeface towards, be close to
臨 lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 1 Attribution
- vt+prep+Nlocalbe close to (geographically)
- vtoNstativebe close to, be near to
幾乎 jī hū OC: kɯl ɢaa MC: kɨi ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
- VPtoSfigurativecome close to S being the case
傅 fù 1 Attribution
- vtoNbe close to, be adjacent to
及 jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 0 Attributions
- vtoN.postadVclose to
密 mì OC: mbriɡ MC: mit 0 Attributions
- vtoNbe close to
尼 ní OC: nil MC: ɳi 0 Attributions
- vinear, close-by (SHIZI)
接 jiē OC: skeb MC: tsiɛp 0 Attributions
- vadNconnecting> adjacent
暱 / 昵 nì OC: nid MC: ɳit nì OC: nid MC: ɳit 0 Attributions
- vtoNbe close to
次 cì OC: snʰis MC: tshi 0 Attributions
- vtoNstativebe close to; be next to
比 bì OC: bis MC: bi 0 Attributions
- vadNneighbouring 比室 "neighbouring houses"
- vtoNkeep together (as shoulders), keep close to and rely on
薄 báo OC: baaɡ MC: bɑk 0 Attributions
Bó 薄 "very close" refers to spatial proximity primarily but is occasionally used in transferred metaphorical senses to refer to abstract proximity.
- vtoNstativebe very close to, be in the immediate vicinity of
親 qīn OC: tshiŋ MC: tshin 0 Attributions
- vt(oN)figurativekeep close to a contextually determinate person; get close to a contextually determinate person
邊 biān OC: peen MC: pen 0 Attributions
- vtoNstativeborder onto
陪 péi OC: bɯɯ MC: buo̝i 0 Attributions
- vadNadjacent, attached
密邇 mì ěr OC: mbriɡ mljelʔ MC: mit ȵiɛ 0 Attributions
- VPt+prep+Nfigurativebe close to and intimate with
- VPtoNstativebe close to N
- VPt+prep+Nbe physically close to
相望 xiāng wàng OC: sqaŋ maŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
- VPibe close together
相近 xiāng jìn OC: sqaŋ ɡɯns MC: si̯ɐŋ gɨn 0 Attributions
- VPimathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
周 zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 0 Attributions
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: