NEAR  靠近

RELATION of being at a SMALL DISTANCE of SPACE OR TIME IN-RELATION-TO something.
CLOSENEARBYCLOSE/NEAR AT HANDAT HANDA STONE'S THROW AWAYWITHIN REACHACCESSIBLEHANDYCONVENIENTINFORMAL WITHIN SPITTING DISTANCE
Antonym

DISTANTRELATION between TWO THINGS that are NOT MUTUALLY NEAR.

Hypernym

RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

SIDEPLACE to the LEFT OR RIGHT, AND NOT IN FRONT OR BEHIND.

Hyponym
  • THIS The NEAR OBJECT.
    • ONLY THIS THING OR ACTION AND ALL OTHERS NOT.
    • APPROXIMATE NEAR to being CORRECT.
      Old Chinese Criteria

      1. The dominant general word is jìn 近 (ant. yuǎn 遠 "far") which refers to any concrete or abstract proximity in space, time or quality.

      2. Jī 幾 typically refers to an abstract closeness or relatedness with relates neither to space nor to time.

      3. Pò 迫 and "precariously close" refer to spatial proximity of a potentially dangerous kind.

      4. Bó 薄 "very close" refers to spatial proximity primarily but is occasionally used in transferred metaphorical senses to refer to abstract proximity.

      5. Lín 鄰 is permanent geographical proxity.

      6. Eψ 邇 is an archaic and elevated general term for closeness.

      7. Proximity to a city can be expressed by the "postposiiton" xià 下.

      Modern Chinese Criteria

      逼近

      接近

      靠近

      相近

      在望

      近便

      咫尺

      近在咫尺

      近在眼前

      近在眉睫

      朝發夕至

      一山之隔

      一牆之隔

      一水之隔

      一衣帶水

      望衡對宇

      衡宇相望

      鄰近

      附近

      短途

      短距離

      近距離

      附近

      就近

      鄰近

      近邊

      左近

      近處

      一帶

      內外

      左右

      前後

      近郊

      近水樓台

      守 is to be close to (water etc).

      瀕臨

      瀕於

      rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

      • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 12.43

      • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 152

      • “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 ( HUANG XIAODONG 2003) p. 197

      • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 336b

      • Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik ( SCHMIDT 1889) p. 90/91

      • "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 ( WANG TONGWEI 2010) p. 461-472

      • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1424

        近,邇

      • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 128

      • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 39

      • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 261

      Attributions by syntactic funtion

      • vtoN : 7
      • vadN : 7
      • vt(oN) : 4
      • vi : 4
      • vt+prep+N : 4
      • vt(oN1.)[adN2] : 3
      • npost-.N+ZHI : 3
      • vadV : 2
      • vtoN : 1
      • vt( prep N) : 1
      • n : 1
      • VPtoS : 1

      Attributions by text

      • 說苑 : 6
      • 淮南子 : 3
      • 鹽鐵論 : 3
      • 孟子 : 3
      • 荀子 : 2
      • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
      • 老子 : 2
      • 禮記 : 2
      • 莊子 : 2
      • 賢愚經 : 2
      • 山海經 : 2
      • 韓非子 : 1
      • 記纂淵海 : 1
      • 史記 : 1
      • 祖堂集 : 1
      • 孫子 : 1
      • 列子 : 1
      • 論衡 : 1
      • 管子 : 1
      • 戰國策 : 1

      Words

         jìn OC: ɡɯnʔ MC: gɨn 12 Attributions

      The dominant general word is jìn 近 (ant. yuǎn 遠 "far") which refers to any concrete or abstract proximity in space, time or quality.

      • nabconceptcloseness
      • nabstativecloseness of relationship
      • v[adN]nonreferentialone who is close at hand; what is near
      • vadNclose at hand, near one; concretely
      • vadNgradedcloser at hand
      • vadSclose at hand
      • vadVclose at hand; concretely
      • vi(spatial) be close, near; be a small distance
      • vifigurativebe (emotionally) close 最近
      • vt(oN)(temporal) be close (in time) to the contextually determinate object
      • vt(oN)figurativecome close to the relevant point
      • vt(oN)figurativekeep close to a contextually determinate person
      • vt+prep+Nspacebe situated close to
      • vt+prep+Nfigurativecome close to, be close to, keep close to (something abstract, e.g. Goodness)
      • vtoNfigurativeapproximate
      • vtoNfigurativecome close to (something abstract like humaneness)
      • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
      • vtoNstativebe situated close to; keep close to
      • vtoNabstracttry to keep close to (psychologically), try to keep close to
      • vt( prep N)be close to the contextually determinate N
      • vadVgetting close to in space
         ěr OC: mljelʔ MC: ȵiɛ 6 Attributions

      Eψ 邇 is an archaic and elevated general term for closeness.

      • vt(oN1.)[adN2]what is near; those who are near NB: the two readings seem lexicalised.
      • viclose
      • vt+prep+Nstativeto close to, be near to, lie in the vicinity of 邇於
      • vtoNbe close up to
      • vt(oN)be near to the contextually determinate N
         lín OC: rin MC: lin 5 Attributions

      Lín 鄰 is permanent geographical proxity.

      • vadNneighbouring; adjacent
      • vt1post.vt2oNget close to
      • vtoNstativebe neighbour to, be next to
         xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 3 Attributions

      Proximity to a city can be expressed by the "postposiiton" xià 下.

      • npost-.N+ZHIvicinity of N
      • npost-Nplacethe vicinity; near (a city); in front of (a tent etc)
         pò OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 3 Attributions

      Pò 迫 and "precariously close" refer to spatial proximity of a potentially dangerous kind.

      • vibe very close together
      • vt+prep+Nbe squeezed in
      • vtoNstativebe geographically very close to so as to be possibly or typically threatened by
         jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 2 Attributions

      Jī 幾 typically refers to an abstract closeness or relatedness with relates neither to space nor to time.

      • vadVnearly
      • vichange(not) get anywhere near one's aim 不幾
      • vt+prep+Nfigurativecome close to (e.g. the truth, a virtue, one's aim), approximate 幾於死亡 We are close to death.
         yī OC: qɯl MC: ʔɨi 1 Attribution
      • vtoNbe close to
         xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNcome close to
         páng OC: baaŋ MC: bɑŋ 1 Attribution
      • nsubjectthose who are close to and beside
      望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNstativeface towards, be close to
         lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 1 Attribution
      • vt+prep+Nlocalbe close to (geographically)
      • vtoNstativebe close to, be near to
      幾乎   jī hū OC: kɯl ɢaa MC: kɨi ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
      • VPtoSfigurativecome close to S being the case
         fù 1 Attribution
      • vtoNbe close to, be adjacent to
         jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 0 Attributions
      • vt[0]oN.postadVclose to
         mì OC: mbriɡ MC: mit 0 Attributions
      • vtoNbe close to
         ní OC: nil MC: ɳi 0 Attributions
      • vinear, close-by (SHIZI)
         jiē OC: skeb MC: tsiɛp 0 Attributions
      • vadNconnecting> adjacent
      暱 / 昵   nì OC: nid MC: ɳit nì OC: nid MC: ɳit 0 Attributions
      • vtoNbe close to
         cì OC: snʰis MC: tshi 0 Attributions
      • vtoNstativebe close to; be next to
         bì OC: bis MC: bi 0 Attributions
      • vadNneighbouring 比室 "neighbouring houses"
      • vtoNkeep together (as shoulders), keep close to and rely on
         báo OC: baaɡ MC: bɑk 0 Attributions

      Bó 薄 "very close" refers to spatial proximity primarily but is occasionally used in transferred metaphorical senses to refer to abstract proximity.

      • vtoNstativebe very close to, be in the immediate vicinity of
         qīn OC: tshiŋ MC: tshin 0 Attributions
      • vt(oN)figurativekeep close to a contextually determinate person; get close to a contextually determinate person
         biān OC: peen MC: pen 0 Attributions
      • vtoNstativeborder onto
         péi OC: bɯɯ MC: buo̝i 0 Attributions
      • vadNadjacent, attached
      密邇   mì ěr OC: mbriɡ mljelʔ MC: mit ȵiɛ 0 Attributions
      • VPt+prep+Nfigurativebe close to and intimate with
      • VPtoNstativebe close to N
      • VPt+prep+Nbe physically close to
      相望   xiāng wàng OC: sqaŋ maŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
      • VPibe close together
      相近   xiāng jìn OC: sqaŋ ɡɯns MC: si̯ɐŋ gɨn 0 Attributions
      • VPimathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
         zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 0 Attributions
      • vadN
      • npost-N
      • nplacevicinity

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: