BRIGHT  光明

FEATURE of ISSUING:giving out INTENSE LIGHT.
SHININGBRILLIANTDAZZLINGBEAMINGGLARINGSPARKLINGFLASHINGGLITTERINGSCINTILLATINGGLEAMINGGLOWINGLUMINOUSRADIANTSHINYLUSTROUSGLOSSY
Taxonoymy

SHINE

Antonymy

DARK

Kind Of

FEATURE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general term for what appears luminous or bright in the broadest sense of these terms is míng 明 (ant. àn 暗 "dark" and yǐn 隱 "dark"), a word heavily laden with religious overtones.

2. Liàng 亮 "bright" (ant. yōu 幽 "dark and shady"), càn 燦 and làn 爛 are primarily optical and rather prosaic terms to use.

3. Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

4. Yáng 陽 "bright" (ant. yīn 陰 "dark") is simply the opposite of dark and does not connote any high degree of luminosity.

5. Lǎng 朗 is an elevated word used to refer to things resplendent and bright.

6. Hào 顥 and qíng 晴 "bright" refers to the brightness of the sky.

7. Yàn 宴/曣 refers specifically to the brightness of the sky.

8. Guāng 光 refers generally to light or even resplendence. See LIGHT

For causative uses see ILLUMINATE.

For figurative uses see ILLUSTRIOUS

Modern Chinese Criteria

明亮

亮堂

通亮

光亮

雪亮

鮮亮

錚亮

敞亮

豁亮

透亮

瀏亮

清亮

澄瑩

明朗

清明

通明

鮮明

光明

輝煌

明快

杲杲

煌煌

燭燭

皓皓

燦燦

金燦燦

金光光

亮光光

亮閃閃

亮錚錚

亮堂堂

亮  

火光燭天

金光閃亮

光芒萬丈

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.62

WANG TONGWEI 2010 "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 444-449

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 659

灼,焯

1. WL claims that zhuo2 焯 is not used for 燒灼 "to burn or scintillate". But zhuo2 焯 is so rare in early texts that it is impossible to check this generalisation.

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.234;191

ECLAT.BRILLANT.LUSTRE; LUEUR.CLARTE.SPLENDEUR

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 42
  • NPab : 13
  • vadN : 12
  • nab : 10
  • VPi : 7
  • vi.red : 4
  • vi : 3
  • vadN.adV : 3
  • vtoN : 2
  • NP : 2
  • nadN : 2
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 2
  • VPadV : 2
  • n : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • v.red:adN : 1
  • vadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 毛詩 : 13
  • 祖堂集 : 13
  • 莊子 : 12
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 楚辭 : 8
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 韓非子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   míng OC: mraŋ MC: mɣaŋ 24 Attributions

The general term for what appears luminous or bright in the broadest sense of these terms is míng 明 (ant. àn 暗 "dark" and yǐn 隱 "dark"), a word heavily laden with religious overtones.

  • nabstativebrightness; light
  • vadNbright; shining
  • vibe bright; shine brightly; be not dark
  • vichangebecome bright; be lit up by
  • vadNfigurativeillustrious (明德)
  • vtoNfigurativemake illustrious
光明   guāng míng OC: kʷaaŋ mraŋ MC: kɑŋ mɣaŋ 16 Attributions
  • NPabbrightness, light (can occasionally be counted: > rays/beams of light)
  • NPabfigurativebrightness, light
  • VPibe filled with light, be bright
  • VPifigurativeshine brightly (> be intelligent), be illustrious
   zhāo OC: kljew MC: tɕiɛu 6 Attributions

Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

  • nabstativebrightness; luminosity
  • v.red:adNshining bright
  • vibe resplendent
   xī OC: qhlɯ MC: hɨ 5 Attributions
  • vichangebecome bright and illustrious
  • vifigurativebright; spendid
   jiǎo OC: kleewʔ MC: keu 4 Attributions
  • vadNbright; shining
  • vifigurativebe (figuratively) glittering, all shiny and bright (of music)
昭昭   zhāo zhāo OC: kljew kljew MC: tɕiɛu tɕiɛu 4 Attributions
  • NPradiance; brightness
  • vi.redbe bright and radiant
   guāng OC: kʷaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 3 Attributions

Guāng 光 refers generally to light or even resplendence. See LIGHT

  • nadNshining; glossy, shiny
  • vibe bright, have a sheen
  • nabfeature
   lǎng OC: ɡ-raaŋʔ MC: lɑŋ 3 Attributions

Lǎng 朗 is an elevated word used to refer to things resplendent and bright.

  • nabfeaturebrightness
  • vibe lucid and resplendent
   bǐng OC: pqraŋʔ MC: pɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • vadVbrightly, brilliantly, clearly
  • vibe bright, luminous
  • vichangebecome bright, luminous
   shuǎng OC: sraŋʔ MC: ʂi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • vibe bright; shining
   bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • vadN.adVbright (daylight)
   yāng OC: qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vibe shining; be brillant
   zhuó OC: pljewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
  • vadVBURN> brightly, clearly
  • vi.redvery bright; brilliant
   huàn OC: qhloons MC: hʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • vichangebecome brilliant, resplendent
  • vifigurativebrilliant, resplendent
   huáng OC: ɡʷaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • vadNfigurativeaugust
  • vibe brilliant; august
  • vt+prep+Nshine forth in the place N
   gěng OC: kreeŋʔ MC: kɣɛŋ 2 Attributions

Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

  • vadNbright
  • vibright; shine
   hè OC: qhraaɡ MC: hɣɛk 2 Attributions

Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

  • vibright
灼然   zhuó rán OC: pljewɡ njen MC: tɕi̯ɐk ȵiɛn 2 Attributions
  • VPadVclearly, obviously
白黑   bái hēi OC: braaɡ hmɯɯɡ MC: bɣɛk hək 2 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptluminescence
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative luminescence
   liàng OC: ɡ-raŋs MC: li̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Liàng 亮 "bright" (ant. yōu 幽 "dark and shady"), càn 燦 and làn 爛 are primarily optical and rather prosaic terms to use.

  • nabstativebrightness (SHU)
  • vibe bright
  • vadNfigurativebrilliant
   yǎn OC: k-lamʔ MC: jiɛm 1 Attribution
  • vi.redshine brightly; brilliant
   yàn OC: qraans MC: ʔɣan 1 Attribution
  • nbright weather
   qíng OC: dzeŋ MC: dziɛŋ 1 Attribution

Hào 顥 and qíng 晴 "bright" refers to the brightness of the sky.

  • nabbrightness (> clear sky without coulds)
   wěi OC: ɢulʔ MC: ɦɨi 1 Attribution
  • vibrilliant; bright; glowing
   làn OC: ɡ-raans MC: lɑn 1 Attribution

Liàng 亮 "bright" (ant. yōu 幽 "dark and shady"), càn 燦 and làn 爛 are primarily optical and rather prosaic terms to use.

  • vivery bright[to sparkle]
   hào OC: ɡuuʔ MC: ɦɑu 1 Attribution

Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

  • vadNshining bright
  • vishining bright
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

hào

  • vadNbright
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Yáng 陽 "bright" (ant. yīn 陰 "dark") is simply the opposite of dark and does not connote any high degree of luminosity.

  • vibright, light; luminous
   hào OC: ɡuuʔ MC: ɦɑu 1 Attribution

Hào 顥 and qíng 晴 "bright" refers to the brightness of the sky.

  • vadNbright, shining (Heaven) (LSCQ)
  • vibe bright and shining; be glittering
丕顯   pī xiǎn OC: phrɯ qhleenʔ MC: phi hen 1 Attribution
  • VPadNillustrious
昉著   fǎng zhǔ OC: paŋʔ k-laʔ MC: pi̯ɐŋ ti̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe resplendent
照明   zhào míng OC: kljews mraŋ MC: tɕiɛu mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfigurativefig. brightness; light
穆穆   mù mù OC: muɡ muɡ MC: muk muk 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativesplendid, bright, august
赫赫   hè hè OC: qhraaɡ qhraaɡ MC: hɣɛk hɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPab{n.red}stativebrightness
  • VPibe dazzling bright
   xiān MC: sjen OC: sen 1 Attribution
  • vichangefigurative: brighten up with fresh light of sensibility
   càn MC: tshanH OC: tshaans 1 Attribution
  • vifigurativebe scintillating
千眠   qiān mián  MC: tshen men  OC: snʰiin miin  1 Attribution
  • VPipoeticarcane and opaque: brilliant, scintillating
   yàn OC: qeens MC: ʔen 0 Attributions
  • vi(of weather, or of the sky) be clear and bright. Also written 曣.
   jǐng OC: kraŋʔ MC: kɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadNbright; radiant
   lì OC: reeɡ MC: lek 0 Attributions
  • vi.redreduplicated: be bright (a color, pearl, etc.)BIANWEN: 珠珍齊曆曆
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

Yàn 宴/曣 refers specifically to the brightness of the sky.

  • nbright weather, variant of 宴
   zhuó OC: ntjewɡ MC: tɕi̯ɐk 0 Attributions
  • vibe bright
   yè OC: ɢeb MC: ɦiɛp 0 Attributions

Zhāo 昭 "resplendent" (ant. míng 冥 "dark"), gěng 耿 "brilliant", hào 皓 "shining bright", yè 燁, and hè 赫 "luminous" is a highly charged ritually high-flown word that belongs to court language, often with metaphorical force.

  • vibe bright
   càn OC: tshaans MC: tshɑn 0 Attributions

Liàng 亮 "bright" (ant. yōu 幽 "dark and shady"), càn 燦 and làn 爛 are primarily optical and rather prosaic terms to use.

  • vidazzlingly bright
   jīng OC: tseŋ MC: tsiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe bright SHIJI: 光精
   míng OC: mraŋ MC: mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPibe bright and clear
易日   yì rì OC: leɡ mljiɡ MC: jiɛk ȵit 0 Attributions
  • VPi0OBI: change to sunny weather
晏陰   yàn yīn OC: qraans qrɯm MC: ʔɣan ʔim 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturebrightness versus cloudiness LS
赫奕   hè yì OC: qhraaɡ k-laɡ MC: hɣɛk jiɛk 0 Attributions
  • VPibe resplendent
   qīng OC: tsheŋ MC: tshiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe bright
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vichangefigurative: brighten up with fresh light of sensibility
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe scintillating

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: