SAD  悲傷

DISTRESS ARISING from BAD THOUGHTS NOW IN ONE'S MIND which CAUSE one to LACK DELIGHT:joy.NB: The words I have chosen to include in this group pose special problems of contrastive analysis. There is something irretrievably diffuse about their usage, in many cases, and in many others the number of relevant examples in the early literature is so small that it is impossible to get anything like a firm grip on their precise semantics. Under these circumstances I have tried to compensate for lack of neat analysis with more quotation, especially from Chǔcí. Throughout this section I quote my teacher David Hawkes' translations, mindful of the fact that many of these were written in the third year of his study of Chinese...
UNHAPPYSORROWFULDEJECTEDDEPRESSEDDOWNCASTMISERABLEDOWNDESPONDENTDESPAIRINGDISCONSOLATEDESOLATEWRETCHEDGLUMGLOOMYDOLEFULDISMALMELANCHOLYMOURNFULWOEBEGONEFORLORNCRESTFALLENHEARTBROKENINCONSOLABLEINFORMAL BLUEDOWN IN/AT THE MOUTHDOWN IN THE DUMPSBLAH
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word for sadness of any kind is bēi 悲 (ant. huān 歡 "joyful" and xǐ 喜 "delighted").

2. Yōu 悠 refers to a pensive listlessness, a wistful kind of sadness.

3. Qī 悽 (ant. lè 樂 "feel acute profound joy") refers to acute profound unhappiness.

4. Yù 鬱 (ant. xīn 欣 "in high spirits") refers to largely endogenic sadness or depression.

5. Shāng 傷 (ant. yuè 悅 "be pleased") refers to sadness caused by identifiable external conditions.

6. Cǎn 慘/憯 refers poetically to a kind of despondency.

7. Mǐn 閔 / 憫 is a very poetic word which typically refers to a kind of sadness that has external causes and can be close to compassion.

8. Chóu 愁 refers to an internalised sadness one is reluctant to show openly.

9. Qī 戚 / 慽 is an archaising elevated word for sadness that is common in poetry.

10. Qī chuàng 悽愴 refers to sadness typically associated with regret or even remorse.

NB: The vocabulary of sadness in Chinese poses very special problems because it is to huge: in many cases I am quite unable to determine the exact nuances. This subject requires a special monograph.

Modern Chinese Criteria

悲痛 is a current word for intense sadness.

悲傷 is a current word for sadness as a feeling of being hurt.

悲慘 refers to sad and miserable circumstances of one's life or experience.

悲憤 refers to sadness with a tinge of indignation.

悲切 refers to something being heart-rendingly sad.

悽慘 refers to a general state of miserable sadness.

淒涼 refers to disconsolate sadness.

傷悲

傷心

傷感

熬心

難過

難受

悲愴

憂傷

憂戚

惻然

淒然

淒淒

淒迷

淒惘

淒愴

淒惻

淒惶

愴惻

惻怛

惻惻

愀愴

忉怛

怛怛

殷殷

不是味兒

不是滋味

如喪考妣

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.36

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 94

MAESTITIA, TRISITITIA

Maestitia cordis est, tristitia vultus. (vultus is gentitive, "of the facial expression".

568. Inter Tristitiam, et moestitiam. Moestitia cordis [col. 66C] est, tristitia vultus. Moestum ergo vel moerentem animo dicimus, tristem aspectu. Item moestitia temporis est, et fit aliquando ex aliquo accidenti dolore. Tristitia vero, vitium naturae perpetuum est.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

INFELICITAS

MOEROR

TRISTITIA

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 132ff

beznadezhnost'

beznadezhnyj

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1601

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 24

HSU 2010 Pulse Diagnosis in Early Chinese Medicine 391

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 56

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.92:64

MALHEUREUX.MISERABLE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.24:21

AFFLICTION.CHAGRIN.PEINE; DOULEUR.CHAGRIN.TRISTESSE.AFFLICTION.DESOLATION

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.257.214

CHAGRIN.TRISTESSE.MELACOLIE

YANG MINGTIAN 2009 觀念的對比分析 133

TOSKA

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 48
  • VPi : 19
  • nab : 11
  • vi.red : 6
  • NPab : 5
  • vtoN : 5
  • vadN : 5
  • VPi0 : 4
  • vtoNPab{S} : 3
  • vadV : 2
  • n.red:ab : 2
  • vi-P.adV : 1
  • VPi Nab{S}{SUBJ} : 1
  • v-p.adV : 1
  • vi : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • vtoS : 1
  • vi(0) : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • n : 1
  • vi.red:adN : 1
  • vpostadV : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 毛詩 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 12
  • 楚辭 : 12
  • 莊子 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 10
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 6
  • 春秋左傳 : 6
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 論語 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   bēi OC: prɯl MC: pi 33 Attributions

The general word for sadness of any kind is bēi 悲 (ant. huān 歡 "joyful" and xǐ 喜 "delighted").

  • nabpsychsadness
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are sad; the sad
  • vadNsad, sorrowful
  • vi(0)(this) is a pity [Note that it appears that the pragmatic omission of the subject is idiomatic, if not obligatory. Hence vi(0).]
  • visubject=humanbe sad (of a person); feel sadness
  • visubj=nonhumanbe sad in quality; be mournful; be sad to look at/think about; be pathetic
  • vpostadVsadly
  • vtoNpsychbe sad about (oneself), bemoan (oneself)
  • vtoNputativebe saddened by, find something depressing to think of, feel upset by
  • vtoNPab{S}be sad that S, be sad about S
  • vadVsadly
慼 / 戚   qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek 8 Attributions

Qī 戚/慽 is an archaising elevated word for sadness that is common in poetry. Qī 戚/慽 is an archaising elevated word for sadness that is common in poetry.

  • viactfeel and show intense distress
  • nabpsychstate of sadness
  • vadNexpressive of sadness; sad
   chóu OC: dzriw MC: ɖʐɨu 6 Attributions

Chóu 愁 refers to an internalised sadness one is reluctant to show openly.

  • nabpsychmelancholy sadness
  • vadNsad, depressed, grievous
  • vadVsombrely
  • vibe worried and sad
  • vt+V/Nfeel depressed to V/about V-ing
  • vtoNcausativesadden, make depressed
  • vtoNpsychfeel depressed by
   yōu OC: k-lɯw MC: jɨu 5 Attributions

Yōu 悠 refers to a pensive listlessness, a wistful kind of sadness.

  • vi.redbe very wistful and sad
  • visad and wistful, pensive
   mǐn OC: mrɯnʔ MC: min 5 Attributions

Mǐn 閔/憫 is a very poetic word which typically refers to a kind of sadness that has external causes and can be close to compassion.

  • nsubjectwhat makes one sad> disconcerting or saddening episodes, sad things
  • vi.red:adNvery sad, disconcerted
  • vi.redbe quite sad; be disconcerted
  • vtoNPab{S}stativefeel sad that S
  • vtoSstativebe concerned that, be saddened by the fact that S, be disconcerted that S
悲夫   bēi fū MC: pij pju OC: prɯl pa 5 Attributions
  • VPi0how sad!
  • VPi Nab{S}{SUBJ}How sad it is that S
   qiǎo OC: smʰewʔ MC: tshiɛu 4 Attributions
  • virare and poectic: anxious and sad
悽愴   qī chuàng OC: shiil skhraŋs MC: tshei ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions

Qī chuàng 悽愴 refers to sadness typically associated with regret or even remorse.

  • VPadNsad, distressed, melancholic
  • VPipoeticfeel sad and distressed, be melancholic
  • VPt(oN)causativecause somebody to feel distressed and sad
   qī OC: shiil MC: tshei 3 Attributions

Qī 悽 (ant. lè 樂 "feel acute profound joy") refers to acute profound unhappiness.

  • vifeel and show sharp and acute inner pain
  • visubject=nonhumanbe plaintive; express mournfulness
慘 / 憯   cǎn OC: tshuumʔ MC: tshəm cǎn OC: skhɯɯmʔ MC: tshəm 3 Attributions

Cǎn 慘/憯 refers poetically to a kind of despondency. Cǎn 慘/憯 refers poetically to a kind of despondency.

  • vifeel miserable and despondent; (of things:) cause one to be miserable, be woeful, painful
  • vadVvery painfully, woefully
惆悵   chóu chàng OC: hɯw khrlaŋs MC: ʈhɨu ʈhi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabpsychaffliction, dejectedness
  • VPistativesad and dejected
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

Shāng 傷 (ant. yuè 悅 "be pleased") refers to sadness caused by identifiable external conditions.

  • nabsadness, misery
  • vifeel sad; feel love-sick
  • vtoNab{S}feel sad about S
惛 / 悶   hūn OC: hmuun MC: huo̝n mèn OC: mɯɯns MC: muo̝n 2 Attributions
  • viact in a depressed and gloomy fashion; grumble
   chuò OC: krlod MC: ʈiɛt 2 Attributions
  • vi.redbe very sad
  • virare: SHI 14: (my worried heart) is weary and sad
傷悲   shāng bēi OC: lʰaŋ prɯl MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ pi 2 Attributions
  • VPibe very sad
幽憂   yōu yōu OC: qriw qu MC: ʔi̯u ʔɨu 2 Attributions
  • nabstativemelancholy
悠悠   yōu yōu OC: k-lɯw k-lɯw MC: jɨu jɨu 2 Attributions
  • n.red:abpsychgloomy vacant sadness
悲戀   bēi liàn OC: prɯl b-rons MC: pi liɛn 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychsadness, feeling of sadness, grief
感傷   gǎn shāng OC: koomʔ lʰaŋ MC: kəm ɕi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPimiddle voicebe moved to sadness
  • VPt+V[0]be saddened by the prospect of V-ing
愁憂   chóu yōu OC: dzriw qu MC: ɖʐɨu ʔɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPibe sad and worried, be dissatisfied
   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 2 Attributions
  • vifeel sad and preoccupied, feel disturbed, disquieted, tormented
   xū OC: qhʷla MC: hi̯o 1 Attribution
  • viSHI 3, poetic, rare: be openly sad and unhappy as well as confused; alas
   yōu OC: qriw MC: ʔi̯u 1 Attribution
  • vadNfigurativedark and sad (thoughts)
   dá OC: taad MC: tɑt 1 Attribution
  • vibe sad
   cuì OC: sɡuds MC: dzi 1 Attribution
  • vibe sad and despondent
   mǐn OC: mrinʔ MC: min 1 Attribution
  • nsorrow
  • vipoetic: feel pain and sorrow about
  • vtoNfeel sad about
  • v-p.adVverb followed and modified by a suffix, that whose expression preceding and modifying a main verb
   kài OC: khɯɯds MC: khɑi 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychwistful sadness
  • vi-P.adVsadly, in a sad mode
   cǎo OC: tshuuʔ MC: tshɑu 1 Attribution
  • viSHI 143: sad and disturbed
   mǐn OC: mrɯnʔ MC: min 1 Attribution
  • vibe grieved; be disappointed
  • vichangeto get disappointed
懣 / 懣懑   mèn OC: mbuuns MC: muo̝n  OC:  MC:  1 Attribution
  • vibe full of pent-up feelings of resentment and powerless sadness
   yǐn OC: qɯnʔ MC: ʔɨn 1 Attribution
  • visad and glum
  • vtoNPab{S}feel sad about the fact that S
   yù OC: qud MC: ʔi̯ut 1 Attribution

Yù 鬱 (ant. xīn 欣 "in high spirits") refers to largely endogenic sadness or depression.

  • vadNsad; grieved; depressed
  • visad and oppressed (often redupl.)
悲傷   bēi shāng OC: prɯl lʰaŋ MC: pi ɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNstativebe saddened by, feel sad about
悲憐   bēi lián OC: prɯl ɡ-riiŋ MC: pi len 1 Attribution
  • vt(oN)feel sad and concerned about the contextually determinate object
悲愁   bēi chóu OC: prɯl dzriw MC: pi ɖʐɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPiintensitivebe very sad
愁悒   chóu yì OC: dzriw qrɯb MC: ɖʐɨu ʔip 1 Attribution
  • VPibe very sad
愁悴   chóu cuì OC: dzriw sɡuds MC: ɖʐɨu dzi 1 Attribution
  • VPibe sad, be disgruntled
愁悶   chóu mèn OC: dzriw mɯɯns MC: ɖʐɨu muo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPibe depressed
愁惱   chóu nǎo OC: dzriw nuuʔ MC: ɖʐɨu nɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPibe unhappy
愁憒   chóu kuì OC: dzriw kluuds MC: ɖʐɨu kuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPibe sad to the point of being all confused
憂悲   yōu bēi OC: qu prɯl MC: ʔɨu pi 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]nonreferentialthe afflicted
憂戚   yōu qī OC: qu skhlɯɯwɡ MC: ʔɨu tshek 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychsadness
憯怛   cǎn dá OC: skhɯɯmʔ taad MC: tshəm tɑt 1 Attribution
  • VPibe very sad
懇惻   kěn cè OC: khɯɯnʔ skhrɯɡ MC: khən ʈʂhɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPibe very sad HYDCD: 悲切;凄切。
酸切   suān qiē, qiè OC: sqloon snʰiid MC: sʷɑn tshet 1 Attribution
  • VPivery sad 悲切;凄切。
   sī OC: snɯ MC: sɨ 1 Attribution
  • vimournful
憔悴   qiáo cuì MC: dzjew dzwijH OC: dzew sɡuds 1 Attribution
  • VPibe despondent
愁苦   chóu kǔ MC: dzrjuw khuX OC: dzriw khaaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbitter grief and sadness
   chà OC: phrlaaɡs MC: ʈhɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vibe disappointed; forlorn
   láo OC: raaw MC: lɑu 0 Attributions
  • vi.redbe troubled in one's heart
   yù OC: ɢʷrɯɡ MC: ɦɨk 0 Attributions
       diào OC: teewɡs MC: teu 0 Attributions
    • vifeel grieved by
       tún OC: duun MC: duo̝n 0 Attributions
    • vifeel gloomy and confused
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    yóu

    • virare and poetic: sad and dejected
       tōng OC: lʰooŋ MC: thuŋ 0 Attributions
    • vibe sad
    惝戃 / 戃    OC:  MC:  tǎng OC: thaaŋʔ MC: thɑŋ 0 Attributions
    • vidisheartened
       chóu OC: hɯw MC: ʈhɨu 0 Attributions
    • vi.redpoeticbe sad, melancholic, be full of regrets
    戾 / 悷   lì OC: rɯɯds MC: lei lì OC: rɯɯds MC: lei 0 Attributions
    • viCC, very rare: sad and disconsolate
       cè OC: skhrɯɡ MC: ʈʂhɨk 0 Attributions
    • vifeel hurt and sad, feel pangs of sadness
       qiǎo OC: tshewʔ MC: tshiɛu 0 Attributions
    • vichangebecome sad, turn melancholic
       qióng OC: ɡʷleŋ MC: giɛŋ 0 Attributions
    • viSHI 192, rare and poetic: feel sad and isolated
       chuàng OC: skhraŋs MC: ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • vipoetic: sad and distressed
       liáo OC: ɡ-rɯɯw MC: leu 0 Attributions
    • virare, poetic: worried, sad and pensive
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    • vi-Pbe disappointed
    • vidisappointed
       qín OC: ɡlɯn MC: gɨn 0 Attributions
    • vibe saddened
       chóu OC: du MC: ɖɨu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNrare: be restlessly sad
       mǐn OC: mrɯŋʔ MC: min 0 Attributions
    • vi?? hapax legomenon??
       jǔ OC: sɡaʔ MC: dzi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • vidisheartened
    癢 / 痒   yǎng OC: laŋʔ MC: ji̯ɐŋ yǎng OC: k-laŋʔ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • vibe in a melancholic state
       mèi OC: mɯɯs MC: muo̝i 0 Attributions
    • vihapax legomenon: sad
       shǔ OC: qhjaʔ MC: ɕi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • videjected and sad
    不快   bù kuài OC: pɯʔ khʷraads MC: pi̯ut khɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • VPilitotesbe sad
    侘傺   chà chì OC: phrlaaɡs khrleds MC: ʈhɣɛ ʈhiɛi 0 Attributions
    • VPidesperate
       kǒng OC: khooŋʔ MC: khuŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPipoeticurgent > be troubled, afflicted, sad ?hapax legomenon?
    坎廩   kǎn lǐn OC: khoomʔ b-rɯmʔ MC: khəm lim 0 Attributions
    • VPistativerare and poetic, CC: disappointed and depressed
    廓落   kuò luò OC: khʷaaɡ ɡ-raaɡ MC: khɑk lɑk 0 Attributions
    • VPistativerare, poetic: be in a desolate mental state
    怫鬱   fú yù OC: bɯd qud MC: bi̯ut ʔi̯ut 0 Attributions
    • VPistativepoetic, CC: feel gloomy and utterly depressed
    怮然   yōu rán OC: qriw njen MC: ʔi̯u ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
    • viSHU, xinshu, rare: sad and worried
    悢悢   liàng liàng OC: ɡ-raŋs ɡ-raŋs MC: li̯ɐŋ li̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • vi.redhapax legomenon: sad
    慇慇   yīn yīn OC: qɯn qɯn MC: ʔɨn ʔɨn 0 Attributions
    • vadNSHI 257, rare and poetic sad and despondent
    • viSHI 257, rare and poetic be sad and despondent
    愴怳   chuǎng huǎng OC: skhraŋʔ qhʷaŋʔ MC: ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ hi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPistativedistraught
    憭慄 / 憀慄   liáo lì OC: ɡ-reew b-riɡ MC: leu lit liáo lì OC: ɡ-rɯɯw b-riɡ MC: leu lit 0 Attributions
    • VPistativepoetic: sad
    憯悽 / 慘悽   cǎn qī OC: skhɯɯmʔ shiil MC: tshəm tshei cǎn qī OC: tshuumʔ shiil MC: tshəm tshei 0 Attributions
    • VPistativecurrent in CC: disheartened
    慘然   cǎn rán OC: tshuumʔ njen MC: tshəm ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
    • VPadVdespondently, sadly
       rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 0 Attributions

    cùrán

    • VPistativebe disappointed and disheartened; look disappointed
    懭悢    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    kuànglǎng

    • VPistativerare, CC: despondent
    摧藏   cuī cáng OC: sɡluul sɡaaŋ MC: dzuo̝i dzɑŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPadVheart-breakingly (DCD 6.838)
    • VPibe distraught; be heart-broken
    自憐   zì lián OC: sblids riin MC: dzi len 0 Attributions
    • VPistativefeel sorry for oneself
    蕭瑟   xiāo sè OC: sɯɯw sbriɡ MC: seu ʂɪt 0 Attributions
    • VPistativewan and drear
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPi0how sad!
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPibe despondent

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: