ANGUISH  憤恨

DISTRESS AND LACK of HOPE for IMPROVEMENT.
AGONYPAINTORMENTTORTURESUFFERINGDISTRESSANGSTMISERYSORROWGRIEFHEARTACHEDESOLATIONDESPAIR
Antonymy

DELIGHT

See also

SADHATEPAINANGER

Kind Of

DISTRESS

Old Chinese Criteria

[IMPERSONAL/PERSONAL]

[PRECISE/VAGUE]

[POETIC/PROSAIC]

[LASTING/TRANSITORY]

1. Jí 疾 (ant. kuài 快 "be delighted") is acute temporary or momentary anguish directed at a definite cause of dissatisfaction. See also HATE.

[PRECISE], [TRANSITORY]

2. Yùn 慍 (ant. yú 愉 "feel generally pleased") is lingering or lasting somewhat milder and more diffuse dissatisfaction or anguish. See ANGER. The distinction is miserably uncertain in many contexts.

[OVERT], [LASTING]

3. Fèn 憤 "pent-up dissatisfaction and resentment" (ant.* chàng 暢 "vent one's feelings freely" is not a regular antonym that is stylistically acceptable in parallelism) can be a general feeling of dissatisfaction without any concrete person to be dissatisfied about. See also ANGER.

[COVERT], [IMPERSONAL], [INTENSE], [LASTING]

4. Chàng 悵 (ant. xīn rán 欣然 "be pleased with oneself") is poetic and intensely personal without being directed at any particular person, and involves a strong element of despondency.

[INTENSE], [IMPERSONAL], [LASTING], [POETIC]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

煩悶

煩心

糟心

煩亂

煩躁

煩惱

煩擾

憂煩

憂悶

沉悶

苦悶

鬱悶

愁悶

憋悶

悶氣

憋氣

窩囊

窩憋

不快

不快意憋

苦惱

抑鬱

鬱悒

沉鬱

窩心

憤懣

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 16
  • nab : 7
  • vtoN : 6
  • vadV : 4
  • VPt[oN] : 3
  • vadN : 3
  • VPi : 2
  • vi-P.adV : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vi.red : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論語 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 韓非子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   yùn OC: quns MC: ʔi̯un 13 Attributions

Yùn 慍 (ant. yú 愉 "feel generally pleased") is lingering or lasting somewhat milder and more diffuse dissatisfaction or anguish. See ANGER. [OVERT], [LASTING]

  • nabpsychindignation
  • vadNindignant 慍色
  • vadVindignantly, full of indignation
  • vitransitivefeel resentment or indignation; feel offended; show lingering anger and resentment; show indignation
  • vtoNpassivebe resented by
   fèn OC: bɯnʔ MC: bi̯un 12 Attributions

Fèn 憤 "pent-up dissatisfaction and resentment" (ant.* chàng 暢 "vent one's feelings freely" is not a regular antonym that is stylistically acceptable in parallelism) can be a general feeling of dissatisfaction without any concrete person or matter to be dissatisfied about. See also ANGER. [COVERT], [IMPERSONAL], [INTENSE], [LASTING]

  • nabpsychanguish;pent-up anger
  • vi.redfeel strongly anguished, be full of pent-up anger
  • vipsychfeel pent-up dissatisfaction, feel indignation and unreleased anger; feel pent-up frustration; indignation
  • vtoNcausativecause to become anguiahed
   chàng OC: khrlaŋs MC: ʈhi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions

Chàng 悵 (ant. xīn rán 欣然 "be pleased with oneself") is poetic and intensely personal without being directed at any particular person, and involves a strong element of despondency. [INTENSE], [LASTING], [POETIC]; [[RARE]]

  • vi-P.adVin a distressed way
  • vidisheartened and despondent
   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 5 Attributions

Jí 疾 (ant. kuài 快 "be delighted") is acute temporary or momentary anguish directed at a definite cause of dissatisfaction. [PRECISE], [TRANSITORY]

  • vadNacutely anguished
  • vichangefeel acute anguish
  • vtoNcausativecause to be feel anguished; arouse the resentment of
  • vtoNstativefeel acute anguish against
疾怨   jí yuàn OC: dzid qons MC: dzit ʔi̯ɐn 4 Attributions
  • VPt[oN]intensitivefeel anguished resentment
  • VPtoNstativefeel all sorts of aguished resentment against
發憤   fā fèn OC: pod bɯnʔ MC: pi̯ɐt bi̯un 3 Attributions
  • VPipsychfeel anguish
  • vt+prep+Nexpress one's anguish to N
   yuān OC: qʷlen MC: ʔiɛn 1 Attribution
  • vifeel anguished and unhappy
   xì OC: ɡeeɡs MC: ɦei 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfeel anguished in (one's mind) 繫心
愁毒   chóu dú OC: dzriw duuɡ MC: ɖʐɨu duok 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychdistress and resentment
   chāo OC: khrlew MC: ʈhiɛu 0 Attributions
  • vipoetic and very rare in isolation: feel miserable, helpless, and dispirited (as a child that has lost his/her mother)
   wǎng OC: maŋʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vifeel disheartened, despondent and confused, anguished and bewildered
   mèn OC: mbuuns MC: muo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vibe intensely dissatisfied
怊悵   chāo chàng OC: khrlew khrlaŋs MC: ʈhiɛu ʈhi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vvistativeanguished and discontented
悱悱   fěi fěi OC: phɯlʔ phɯlʔ MC: phɨi phɨi 0 Attributions
  • vi.redbe anguished to the point of speechlessness, be dumbfounded by anguish
憤懣   fèn mèn OC: bɯnʔ mbuuns MC: bi̯un muo̝n 0 Attributions
  • VPipsychfeel strong anguish

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: