LUCK  機遇福/幸

GOOD BECAUSE IT CAUSES CONTINGENT PROFIT.
FORTUNATEIN LUCKBLESSEDFAVOREDBORN UNDER A LUCKY STARCHARMEDSUCCESSFULPROSPEROUS
Taxonoymy

AUSPICIOUSFORTUNATELYFORTUNA

Antonymy

DISASTER

See also

HAPPY

Kind Of

GOOD

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant general word for good fortune is fú 福 (ant. huò 禍 "misfortune"), and the dominant general word for good luck is xìng 幸 (ant. yāng 殃 "misfortune").

2. Lù 祿 and the rare xiū 休 / 庥 are elevated and archaising words referring to blessings from Heaven.

3. Zuò 祚 is a very elevated and archaising word referring to blessings from Heaven as given to states or great clans and the like.

4. Yù 裕 (ant. fá 乏 "shortage sent down by Heaven") is an elevated word referring to abundant blessings from Heaven.

Modern Chinese Criteria

福氣 is the current modern word for good luck.

幸福 focusses on the fortuitousness of good luck.

福分 focusses on the preordained nature of good fortune.

福運 focusses on the fortuitousness of good luck.

造化 focusses on the inscrutability of good luck

福 is a current and general literary word for good fortune.

祜 is an obsolescent word for good luck.

祉 is an obsolete word for good luck.

祚 is an obsolete word for good luck.

福祉 is a highly literary word for good fortune.

鴻福齊天 is a proverbial hyperbolic expression for good fortune.

福份 (lit) refers to a good luck as part of one's fate.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.18

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 138

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 833

福,祿

1. The antonym of fu2 福 "good fortune" is huo4 禍 "stroke of bad fortune, misfortune". The traditional rationalising gloss 爵命為福,賞賜為祿 is not relevant to most usages of the word and certainly not helpful for the interpretations of the texts where the words occur. HF is much earlier and certainly more relevant to current Warring States usage:

HF 20.10:03; jishi 341; jiaozhu 188; shiping 615

全壽富貴之謂福。 Achieving a full measure of long life, wealth and nobility is called good fortune.

Wa2ng Cho21ng has an important explanation:

LH 2; Liu 1990:10; Beida1979:22; Yang 1999:12; Zheng 1999: 209; Guizhou 1993: 21; Hunan 1997: 11; tr. Forke 2.37

禍福之至, The arrival of happiness and misfortune,

幸不幸也。 is a matter of good or bad luck.

故曰: Therefore it is said:

得非己力, Because one gets good fortune not through one's own efforts

故謂之福; therefore good fortune is called good fortune;

來不由我, because misfortune comes not from oneself

故謂之禍。 therefore misfortune is called misfortune.

2. The definition of fu2 福 as lu4 祿 is fair enough when lu4 祿 refers to blessings from Heaven, but even then the difference remains that fu2 福 refers to either a fortunate outcome, or a state of comfortable good fortune which are on occasion construed as the result of one's own actions, whereas lu4 祿 are apparently always blessings construed as coming from Heaven unaffected by human action. Re2n jie1 qiu2 fu2 人皆求福, but when one ga1n lu4 干祿 what one seeks is an official stipend that goes with public employment, not good fortune as such.

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 337

FORTUNA

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 87
  • vi : 23
  • VPi : 18
  • VPadV : 8
  • vtoN : 7
  • NPab : 4
  • n : 4
  • NP : 3
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • vi0 : 2
  • vadV : 1
  • nab{PRED} : 1
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • vadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 27
  • 春秋左傳 : 21
  • 論衡 : 19
  • 說苑 : 14
  • 呂氏春秋 : 12
  • 毛詩 : 8
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 法句經 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 管子 : 5
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 忠經 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 老子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 新序 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   fú OC: pɯɡ MC: puk 71 Attributions

The dominant general word for good fortune is fú 福 (ant. huò 禍 "misfortune"), and the dominant general word for good luck is xìng 幸 (ant. yāng 殃 "misfortune").

  • nab.post-V{NUM}kind of good fortune
  • nabeventfortunate outcome of an undertaking; fortunate turn of events; happy outcome
  • nabstativeblessings (from Heaven or the ancestors); good fortune sent from above; fortunate circumstances
  • vibe lucky; bring luck
  • vtoNcausativecause to be fortunate
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be happy
   xìng OC: ɢreeŋʔ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 22 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbe so lucky as to V
  • nabmetaphysicalluck, good fortune; a stroke of good luck
  • vadNlucky, what is a matter of luck only
  • vadVas a matter of good fortune, by the grace of the ruler; by a stroke of good luck
  • viZZ 1152: be fortunate, be lucky
  • vigraded甚幸(of things) be a matter of good luck; be a a matter of pure luck; (of persons) have a stroke of good luck
  • visubject=humanbe lucky 吾幸 "If I am lucky..."
  • vtoNputativeregard as fortunate, rejoice in as fortunate
遇時   yù shí OC: ŋos ɡljɯ MC: ŋi̯o dʑɨ 9 Attributions
  • VPieventmeet a suitable opportunity> meet the right time, get lucky
   jí OC: kid MC: kit 7 Attributions
  • nabeventgood luck; lucky outcome
  • vibe in good luck; turn out lucky
  • vi0there will be good fortune ???
祿   lù OC: b-rooɡ MC: luk 7 Attributions

Lù 祿 and the rare xiū 休/庥 are elevated and archaising words referring to blessings from Heaven.

  • nabeventblessings (from Heaven); good fortune
  • nab{PRED}be something that spells good fortune; augure well.
   xiū OC: qhu MC: hɨu 6 Attributions

Lù 祿 and the rare xiū 休/庥 are elevated and archaising words referring to blessings from Heaven.

  • nblessings (from Heaven) 天休(庥)
  • vadNBLESSING
  • vienjoy good fortune
吉祥   jí xiáng OC: kid sɢlaŋ MC: kit zi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • NPlucky omen; lucky thing; auspicious thing
  • NPab{N1=N2}stativeauspiciousness
  • NPabfigurativeBUDDH: auspiciousness (description of nirvāṇa 涅槃); SANSKRIT śiva, PALI siva
  • VPadNlucky, auspicious
幸而   xìng ér OC: ɢreeŋʔ njɯ MC: ɦɣɛŋ ȵɨ 6 Attributions
  • VPadVV by luck, V through mere luck; be lucky to V, be lucky if one Vs, with luck; if we are lucky...
偷幸   tōu xìng OC: lʰoo ɢreeŋʔ MC: thu ɦɣɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • VPiacthope for an undeserved stroke of good luck, go for good luck
   zuò OC: dzaaɡs MC: dzuo̝ 4 Attributions

Zuò 祚 is a very elevated and archaising word referring to blessings from Heaven as given to states or great clans and the like.

  • nabstativegood fortune (from heaven)
  • vtoNrare and archaic (of Heaven etc): send down good fortune to, confer blessings upon; good fortune (as sent down by Heaven)
   qìng OC: khraŋs MC: khɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • nabeventfortunate outcome; good fortune; stroke of good luck; fortunate coincidence
著便   zhuó biàn OC: k-laɡ bens MC: ʈi̯ɐk biɛn 3 Attributions
  • VPicolloquialattach convenience > be lucky, fortunate
佑 / 祐   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalOBI: blessings from Heaven, divine succour (mostly written 祐)
   hù OC: ɡaaʔ MC: ɦuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalgood fortune, good destiny granted by Heaven
   yù OC: ŋos MC: ŋi̯o 2 Attributions
  • vimeet the right cirucumstances> be in the right place at the right time; be in time; be lucky
   xìng OC: ɢreeŋʔ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVby good luck
   tiān OC: lʰiin MC: then 1 Attribution
  • vibe favoured by Heaven
   yùn OC: ɢuns MC: ɦi̯un 1 Attribution
  • nabgood fortune, luck
儌倖   jiǎo xìng OC: kleewʔ ɢreeŋʔ MC: keu ɦɣɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nseek one's luck with
宿福   sù fú OC: suɡ pɯɡ MC: suk puk 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalkarmic good fortune DCD: 謂前世註定的福分。
期運   jī yùn OC: kɯ ɢuns MC: kɨ ɦi̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPab?? time of good fortune, auspicious occasion, luck (syn. to jīyùn 機運)
福善   fú shàn OC: pɯɡ ɡjenʔ MC: puk dʑiɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1&N2}generalexcellent fortune of any kind
福慶   fú qìng OC: pɯɡ khraŋs MC: puk khɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPienjoy good fortune
吉福   jí fú MC: kjit pjuwk OC: kid pɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • NPabgood fortune
   bìng OC: beeŋʔ MC: beŋ 0 Attributions
  • vimeet the right person or time
   xìng OC: ɢreeŋʔ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalgood luck
  • nadVfortunately
   lǚ OC: riʔ MC: li 0 Attributions
  • nabstategood fortune HYDCD: [11] 福祿。《詩·周南·樛木》:「樂只君子,福履綏之。」毛傳:「履,祿。」
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalgood fortune, felicity
   yù OC: k-loɡs MC: ji̯o 0 Attributions

Yù 裕 (ant. fá 乏 "shortage sent down by Heaven") is an elevated word referring to abundant blessings from Heaven.

    休氣   xiū qì OC: qhu khɯds MC: hɨu khɨi 0 Attributions
    • NPabmetaphysicalgood luck
    徼倖   jiào xìng OC: kleewɡs ɢreeŋʔ MC: keu ɦɣɛŋ 0 Attributions

    jiǎoxìng

      禍福   huò fú OC: ɡloolʔ pɯɡ MC: ɦʷɑ puk 0 Attributions
      • NPabmetaphysicalgood or bad fortune
      福群   fú qún OC: pɯɡ ɡlun MC: puk gi̯un 0 Attributions
      • NPabstativeall kinds of good fortune
         suì OC: sɢluds MC: zi 0 Attributions
      • viprocess

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: