TRUE  然否

EXIST CONFORMing to SPEAK(what is claimed). (BE AS SAID(asserted))[[NB: the subject of this syntactic predicate is the situation identified in the "sentence" of which this syntactic predicate is predicated. "God made Heaven and Earth" is TRUE iff the situation identified in this sentence (the creation of Heaven and Earth by God) EXISTS(i.e. occurred).]
TRUTHCORRECTACCURATERIGHTVERIFIABLEIN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FACTSWHAT ACTUALLY/REALLY HAPPENEDWELL-DOCUMENTEDTHE CASESOLITERALFACTUALUNELABORATEDUNVARNISHED.VERACITYTRUTHFULNESSVERITYSINCERITYCANDORHONESTYACCURACYCORRECTNESSVALIDITYFACTUALITYAUTHENTICITY
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current word for propositional truth is rán 然 "it is so" (ant. fǒu 否 "be untrue").

2. Kě 可 refers to logical or ethical acceptability.

3. Xìn 信 (ant. zhà 詐 "fraudulent and not reliable") refers prototypically to reliablity as information.

4. Shì 是 (ant. fēi 非 "wrong") refers prototypically to what invites assent or approval.

5. Zhēn 真 (ant. jiǎ 假 "fake") typically refers to what contains nothing faked or unreal and is genuinely true.

6. Dāng 當 (ant. guò 過 "wrong") refers prototypically to what fits the facts and does not deviate.

7. Yǒu 有 (ant. wú 無 "there is no such fact")refers abstractly to the occurrence of an event or the truth of an abstract proposition.

8. Chéng 誠 (ant. wěi 偽 "faked") refers to honest truth. (Note that chéng 誠 normally means "earnest" in early texts and has nothing to do with this meaning.)

9. Shí 實 "real and true" (ant. xū 虛 "only apparently") refers to something not being a figment of the imagination. See REAL.

Modern Chinese Criteria

實在

委實

著實

確實

的確

確乎

真個

當真

真正

誠然

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 16.66

  • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 1343

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    VERITAS

  • Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache ( MAUTHNER WP 1924) p. I.457

    EWIGE WAHRHEITEN

  • Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache ( MAUTHNER WP 1924) p. III.379

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 1825

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 12.48

    WAHRHEIT

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 785

    真,誠

    1. WL considers that in the meaning zhe1nche2ng 真誠 these two words are synonymous, and it quotes SHUOWEN on zhe1n 真: 僊人變形而登天也 as evidence of what the primary meaning of zhe1n 真 is. This definition is highly interesting, of course, but not because it describes the basic meaning of the word. Change of form has nothing to do with that basic meaning, and rising to heaven has precious little to do with it either. The time has come to discontinue this practice of mechanical quotation of SHUOWEN for pretended primary meanings of words.

    2. The special feature of zhe1n 真 comes out when you consider its antonym jia3 假 "fake".

  • Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy ( ZHANG DAINIAN 2002) p. 479

  • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

    TRUTH

  • Encyclopedia of Religion ( JONES 2005) p.

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition ( BROWN 2005) p.

  • Ästhetische Grundbegriffe ( BARCK 2010) p. 6.398

  • Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary ( QUINE 1987) p. 212

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.387.342

    VRAI.VERITABLE

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no. 53

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p.

  • Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae ( DIVISIONES 1906) p. no. 16

  • Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae ( DIVISIONES 1906) p. B 30

  • A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms ( T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004) p. NO. 53

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 78
  • NPab : 35
  • nab : 33
  • vtoN : 22
  • vi(0) : 15
  • vt0oN : 10
  • vadN : 10
  • VPi : 7
  • nadN : 5
  • NP{PRED} : 4
  • nab.adV : 3
  • NPab : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • n : 1
  • NPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 33
  • 春秋左傳 : 19
  • 祖堂集 : 18
  • 莊子 : 16
  • 孟子 : 15
  • 荀子 : 14
  • 論語 : 13
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 百喻經 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 8
  • 六祖壇經 : 8
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 5
  • 法句經 : 5
  • 老子 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 群書治要 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1

Words

   rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 52 Attributions

The most current word for propositional truth is rán 然 "it is so" (ant. fǒu 否 "be untrue").

  • nabfactualprevailing conditions, what prevails; what is so; (something's) being so
  • vi(0)sentence pro-formthe contextually determinate S is true; it is so (mostly, the word in this meaning is used pro-sententially, as a pro-sentence)
  • vigradedbe the case; be right (of a proposition); sometimes: be conceivable 甚然"this is very much so"
  • visubject=wordsbe true (of words)
  • vt(oN)causativecause something to be so, cause things to be like that; cause someone to do the contextually determinate thing.
  • vtoNputativeconsider to be true
   shì OC: ɡljeʔ MC: dʑiɛ 40 Attributions

Shì 是 (ant. fēi 非 "wrong") refers prototypically to what invites assent or approval.

  • nabconceptconcept of right/this
  • nabfactualwhat is considered as correct, what is true
  • nabmetaphysicalfactual correctness
  • vito be correct
  • vt+prep+Nputativetake a positive attitude towards, consider as true
  • vtoNputativeconsider as correct (see ZHUANG)
  • vtoNputative.reflex.自consider (oneself) as right, consider one's own opinions as true
   xìn OC: sins MC: sin 20 Attributions

Xìn 信 (ant. zhà 詐 "fraudulent and not reliable") refers prototypically to reliablity as information.

  • nabtextwhat is true> truth
  • nadNtrustworthy> reliably true
  • vibe reliably true, be trustworthy; be certainly the case
   zhēn OC: tjin MC: tɕin 19 Attributions

Zhēn 真 (ant. jiǎ 假 "fake") typically refers to what contains nothing faked or unreal and is genuinely true.

  • nabsubj=nonhumanwhat is true
  • nabmetaphysicalthe truth of a matter; the subtle true point; the true essence; the ultimate truth
  • vadNtrue 真教
  • vibe true; BUDDH: be ultimately true
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 10 Attributions

Yǒu 有 (ant. wú 無 "there is no such fact")refers abstractly to the occurrence of an event or the truth of an abstract proposition.

  • vt0oNthere is such a (state of affairs) 有之,有諸?"is that so?
  • vt0oSthere is such a situation as that described in S
是非   shì fēi OC: ɡljeʔ pɯl MC: dʑiɛ pɨi 10 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturetruth; right and wrong; notions of right and wrong
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 9 Attributions

Shí 實 "real and true" (ant. xū 虛 "only apparently") refers to something not being a figment of the imagination. See REAL.

  • nabfeaturetruthfulness
  • nabmetaphysicaltruth, facts
  • nadNreal, really existing; true
  • vadVtruly, faithfully, honestly
  • vibe full of substance; be true rather than false
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 9 Attributions

Chéng 誠 (ant. wěi 偽 "faked") refers to honest truth. (Note that chéng 誠 normally means "earnest" in early texts and has nothing to do with this meaning.)

  • nsubjectwhat is true, true statements; genuine true opinion, honest opinion and truth
  • nabmetaphysicaltruth; the truth
  • vadNtruthful (of words)
  • vibe truthful
  • vistativebe right
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 7 Attributions

Dāng 當 (ant. guò 過 "wrong") refers prototypically to what fits the facts and does not deviate.

  • nabmetaphysicaltruth
  • vifit the facts, be true; be correct
  • viof personshave things right, be right
  • vtoNbe true to one's word
   zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • vadNtrue, real
  • vibe ecactly correct, be perfectly true
  • nabmetaphysicaltruth
  • vtoNdecide on the veracity of things;
正法   zhèng fǎ OC: tjeŋs pab MC: tɕiɛŋ pi̯ɐp 5 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalBuddhist truth
  • NPadVby means of the Buddhist truth
道果   dào guǒ OC: ɡ-luuʔ kloolʔ MC: dɑu kʷɑ 5 Attributions
  • NPabBUDDH: the fruit of the Way > Buddhist truth, ultimate truth (or: 道 refers to bodhi and 果 to nirvāṇa > enlightenment and nirvāṇa)
   kě OC: khlaalʔ MC: khɑ 4 Attributions

Kě 可 refers to logical or ethical acceptability.

  • visubject=wordsbe acceptable, justified and true
   dì OC: k-leeɡs MC: tei 4 Attributions
  • nab.adVBUDDH: in the spirit of truth; in truth
  • nabfigurativeBUDDH: truth
   qíng OC: dzeŋ MC: dziɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalthe truth about something; the essence of a matter; the real situation
有諸   yǒu zhū OC: ɢʷɯʔ klja MC: ɦɨu tɕi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • VPiis that true?
法音   fǎ yīn OC: pab qrɯm MC: pi̯ɐp ʔim 3 Attributions
  • NPabtextBuddhist truth; authoritative statement of Buddhist truth
真諦   zhēn dì OC: tjin k-leeɡs MC: tɕin tei 3 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: absolute truth, highest truth (sometimes contrasted to the wordly or relative truth 世諦, saṃvṛitisatya; see also dìyīyì dì 第一義諦); skr. paramarthāsatya
  • VPiperfectly true
其所   qí suǒ MC: gi srjoX OC: ɡɯ sqraʔ 3 Attributions
  • NP{PRED}be a fact, be true enough
正理   zhèng lǐ OC: tjeŋs ɡ-rɯʔ MC: tɕiɛŋ lɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicaltrue principles
法海   fǎ hǎi OC: pab hmlɯɯʔ MC: pi̯ɐp həi 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysical[BUDDH] the vast Buddhist truths DCD: 佛教語。喻佛法。謂佛法深廣如海。
   shí OC: ɡljɯɡ MC: dʑɨk 1 Attribution
  • vadVreally, in reality
不錯   bù cuò OC: pɯʔ skhaaɡ MC: pi̯ut tshɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPibe true
俗諦   sú dì OC: sɢloɡ k-leeɡs MC: zi̯ok tei 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: ordinary truth, wordly truth (contrasted to zhēndì 真諦 or dìyīyì dì 第一義諦; see also shìdì 世諦); skr. saṃvṛitisatya
四諦   sì dì OC: plids k-leeɡs MC: si tei 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the fourfold Noble Truth, four Nobles Truths; this were the original doctrines postulated by Śākyamuni (the truth of suffering, dūkha (kǔdì 苦諦), the truth of the arising (samudaya) of suffering (jídì 集諦), the truth of the cessation (nirodha) of suffering (mièdì 滅諦), and the way (mārga) which leads to the cessation of suffering (daòdì 道諦); suffering is defined as the transmigration within the Six Destinies, liùqù 六趣, the arising and accumulation of suffering is caused by ignorance and the passions; the cessation of suffering is nirvāṇa; the way to nirvāṇa is explicated in the Eightfold Right Path bā zhèngdào 八正道); SANSKRIT catvāri-ārya-satāni
大法   dà fǎ OC: daads pab MC: dɑi pi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe great truth
正實   zhèng shí OC: tjeŋs ɢljiɡ MC: tɕiɛŋ ʑit 1 Attribution
  • VPadNin accordance with reality; true
然否   rán fǒu OC: njen pɯʔ MC: ȵiɛn pɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabconceptwhat is true and what is not, truth; what is right and what is not, right and wrong???
真實   zhēn shí OC: tjin ɢljiɡ MC: tɕin ʑit 1 Attribution
  • NPadNtrue (words)
真正   zhēn zhèng OC: tjin tjeŋs MC: tɕin tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNtrue and proper
聖法   shèng fǎ OC: qhljeŋs pab MC: ɕiɛŋ pi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalBuddhist truth
誠然   chéng rán OC: djeŋ njen MC: dʑiɛŋ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe actually/really true
道要   dào yào OC: ɡ-luuʔ qews MC: dɑu ʔiɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe main point of the (Buddhist or non-Buddhist) Way
功德法身   gōng dé fǎ shēn OC: kooŋ tɯɯɡ pab qhjin MC: kuŋ tək pi̯ɐp ɕin 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: This is one of the five truth-bodies of Buddha as formulated by the Huáyán school (however the term already appears occasionally in sutra literature). The'Merit-body' is the body which is produced by his countless virtuous acts (see wǔshēn 五身 in the SOURCES)
至道   zhì dào MC: tsyijH dawX OC: kljiɡs ɡ-luuʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalTruth, the perfect Way; the ultimate Truth
若然   ruò rán MC: nyae nyen OC: njaɡ njen 1 Attribution
  • VPibe so
固其所   gù qí suǒ MC: kuH gi srjoX OC: kaas ɡɯ sqraʔ 1 Attribution
  • NP{PRED}be definitely a fact; be definitely so
世諦   shì dì OC: lʰebs k-leeɡs MC: ɕiɛi tei 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: ordinary truth, wordly truth (contrasted to zhēndì 真諦 or dìyīyì dì 第一義諦; see also súdì 俗諦); SANSKRIT saṃvṛitisatya
光明   guāng míng OC: kʷaaŋ mraŋ MC: kɑŋ mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    實義   shí yì OC: ɢljiɡ ŋrals MC: ʑit ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
    • NPabmetaphysicalthe real truth; the Buddhist truth
    正義   zhèng yì OC: tjeŋs ŋrals MC: tɕiɛŋ ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
    • NPabmetaphysicalthe correct meaning of something; the true meaning
    法語   fǎ yǔ OC: pab ŋaʔ MC: pi̯ɐp ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • NPabtextBuddhist truth (DCD)
    甘露   gān lù OC: kaam ɡ-raaɡs MC: kɑm luo̝ 0 Attributions
    • NPabmetaphysicalbuddhist truths and ideals (including nirvana as well as the buddhist dharma/truth
    真是   zhēn shì OC: tjin ɡljeʔ MC: tɕin dʑiɛ 0 Attributions
    • NPabspeechthe genuine truth
    誠是   chéng shì OC: djeŋ ɡljeʔ MC: dʑiɛŋ dʑiɛ 0 Attributions
    • NPabspeechthe real (political) truth
    第一義諦   dì yī yì dì OC: liils qliɡ ŋrals k-leeɡs MC: dei ʔit ŋiɛ tei 0 Attributions
    • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: absolute truth, highest truth (in the LANKA sometimes contrasted to the wordly or relative truth 世諦, saṃvṛitisatya; see also zhēndì 真諦); SANSKRIT paramarthāsatya
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPibe so

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: