CERTAIN  必定

TRUE AND NOT being DOUBTED.
UNQUESTIONABLESUREDEFINITEBEYOND QUESTIONNOT IN DOUBTINDUBITABLEUNDENIABLEIRREFUTABLEINDISPUTABLEOBVIOUSEVIDENTRECOGNIZEDCONFIRMEDACCEPTEDACKNOWLEDGEDUNDISPUTEDUNDOUBTEDUNQUESTIONED
Taxonoymy

NECESSITY

Antonymy

DOUBT

Kind Of

TRUE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current word for certainty of any kind is bì 必, but the word can also refer to logical necessity.

2. Bù miǎn 不免 (ant. wèi bì 未必 "not necessarily") refers to factual inevitabity or invariability rather than logical necessity.

3. Yì 亦 and bù yì 不亦 are both very different from bì 必 in that they do not assert necessity but only indubitable factual truth.

Modern Chinese Criteria

必然

決然

自然

勢必

必將

必定

肯定

一定

準定

一準

定準

遲早

早晚

決計無疑問

大勢所趨

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.37

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 215

CERTITUDE

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 157

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 340

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 45

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.59.43/4

ASSURER.CONFIRMER; CERTAIN.SUR.ASSURE

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 140
  • padV : 97
  • VPt+V[0] : 52
  • PPadV.+HU1 : 23
  • vi : 17
  • ppostadS : 16
  • PPadS : 16
  • padN{PRED} : 9
  • VPi0 : 5
  • nadV : 5
  • vadS : 4
  • VPadV : 3
  • VPt+prep+N : 3
  • PPadV : 3
  • vt+V[0] : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • VPi : 3
  • vadN{{PRED} : 2
  • nadN{PRED} : 2
  • vadS1.post-S2 : 2
  • nab : 2
  • VPadS : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • VPtoS : 1
  • VPpostadV : 1
  • VPt+V[0]{PASS} : 1
  • padS : 1
  • vtoS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 115
  • 春秋左傳 : 58
  • 論語 : 52
  • 孟子 : 37
  • 荀子 : 24
  • 莊子 : 19
  • 說苑 : 19
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 10
  • 管子 : 8
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 史記 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 晏子春秋 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 法言 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 朱子語類 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 3
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   bì OC: piɡ MC: pit 116 Attributions

The current word for certainty of any kind is bì 必, but the word can also refer to logical necessity.

  • vadN{{PRED}be certain (to be N)
  • vadVinvariably; (e.g. be knowable) with certainty; reliably, with inevitable reliabilty; (know) for certain; with logical necessity;
  • vibe inevitable, be absolutely predictable, be unavoidable be ineluctable
  • vt+V[0]be sure to V
  • vtoNcausativemake inevitable
  • vtoNputativeconsider as necessary
   yì OC: k-laɡ MC: jiɛk 90 Attributions

Yì 亦 and bù yì 不亦 are both very different from bì 必 in that they do not assert necessity but only indubitable factual truth.

  • padVsurely! surely, like everyone else
  • padVrhetorical questionreally? often in 不亦。。。乎
  • padSbe surely because of
  • padN{PRED}be certainly a matter of N{PRED}
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 37 Attributions
  • vadSnecessarily; certainly; indubitably
  • vadVsurely, doubtlessly; certainly; inherently
  • nadN{PRED}be inherently N; be definitely N
  • vadS1.post-S2then indubitably, then inherently
不得不   bù dé bù OC: pɯʔ tɯɯɡ pɯʔ MC: pi̯ut tək pi̯ut 29 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]will certainly; inevitably will; certainly would have
不亦   bù yì OC: pɯʔ k-laɡ MC: pi̯ut jiɛk 23 Attributions
  • PPadV.+HU1surely
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 20 Attributions
  • padVcertainly, definitely
  • ppostadSdefinitely, "!"
  • vadVimperative
無乃   wú nǎi OC: ma nɯɯʔ MC: mi̯o nəi 15 Attributions
  • PPadSrhetorical questionsurely?!!!
   qí OC: ɡɯ MC: gɨ 14 Attributions
  • padVsubjectivesurely, certainly, according to reasonable expectations
   xìn OC: sins MC: sin 13 Attributions
  • nabfeatureinevitability, reliability
  • nabmetaphysicalthat which is certain
  • vadNcertain, predictable
  • vadVreliably, really 信然
  • vi(of rewards etc) be reliable, be entirely predictable
必將   bì jiāng OC: piɡ skaŋ MC: pit tsi̯ɐŋ 11 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]must necessarily, will certainly; one would certainly; one needs necessarily
敢不   gǎn bù OC: klaamʔ pɯʔ MC: kɑm pi̯ut 8 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]expected answer: no!how would I dare not to> certainly!
不得已   bù dé yǐ OC: pɯʔ tɯɯɡ k-lɯʔ MC: pi̯ut tək jɨ 7 Attributions
  • VPibe in a situation which leaves one no alternatives, have no other way out
  • VPi0there is no other choice
   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • vadNinvariant>determinate, well-defined; true
  • vadVwill regularly; constantly, predictably, invariably
  • vadVmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: with regularity across different mathematical contexts 常然之勢也 "this is the invariable constellation".
  • vibe assured in the long term
不免   bù miǎn OC: pɯʔ mronʔ MC: pi̯ut miɛn 6 Attributions

Bù miǎn 不免 (ant. wèi bì 未必 "not necessarily") refers to factual inevitabity or invariability rather than logical necessity.

  • VPadSinevitably
  • VPt+prep+Nbe certain to suffer N
  • VPt+V[0]{PASS}cannot avoid to be Ved
   zhōng OC: tjuŋ MC: tɕuŋ 4 Attributions
  • nadVultimately
   dìng OC: deeŋs MC: deŋ 3 Attributions
  • vadVdefinitely; with certainty
豈不   qǐ bù MC: khj+jX pjut OC: khɯlʔ pɯʔ 3 Attributions
  • VPadVcertainly, how not?
必當   bì dāng OC: piɡ taaŋ MC: pit tɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]will inevitably [The question of this syntactic category needs discussion!]
抑亦   yì yì OC: qɯɡ k-laɡ MC: ʔɨk jiɛk 2 Attributions
  • PPadVsurelysurely???
未免   wèi miǎn OC: mɯds mronʔ MC: mɨi miɛn 2 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]necessarily, inevitably; admittedly
   bǎo OC: puuʔ MC: pɑu 1 Attribution
  • vadVby garantee > certainly
  • vtoNdeclare something to be certain> guarantee
   kǒng OC: khoŋʔ MC: khi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoSbe afraid that > certainly will
   guǒ OC: kloolʔ MC: kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • nadVdefinitely
亦將   yì jiāng OC: k-laɡ skaŋ MC: jiɛk tsi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • PPadVmodalmust surely
無疑   wú yí OC: ma ŋɡɯ MC: mi̯o ŋɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVcertainly, undoubtedly; without any doubt
有印章   yǒu yìn zhāng OC: ɢʷɯʔ qiŋs kjaŋ MC: ɦɨu ʔin tɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe guaranteed to occur, be as certain as Amen is in church
得無   dé dé de děi wú MC: tok mju OC: tɯɯɡ ma 1 Attribution
  • VPtoShow could it be that not> surely!
曾不   zēng bù MC: pjut OC: tsɯɯŋ pɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • PPadSindeed not; by no means
   nǎi OC: nɯɯʔ MC: nəi 0 Attributions
  • padVcertainly
   xiáng OC: sɢlaŋ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVOBI: necessarily, with certainty
固而   gù ér OC: kaas njɯ MC: kuo̝ ȵɨ 0 Attributions
  • PPadVmost certainly
必保   bì bǎo OC: piɡ puuʔ MC: pit pɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPadVmodalcertainly
應當   yīng dāng OC: qɯŋ taaŋ MC: ʔɨŋ tɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]necessarily will; be certain to
不免於   bù miǎn yú OC: pɯʔ mronʔ qa MC: pi̯ut miɛn ʔi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
       wàn OC: mblans MC: mi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
    • vadVcertainly, absolutely, in every event
       fù OC: buɡ MC: buk 0 Attributions
    • vadSafter all
    • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adSafter all, surely
       yí OC: ŋɡral MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
    • vadVZUO: doubtlessly, no doubt; naturally enough
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPtoShow could it be that not> surely!

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: