DOUBT  懷疑

AWARE that one does NOT KNOW OR UNDERSTAND something.
UNCERTAINTYUNSURENESSINDECISIONHESITATIONDUBIOUSNESSSUSPICIONCONFUSIONQUERIESQUESTIONSFORMAL DUBIETYINDECISIONHESITATIONUNCERTAINTYINSECURITYUNEASEUNEASINESSAPPREHENSIONHESITANCYVACILLATIONIRRESOLUTION
Taxonoymy

HESITATESKEPTICISM

Antonymy

CERTAINBELIEVE

Kind Of

AWARE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for doubting or suspecting is yí 疑 (ant. xìn 信 "have faith in"), and the connotation is always negative. Contrast Latin dubito which is often used in positive senses.

2. Xián 嫌 refers to the suspicion that something negative may be true.

3. Cāi 猜 can also refer to a suspicion that something is the case, and typically it refers to an attitude of suspicion which is unjustified.

4. Yì 意 (ant. bì 必 "be certain about a matter") is to surmise as a matter of subjective and therefore doubtful judgment.

Modern Chinese Criteria

懷疑

置疑

狐疑

嫌疑

生疑

起疑

猜疑

疑猜

疑心

疑團

疑忌

疑慮

猜忌

多心

多疑

吃心

嘀咕

過心

打結

疑神疑鬼

疑心生暗鬼

將信將疑

半信半疑

疑信參半

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.43

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 367

EPOKHE

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 515©

DUBITARE est qvid sentiendum aut eligendum sit, deliberando haesitare. Concurrunt 1. Res plures. 2. Nebulae illas involventes. 3. Lumen obscurum, non satis nebulas discutiens.

Ax. Dubitatio es lucis mentalis effectus primus, tenebrarum discussion initialis.

...

Error opinando non dubitando venit!

...

Ax. Dubitatio est principium scientiae. Dubitare licet, ut scire liceat.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DOUBT

dubius, and the rarer ambiguus, refers to uncertainty with regard to the success or failure of something, or of good versus bad fortune.

anceps refers to doubt with reference to whether something does or does not exist.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

INCREDULITAS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 25

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 765

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 316

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.173

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1520

ZWEIFEL

MITTELSTRASS 1996 Enzyklopaedie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie 4.868

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 195

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

DOUBT AND BELIEF

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.277:185

IRRESOLUTION.INCERTITUDE.PERPLEXITE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.272.229

INCERTITUDE.DOUTE.IRRESOLUTION

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 243

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 24
  • VPtoS : 15
  • vtoN : 12
  • vt[oN] : 10
  • NPab{nab1=nab2} : 6
  • VPi : 4
  • n : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • NPab : 3
  • vadN : 2
  • VPt(oS) : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vi-P : 1
  • vtoS : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vi0 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 15
  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 禮記 : 8
  • 春秋左傳 : 7
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 臨濟錄 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   yí OC: ŋɡɯ MC: ŋɨ 40 Attributions

The current general word for doubting or suspecting is yí 疑 (ant. xìn 信 "have faith in"), and the connotation is always negative. Contrast Latin dubito which is often used in positive senses.

  • nsubject=nonrefdoubtful matters
  • nabfactualpassive: what is doubted; doubtful point; doubtful situation;
  • nabpsychdoubt
  • vadNdubious; doubtful
  • vi0there is doubt or uncertainty ???
  • vt(oN)putativehave one's doubts about the contextually determinate object
  • vt[oN]be doubtful (of situations), be left in doubt (of people)
  • vtoNputativeconsider something doubtful, be in doubt about a fact
  • vtoNobject=humanhave one's doubts about somebody, regard somebody as dubious
  • vtoSbe in doubt about whether (S often contains spurious negation)
未審   wèi shěn OC: mɯds qhjɯmʔ MC: mɨi ɕim 10 Attributions
  • VPtoSmodalnot yet investigated > I wonder (whether)... (this is a frequently used phrase in ZTJ (94 times), marking the speaker's incertainty concerning the truth-value of a proposition)
   xián OC: ɡleem MC: ɦem 6 Attributions

Xián 嫌 refers to the suspicion that something negative may be true.

  • nabsubjectwhat is doubtful; doubt; uncertainty
  • vibe suspicious
  • vtoSbe in doubt whether S (SUSPICION???)
嫌疑   xián yí OC: ɡleem ŋɡɯ MC: ɦem ŋɨ 6 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1=nab2}doubt of any kind; doubtful cases of any kind MO, Xiaoqu: 決嫌疑
   cāi OC: tshɯɯ MC: tshəi 4 Attributions

Cāi 猜 can also refer to a suspicion that something is the case, and typically it refers to an attitude of suspicion which is unjustified.

  • nabpsychsuspicion (ZUO)
  • vtoNdoubt (ZUO)
不審   bù shěn OC: pɯʔ qhjɯmʔ MC: pi̯ut ɕim 4 Attributions
  • VPtoSmodalnot carefully examine > I wonder... (adding a notion of doubt to interrogative sentence)
狐疑   hú yí OC: ɡʷaa ŋɡɯ MC: ɦuo̝ ŋɨ 4 Attributions
  • VPadNdoubtful, difficult to decide
  • VPiintensitivebe full of doubts
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 3 Attributions
  • vi-Pactsuspend one's judgment, show doubt
  • vtoNsuspend judgment on, refuse to pronounce judgment on
  • vt[oN]suspend one's judgment on things
   dài OC: lɯɯʔ MC: dəi 2 Attributions
  • vadVpossibly, I suspect
  • vtoNdoubt; be suspicious of (GONG)
未知   wèi zhī OC: mɯds te MC: mɨi ʈiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNbe not quite sure that Snom
  • VPt(oS)be not quite sure, suspect that not
疑網   yí wǎng OC: ŋɡɯ maŋʔ MC: ŋɨ mi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychweb of doubts
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychbeing in two minds> doubt
   hú OC: ɡʷaa MC: ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]be suspicious; be doubtful
   tāo OC: kh-luu MC: thɑu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdoubt (ZUO)
不識   bù shí OC: pɯʔ qhljɯɡ MC: pi̯ut ɕɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSmodalparenthetic phrase: I wonder
疑惑   yí huò OC: ŋɡɯ ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: ŋɨ ɦək 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychdoubts, suspicions
疑慮   yí lǜ OC: ŋɡɯ b-ras MC: ŋɨ li̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychdoubtful thoughts> doubts
驚疑   jīng yí OC: kreŋ ŋɡɯ MC: kɣaŋ ŋɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe full of amazed doubt
   tāo OC: kh-luu MC: thɑu 0 Attributions
  • virare: be in doubt, be of doubtful content

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: