COPULA  繫詞

RELATION between a CATEGORY AND THINGS of that CATEGORY.
Taxonoymy

ASSEEMFOR EXAMPLE

Antonymy

NOT

See also

RESEMBLEEXISTHAPPEN

Kind Of

RELATION

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Classical Chinese had several common copulas at an early stage: wéi 維 / 唯 / 惟 (ant. fēi 非 "is not") was common in SHI and SHU, but discontinued later.

2. The final particle yě 也 is interpreted by some as a sentence-final copula, but it is properly regarded as a sentential particle marking non-narrative modes of predication.

3. The standard copula in Warring States Chinese is wéi 為, which tends to have human subjects and is by no means as common in Chinese as the copula is in Western languages.

4. Yuē 曰 is current as a copula in listings of items and the like.

5. Yún 云 is a rare archaising copula in ZUO.

6. Zé 則 is copula-like after contrastive subjects.

7. Nǎi 乃 is copula-like and contrastive and stresses that the subject is none other than the predicate.

8. Dāng 當 "act as, fulfill the function of" is copula-like, but there is only a slight degree of grammaticalisation in the direction of a copula.

9. Wèi 謂 "be counted as, count as" sometimes moves in the direction of copula-like uses.

10. Shì 是 is a resumptive demonstrative pronoun which on very rare occasions can come to function very much as a copula.

11. Zhòng 中 has some copula-like uses in GUAN, when the word means "amount to, cost" and sometimes even stands before ordinary nominal predicates.

12. Yǐ 以 "as a SUBJECT" functions quite regularly as a subordinate copula in classical Chinese.

Modern Chinese Criteria

是 is the standard modern copula.

為 is literary in flavour.

乃 (lit) is classical.

系 is an old-fashioned or obsolescent copula.

則 has copula usages

算是

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2000 Systematic Lexicography 231-260

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 1007

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.91

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.92

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 1125

SEIN

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 419

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 57

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 74

ZHANG MEILAN 2003 《祖堂集》語法研究 Zǔtáng jí yǔfǎ yánjiū Studies in the Grammar of Zutang ji 46-68

A thorough study of copula constructions in ZTJ

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1.527

QUINE 1987 Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary 36

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.199

HAVELOCK 1978 The Greek Concept of Justice 233FF

KAHN 1973 The Verb "be" in Ancient Greek Foundations of language

KAHN 2009 Essays on Being

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt+N : 218
  • vt+V[0] : 71
  • vt+S : 17
  • vtoN : 13
  • VPt+V[0] : 13
  • VPt+N : 12
  • vtoN1.postadN2 : 10
  • VPtoN : 9
  • padV.postN{SUBJ} : 7
  • vt npro : 6
  • vtoS : 4
  • vt+npro.adV : 4
  • padS.postN{TOP} : 3
  • vt+N{SUBJ}.+V{PRED} : 3
  • vt{COP}+N1.vt{COP}+N2 : 3
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vi : 2
  • vt+Nm : 2
  • vtoN1.postN2 : 2
  • vt+N1.+Vt+N2 : 2
  • vt+npro.adN : 2
  • vt(+N) : 2
  • vtt+N1.oN2 : 1
  • vttpostnpro.oN : 1
  • vt0 Nab{S} : 1
  • vt N.adV : 1
  • ppostadN{PRED} : 1
  • vadN{PRED} : 1
  • vt+V{NUM} : 1
  • npro{PRED} : 1
  • vt0+N.+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 69
  • 說苑 : 36
  • 六祖壇經 : 36
  • 韓非子 : 33
  • 論語 : 30
  • 百喻經 : 27
  • 春秋左傳 : 22
  • 賢愚經 : 20
  • 孟子 : 19
  • 臨濟錄 : 17
  • 荀子 : 13
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 11
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 7
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 晏子春秋 : 5
  • 孝經 : 5
  • 尚書 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 孫子 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 3
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 朱子語類 : 1
  • 五行 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 春秋繁露 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 154 Attributions

The standard copula in Warring States Chinese is wéi 為, which tends to have human subjects and is by no means as common in Chinese as the copula is in Western languages.

  • vt+Ncount as N, be Npr, be an N
  • vt+Ncopulahave oneself VERBed
  • vt+Nsubjectivebe like, be (to someone's mind)
  • vt+Nmconsist ofconsist of Nm
  • vt+V[0]copulabe definable as, count as V-ing
  • vt+V[0]V=compbe the most V; count as (the most) V 最為大
  • vt+V[0]alternative為...(為)... is it V1 or V2 (marker of alternative/disjunctive questions) (see also 為當, 為复, and 為是 in this function)
  • vtpostadVverbal complement
  • vt nproidenticalbe identical with npro, be identifiable as npro
  • vt Npridenticalbe none other than
  • vt N.adVbeing an N to V; as an N to V
  • vtt+N1.oN2be N2 in relation to N2; cf. Russian я буду ЕМУ женой
   shì OC: ɡljeʔ MC: dʑiɛ 95 Attributions

Shì 是 is a resumptive demonstrative pronoun which on very rare occasions can come to function very much as a copula.

  • npro{PRED}copulais this (compare 是也): becomes emphatic postposed copula
  • vt(+N)be the contextually determiate N
  • vt+Nbe
  • vt+N1.+Vt+N2alternativeis it N1 or is it N2?
  • vt+npro.adNintensitiveintensifying copula preceding certain pronouns in adnominal position, sometimes used contrastive: 是我+N1...是你+N2...
  • vt+npro.adVintensitiveintensifying copula preceding certain pronouns, since the intensifying function is often neutralized, 是 is sometimes also regarded as prefix (however, the copula function of 是 is in most cases evident); this function appeared during the Tang(e.g. 是誰,是你,是我,是他,是底,是物)
  • vt+V[0]intensitivebe V-ing, be of the V kind
  • vt+V[0]alternativecopula as marker of an alternative/disjunction question: 是 A 是 B? Is it A or is it B 是一是二?
  • vt+V[0]V=passivebe V-ed
  • vtoNcopulawould be
  • vtoSintensitiveemphatic copula, giving emphasis to a whole sentence: it is surely the case that... (often with emphatic sentence final yě 也)
   yuē OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 43 Attributions

Yuē 曰 is current as a copula in listings of items and the like.

  • vt+N1.postad N2N2 being N1
  • vt+Ncopulabe; be called; of texts: run as follows
  • vt+Srun as follows: S
   zé OC: skɯɯɡ MC: tsək 13 Attributions

Zé 則 is copula-like after contrastive subjects.

  • padS.postN{TOP}contrastiveas for the N, S applies 則君地生焉
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}contrastivecontrastive particle after subject: 我則不德"it was our party that was less than virtuous"
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}intensitiveintensifying particle after subject: "is indeed" [DS]
  • vtoNcopulabe, refer to, be the same as, be an equivalent of (as copula often expressing identity)
惟 / 唯 / 隹   wéi OC: k-lul MC: ji wéi OC: k-lul MC: ji zhuī OC: kljul MC: tɕi 13 Attributions

Classical Chinese had several common copulas at an early stage: wéi 維/唯/惟 (ant. fēi 非 "is not") was common in SHI and SHU, but discontinued later. Classical Chinese had several common copulas at an early stage: wéi 維/唯/惟 (ant. fēi 非 "is not") was common in SHI and SHU, but discontinued later. Classical Chinese had several common copulas at an early stage: wéi 維/唯/惟 (ant. fēi 非 "is not") was common in SHI and SHU, but discontinued later.

  • vt+Ncopulacome to occur at (a certain time)
  • vt+N{SUBJ}.+V{PRED}OBI: be (the SUBJECT which PREDICATES); be the only N who Vs
  • vt+Nbe N; be N (and none/nothing else)
  • vt0+N.+V[0]it is N that Vs
  • vtpostVt{NEG}be
  • vt+N.postNPab{S}signify
  • vt+V[0]be the one who V-s
  • vt0 Nab{S}It was all a matter of S
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 12 Attributions
  • vt+Ncopulabecome, come to be, come to act as, come to fill the role as
  • vt+Nact as; be; be regarded as; have as attribute; have as feature
  • vt+V[0]intensitivecount as being V; be regarded as being V; become V
  • vtoN1.postN2N2 regarded as N1; N2 counted as being N1
  • vtoN.postadVV and become/be N 喚作
  • vt+Nbe
為復   wéi fù OC: ɢʷal buɡs MC: ɦiɛ bɨu 12 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]alternativedisyllabic copula used for forming alternative (disjunctive) questions: 為復..., (為復)... 'is it A or is it B' (復 is semantically very weak and is often regarded as structure word for forming a disyllabic copula, compare 為當 which functions identical to 為復; there are several current patterns: 為復 X 為復 Y; 為 X 為復 Y; X 為復 Y; 為當 X 為复 Y)
   míng OC: meŋ MC: miɛŋ 10 Attributions
  • vtoN1.postadN2be called> who is called; who is known known as
乃 / 迺   nǎi OC: nɯɯʔ MC: nəi nǎi OC: nɯɯʔ MC: nəi 9 Attributions

Nǎi 乃 is copula-like and contrastive and stresses that the subject is none other than the predicate. Nǎi 乃 is copula-like and contrastive and stresses that the subject is none other than the predicate.

  • vt+Ncopulaemphatic/contrastive: be THAT (was the difficult part)
  • vt+Ncopulabe none other than N(PRED)
   jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 9 Attributions
  • vt{COP}+N1.vt{COP}+N2emphatic即+N1+即+N2: it is N1 which is N2 > the very N1 is N2, N1 is identical with N2
  • vt+Ncopulabe, be like
  • vtoNidenticalto be none other than 即+NP+是
即是   jí shì OC: tsɯɡ ɡljeʔ MC: tsɨk dʑiɛ 9 Attributions
  • VPt+Ncopulaemphatic copula construction: be exactly the same as, identical with
名為   míng wéi OC: meŋ ɢʷal MC: miɛŋ ɦiɛ 9 Attributions
  • VPtoNbe called N
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 7 Attributions

Dāng 當 "act as, fulfill the function of" is copula-like, but there is only a slight degree of grammaticalisation in the direction of a copula. xxx

  • vt+V[0]questioncopula marking subsequent interrogative sentences referring to the same topic
  • vt+V{NUM}semantically very weak copula-like verb preceding numerals
  • vtoNcopulaplay the role of, be; function as
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 5 Attributions

Wèi 謂 "be counted as, count as" sometimes moves in the direction of copula-like uses.

  • vt+Ncopulabe reckoned to be; be considered to be a matter ofbe called; be addressed as; be labeled as
  • vttpostnpro.oNmiddlevoicethis is called N
   rán MC: nyen OC: njen 4 Attributions
  • vt(oN)causativeto cause the contextually determinate N to be so
  • vibe so, be like that
   wéi OC: k-lul MC: ji 2 Attributions
  • vt+Ncopulato be (only)
   zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcopulaexist as, become, act as
乃是   nǎi shì OC: nɯɯʔ ɡljeʔ MC: nəi dʑiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+Nbe none other than; be very much an N
   zhōng OC: krluŋ MC: ʈuŋ 1 Attribution

Zhòng 中 has some copula-like uses in GUAN, when the word means "amount to, cost" and sometimes even stands before ordinary nominal predicates. xxx

  • vtoNamount to, be equal to (a sum of money or an amount of some commodity); cost, be valued at
   yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 1 Attribution

The final particle yě 也 is interpreted by some as a sentence-final copula, but it is properly regarded as a sentential particle marking non-narrative modes of predication.

  • ppostadN{PRED}putative be (deemed to be) an N
   yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 1 Attribution

Yún 云 is a rare archaising copula in ZUO.

  • vt+Ncopulabe
   bì OC: piɡ MC: pit 1 Attribution
  • vadN{PRED}have to be
為是   wéi shì OC: ɢʷal ɡljeʔ MC: ɦiɛ dʑiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+Nbe
為當   wéi dāng OC: ɢʷal taaŋ MC: ɦiɛ tɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]alternativedisyllabic copula used for forming alternative questions: 為當 X (為當) Y 'is it X or is it Y' (there are several patterns, 為當 X 為复 Y; see also 為, 為复, and 為是 is this function)
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 0 Attributions

Yǐ 以 "as a SUBJECT" functions quite regularly as a subordinate copula in classical Chinese.

       xì OC: keeɡs MC: kei 0 Attributions
    • vt+NdisjunctionCHRISTIAN CHINESE: be it N1 OR be it N2
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
    • vt0+N.adSOBI: It should be/is at the time N that S;
    • vt0+N.+VOBI: It is N that should V or V-s
    • vt+Nbe N (emphatic)
    • vt+N{OBJ}(.adVt)it is the N that the SUBJECT Vt-s
    • padV.postN{SUBJ}emphaticIt is the SUBJECT that V-s
       chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 0 Attributions
      即為   jí wéi OC: tsɯɡ ɢʷal MC: tsɨk ɦiɛ 0 Attributions
      • VPt+Ncopulaemphatic copula construction: be exactly the same as, be like, be the same as, be none other than

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: