BEGIN  開始

ENDURINGLY STOP NOT to ACT OR to BE RESEMBLING:as in the PAST.
STARTCOMMENCESET ABOUTGO ABOUTEMBARK ONLAUNCH INTOGET DOWN TOTAKE UPINITIATESET IN MOTIONINSTITUTEINAUGURATEGET AHEAD WITHGET CRACKING ONGET GOING ON
Taxonoymy

BIRTHFROMOBTAINBECOME

Antonymy

END

See also

ARISEORIGINALLYBECOMESOURCECAUSE

Kind Of

STOP

Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[ELEVATED/VULGAR]

[FORMAL/INFORMAL]

1. Shǐ 始 (ant. zhōng 終 "bring to an end; come to an end" and chéng 成 "bring to a successful end, complete") refers quite generally to the initiating of any action. But see also ARISE

[GENERAL]

2. Zào 造 (all ant. jì 繼 "continue" and chéng 承 "continue") can come to refer to the beginning of an action.

[ARCHAIC]; [[RARE]]

3. Chū 初 (ant. mò 末 "end") is purely chronological and refers to the early stage of something that persists, without indicating any lasting influence of that early stage on later developments. See FIRST

4. Qǐ 起 is sometimes used in a rather formal way for getting underway with a major activity.

[FORMAL]

5. Qǐ 啟 typically refers to a deliberate act of initiation, by Heaven as well as by man, and the word generally belongs to the dignified style of historians or rhetoricians.

[ELEVATED], [FORMAL]

6. Zhāo 肇 is an elevated and archaic word referring to the initiation of rituals and the like.

[ELEVATED]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

開始 is the current modern word for beginning.

肇始 (lit) is a recondite word for beginning.

托始 (lit) refers nominally to a beginning.

開端 focusses on the initial point of a development.

肇端 (lit) refers nominally to a beginning, in a very old-fashioned way.

造端 (lit) refers verbally to a beginning, in a very old-fashioned way.

發端 focussing on the beginning as point of origin.

開頭 kāitóu refers verbally to making a start with something.

上手 can refer to making start with something.

上馬 "get on the horse" refers figuratively to getting on with something immediately.

發軔 fārèn refers to setting something afoot.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 14.25

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 7

INITIUM.PRINCIPIUM

289. Inter Initium et principium. Initium est rerum a quo quid incipit, ut fundamenta domus, carina navis; principium autem verborum exordium est.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BEGIN

incipere refers to the beginning as opposed to the non-presence of something before and the new state of affairs created by the beginning afterwards; and the antonyms are desinere, desistere, finire.

ordiri refers to something beginning as the origin of a development or advancement, the antonyms being continuare and the intransitive pergere.

inchoare refers to the beginning of something as opposed to finishing it, perficere, consummare, peragere, absolvere.

coepi refers to an action beginning to happen in a colourless grammaticalised way, and the word is vtV.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 30

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 31

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 84

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 12

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 107

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 207

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1.248

ARYUTUNOVA 2002 Logicheskii analiz yazyka 639

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 59B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 35
  • vadV : 31
  • vt V[0] : 19
  • vtoN : 10
  • vt+prep+N : 10
  • vi : 10
  • vadN : 7
  • NP : 5
  • NPab : 4
  • nadN : 4
  • VPt+V[0] : 3
  • vt+prep+V : 2
  • vadS : 2
  • NPadV : 2
  • nab(post-N) : 1
  • npost-N : 1
  • vtoN.adV : 1
  • vtoV : 1
  • nab.-N : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • n : 1
  • vt+Npro : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • nadS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 18
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 孟子 : 11
  • 荀子 : 10
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 淮南子 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 論語 : 4
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 唐律疏義 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 笑林一卷 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 五行 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 鮑氏集 : 1

Words

   shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 76 Attributions

The general word for something occurring for the crucial and influential first time or initiating anything, in particular any development, is shǐ 始 (ant. zhōng 終"bring to an end; come to an end" and chéng 成 "bring to a successful end, complete").

  • nsubjectopening piece, beginning piece (e.g. in a collection of poetry)
  • nabmetaphysicalbeginning, the initial state as a dynamic state motivating what happens after that beginning; proper beginning; original cause, Greek: archē;
  • vadNbeginning, original; very early
  • vadVfor the first time, from the very beginning; to begin with; in the beginning
  • viinchoativeto begin, originate; to start doing one's work
  • vt+prep+Nbegin with, start from; start out by V-ing
  • vt+V[0]to begin to V; to be at the beginner's stage of V-ing
  • vt+V[0]V=traditionbe the first to; inaugurate, initiate, start the tradition of, do something for the first time
  • vtoNfirst timedo something for the first time; come to do something for the first time
  • vtoNinchoativetake as one's starting point; to begin to work with, to start working at something (in Shijing 經始靈臺)
  • vadSto begin with, in the beginning
  • vt prep Vto start V-ing
  • vt prep Vbegin with V-ing
  • vtoVbegin to V
  • nab(post-N)beginning of N
   chū OC: tshra MC: ʈʂhi̯ɤ 15 Attributions

Chū 初 (ant. mò 末 "end") is purely chronological and refers to the early stage of something that persists, without indicating any lasting influence of that early stage on later developments. See FIRST

  • nabeventbeginning stage, beginning
  • npost-Nbeginning of the period N
  • vadNinitial, first; antecedent
  • vadVfrom the start
  • vadVfirst timeinitially; for the first time
   zōng OC: tsuuŋ MC: tsuo̝ŋ 7 Attributions
  • nabfigurativeessential origin, venerable origin 萬物之宗
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
  • nbeginning
  • nadNoriginalprimordial
  • nadNsequencethe first (year) 元年 nadN+S
  • nadSin the beginning, at the outset
  • nadVfrom the beginning > originally, basically
   qǐ OC: kheeʔ MC: khei 6 Attributions

Qǐ 啟 typically refers to a deliberate act of initiation, by Heaven as well as by man, and the word generally belongs to the dignified style of historians or rhetoricians.

  • vt+Nprobegin proceedings, begin a conversation
  • vt+V[0]open, begin
  • vtoNcausativecause to begin
  • vtoNbegin (something N)
   zhào OC: dawʔ MC: ɖiɛu 6 Attributions

Zhāo 肇 is an elevated and archaic word referring to the initiation of rituals and the like.

  • vadVin the very beginning
  • vtoNinititate; begin; institute
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 5 Attributions

Qǐ 起 (ant. qì 迄 "end up") typically emphasises the natural origination of something.

  • vichangecommence, get to be fully underway, start out (from); contrast the meaning in ARISE
  • vpostadVbegin to V
  • vt[oN]causativecause to arise or begin things (in one's mind)
  • vtoNcause to arise> begin; start
  • vt+prep+Vbegin by V-ing, make V-ing the starting point
太始   tài shǐ OC: thaads lʰɯʔ MC: thɑi ɕɨ 5 Attributions
  • NPsingularthe great beginning
   xiān MC: sen OC: sɯɯn 4 Attributions
  • vadVas the first
  • vt V[0]be the first to V
元本   yuán běn OC: ŋɡon pɯɯnʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐn puo̝n 3 Attributions
  • NPabbeginning, origin
  • NPadVoriginally; basically
初始   chū shǐ OC: tshra lʰɯʔ MC: ʈʂhi̯ɤ ɕɨ 3 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]be just about to V; be just beginning to V
   chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbegin with, start out with
   shǒu OC: qhljuʔ MC: ɕɨu 2 Attributions

Shǒu 首 refers to the initiating of a sequence.

  • nabtimebeginning; fig: source
  • vadNfirst
  • vtoNto initiate
   yī OC: qliɡ MC: ʔit 2 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalthe beginning of all thing, the origin of all things
   xiān MC: sen OC: sɯɯn 2 Attributions
  • vadVas the first
   zhào OC: ɡrlewʔ MC: ɖiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinaugurate ZUO 兆其謀
   gēn OC: kɯɯn MC: kən 1 Attribution
  • norigin, descent
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]give rise to > begin to V
   duān OC: toon MC: tʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • nabbeginning; first symptom
   zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 1 Attribution

Zuò 作 and zào 造 (all ant. jì 繼 "continue" and chéng 承 "continue") emphasise creative initiative and come close to the notion of creation.

  • vtoNtake the initiative for something HANSHU 造之者富,隨之者貧也
作始   zuò shǐ OC: tsaaɡ lʰɯʔ MC: tsɑk ɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake a beginning, begin
   lì OC: ɡ-rub MC: lip 1 Attribution
  • nab.-Nbeginning two weeks of the season N 立春 "beginning of spring"
   jiāng OC: skaŋ MC: tsi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]set out to V (SHU)
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinitiate, launch
  • vtoN.adVstarting from N to V
太初   tài chū  MC: thajH tsrhjo  OC: thaads tshra  1 Attribution
  • NPabthe Great Beginning (of everything)
   shuò MC: sraewk OC: sqrooɡ 1 Attribution
  • nabbeginning
其始   qí shǐ MC: gi syiX OC: ɡɯ lʰɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • NP-P.adSin the beginning
   fǔ OC: paʔ MC: pi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbegin (ZHOULI)
始也   shǐ yě OC: lʰɯʔ lalʔ MC: ɕɨ jɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPadVto begin with
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 0 Attributions
  • vichange
   nǎi OC: nɯɯʔ MC: nəi 0 Attributions
  • padVat that time just
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vadVas the first
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NP-P.adSin the beginning

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: