ANCESTOR  祖先

RELATIVE of PAST GENERATION whose DESCENDENT one is.
FOREBEARFOREFATHERPREDECESSORANTECEDENTPROGENITORPRIMOGENITOR
Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

[FEMALE/MALE]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

1. Zǔ 祖 (ant. hòu 後 "offspring") is the current general term for genetic literal ancestors.

[CURRENT], [LITERAL], [MALE]

2. Xiān 先 (ant. hòu 後 "offspring") refers even more generally to predecessors, but may specifically refer to ancestors, and the term is often used adjectivally.

[CURRENT], [DERIVED], [GENERAL], [MALE]

3. Zōng 宗 is the specific term referring to founding highest ancestor recognised within a clan.

[CURRENT], [MALE], [SPECIFIC]

4. Mǔ 母 is sometimes used to refer to femals ancestors.

[ARCHAIC], [FEMALE]

5. 考

6. 妣 refers to the maternal line ancestor

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 HUMAN AFFAIRS 3.3. 祖宗。

祖,通稱。

宗,始祖之後的歷代祖先。

考,父祖的泛稱,與 “ 祖 ” 等連用。

先,亡故祖先,與 “ 君 ” 等連用。

妣,女性祖先。

4. 先祖。

高, “ 高祖 ” 的省稱,指己身以上四世的祖先。

曾, “ 曾祖 ” 的省稱,指己身上三代的祖先。

祖,祖父,一般與 “ 父 ” 等連用。

公,特指祖父。

“ 顯考 ” 祭祀時敬稱高祖,但未成專詞。

“ 皇考 ” ,祭祀曾祖或祖父、父時的敬稱。

Cf. SACRIFICE 5. 祖,祖先神靈所依附的神主,在仰韶文化中通常以陶罐或陶罐偶像的形式出現;商代採用木製牌位,稱示;周代起稱主。

社,土地之神的神主,有土、石、樹三種。

尸,代替祖先受祭的人。

Modern Chinese Criteria

祖宗

祖上

祖先

先公

先人

先世

先古

先祖

先考

皇考

祖輩

上代

上世

曾祖

高祖

遠祖

太尊

列祖列宗

祖宗十八代

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 2.56

HUANG JINGUI 2006 古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 45

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 5.729

MANISMUS (=AHNENKULT)

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

BAECHTHOLD-STAEUBLI 1987 Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens 1.226

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.343.306

NOS ANCETRES.NOS AYEUX.NOS PERES

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 67

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

ANCESTOR WORSHIP

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 71B

AHNEN

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • npost-N : 14
  • n : 10
  • NPt : 10
  • NPpost-N : 9
  • nadN : 8
  • n(post-N) : 6
  • NP(post-N) : 3
  • NP[post-N] : 2
  • nm : 2
  • n.red : 2
  • NP : 1
  • NP{vadN} : 1
  • n.red:adV : 1
  • n+pr : 1
  • npost=Npr : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 17
  • 春秋左傳 : 14
  • 祖堂集 : 10
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 管子 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   zǔ OC: skaaʔ MC: tsuo̝ 17 Attributions

Zǔ 祖 (ant. hòu 後 "offspring") is the current general term for genetic literal ancestors. [CURRENT], [LITERAL], [MALE]

  • n.red:adVfrom patriarch to patriarch
  • n.redfather's father of the father's father :> first ancestor, founding ancestor
  • n.redallreduplicated N: all the ancestors, all the patriarchs
  • npost-NZUO Zhao 22: original first ancestor of the clan; the highest ancestor (BUDDH: patriarch (the founder or transmitter of a Buddhist lineage))
   zōng OC: tsuuŋ MC: tsuo̝ŋ 13 Attributions

Zōng 宗 is the specific term referring to founding highest ancestor recognised within a clan. [CURRENT], [MALE], [SPECIFIC]

  • nhonoured early ancestor of the clan; early ancestor, ancestry; common pre-Buddhist: ancestral, pertaining to ancestral worship or clan worship
  • npluralancestry; ancestors
  • nadNancestral
   nǐ OC: m-liilʔ MC: nei 8 Attributions
  • n(post-N)deceased father (as represented in the temple); (dead father's tablet and temple); deceased father-in-law (Legge on Liji)
  • nadNancestral
先人   xiān rén OC: sɯɯn njin MC: sen ȵin 5 Attributions

ancestor

  • NPpost-Nancestor; deceased father
  • NP(post-N)plural
祖考   zǔ kǎo OC: skaaʔ khuuʔ MC: tsuo̝ khɑu 5 Attributions
  • NPpost-NLIJI: highest ancestors in the father's lineage; lineage of ancestors; sometimes also referring specifically to the father of the king
祖師   zǔ shī OC: skaaʔ sril MC: tsuo̝ ʂi 4 Attributions
  • NPtBUDDH: the Buddhist ancestors (Patriarchs) as defined by the Zen/Chán schools
  • NPtdefiniteBUDDH: ancestor in a predefined Chán/Zen Buddhist lineage; Patriarch (indentifiable from the context)
先祖   xiān zǔ OC: sɯɯn skaaʔ MC: sen tsuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • NP(post-N)ancestors; ancestry
  • NP[post-N]the grammatical subject's ancestors
   xiān OC: sɯɯn MC: sen 2 Attributions

Xiān 先 (ant. hòu 後 "offspring") refers even more generally to predecessors, but may specifically refer to ancestors. [CURRENT], [DERIVED], [GENERAL], [MALE]

  • npredecessor> ancestor
   dì OC: k-leeɡs MC: tei 2 Attributions
  • n+prhighest ancestor, High Lord
  • nindefinitevenerated ancestor, ancestor venerated and sacrificed to??
  • ntitleposthumous title conferred on certain Shāng kings (Heji 23272)
   jiù OC: ɡus MC: gɨu 2 Attributions
  • nmancestry
文人   wén rén OC: mɯn njin MC: mi̯un ȵin 2 Attributions
  • NPtperiphrastic: the elegant/dignified one>the (relevant) ancestor(s)
   kǎo OC: khuuʔ MC: khɑu 1 Attribution
  • nancestor
  • npost=Nprancestor Npr
先子   xiān zǐ OC: sɯɯn sklɯʔ MC: sen tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}refers to one's deceased father, grandfather, etc
先帝   xiān dì OC: sɯɯn k-leeɡs MC: sen tei 1 Attribution
  • NPtearly ancestors
先生   xiān shēng OC: sɯɯn sraaŋ MC: sen ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N][my] ancestor
皇祖   huáng zǔ OC: ɡʷaaŋ skaaʔ MC: ɦɑŋ tsuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPSovereign Ancestor
祖妣   zǔ bǐ OC: skaaʔ piʔ MC: tsuo̝ pi 1 Attribution
  • NPtLIJI: 'souvereign grandmother'; mother of the king
禪祖   chán zǔ OC: djan skaaʔ MC: dʑiɛn tsuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPtBUDDH: ancestors/patriarchs of the Chan/Zen School
高祖   gāo zǔ OC: koow skaaʔ MC: kɑu tsuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPtgreat-great-grandfather (father of the father of the grandfather)
   bǐ OC: piʔ MC: pi 0 Attributions
  • nccOBI: dead female ascendant
   mǔ OC: mɯʔ MC: mu 0 Attributions

Mǔ 母 is sometimes used to refer to femals ancestors. [ARCHAIC], [FEMALE]

    上甲   shàng jiǎ OC: ɡljaŋs kraab MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ kɣap 0 Attributions
    • NPprtempleproper name of the pre-dynastic highest ancestor venerated and sacrificed to by the Late Shāng elite.
    先臣   xiān chén OC: sɯɯn ɡjiŋ MC: sen dʑin 0 Attributions
    • NP{vadN}ancestor
    曾祖   zēng zǔ OC: tsɯɯŋ skaaʔ MC: tsəŋ tsuo̝ 0 Attributions
    • NPtgreat grandfather
    前寧人   qián níng rén OC: dzeen neeŋ njin MC: dzen neŋ ȵin 0 Attributions
    • NP{vadN}"the preceding peaceful men"> ancestors SHU
       gōng OC: klooŋ MC: kuŋ 0 Attributions
    • npluralOBI ancestors 多公 "the many ancestors" 公宮 "Temple of the Ancestors"

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: