BIRTH  出生

BEGINNING of LIFE.
CHILDBIRTHDELIVERYNATIVITYBIRTHINGBLESSED/HAPPY EVENTFORMAL PARTURITIONDATED CONFINEMENTARCHAIC ACCOUCHEMENTCHILDBED
Taxonoymy

HATCHPREGNANTRESURRECTIONREBIRTHDESCEND FROM

Antonymy

DIE

See also

ARISE

Kind Of

BEGIN

Old Chinese Criteria

[BASIC/MARGINAL]

[FACT/PROCESS]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

1. Shēng 生 (ant. sǐ 死 "die") is a colourless general word for the fact of being delivered of offspring or for engendering offspring, and the word also has many derived and related meanings.

[FACT], [+FIG], [GENERAL]; [[COMMON+]]

2. Chǎn 產 can focus on the physical process of birth alone, but the word can connote the act of rearing or even breeding. See REAR.

[LITERAL], [PROCESS]; [[COMMON]]

3. Zì 字 is a rare very archaic word referring to the production of offspring.

[ARCHAIC], [LITERAL]; [[RARE]]

4. Yù 育 is a rare fairly archaic word for giving birth to and rearing offspring.

[ARCHAIC], [LITERAL], [PROCESS]

5. Rǔ 乳 viewS the act of giving birth as immediately preceding and linked to the feeding of what one has given birth to.

[LITERAL], [MARGINAL], [PROCESS]; [[RARE]]

4. Sū 穌 "be born again" belongs to the realm of religious discourse.

[SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

誕生

出生

降生

落生

娩出

落地

墜地

出世

出娘胎

落草

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 4.72

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 392

275. Inter Generat et parturit. Generare masculos dicimus, parturire feminas. Ut puta: Ille generavit, illa parturiit.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 99?

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.58

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 737

生,產

1. WL claim that 二字在生,生長,出產,出生等意義上同。 The contrast is clear enough, though. Cha3n 產 refers to what is born, grows where and when it is intended to grow or welcome to grow. She1ng 生 is the general word which has no such connotations.

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.425.382

ENFANTER.ACCOUCHER.ENGENDRER

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 286

137

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 45
  • vtoN : 43
  • vi+N{PLACE} : 17
  • nab : 12
  • VPi : 11
  • vi : 7
  • vt+prep+N : 6
  • VPtoN : 5
  • v-p.adV : 4
  • VPadV : 4
  • vadN : 2
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vt(+N[INDEF]) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 賢愚經 : 24
  • 春秋左傳 : 16
  • 祖堂集 : 13
  • 荀子 : 12
  • 禮記 : 10
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 8
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 六祖壇經 : 8
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 論語 : 6
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 管子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 114 Attributions

Shēng 生 (ant. sǐ 死 "die") is a colourless general word for the fact of being delivered of offspring or for engendering offspring, and the word also has many derived and related meanings. [FACT], [+FIG], [GENERAL]; [[COMMON+]]

  • nabbuddhistbirth (as part of the fours phases of birth, continuation, change, and extinction)
  • nabprocessbirth
  • nabprocesscycle of rebirths; rebirth
  • vadNborn, birth- (as in birth-place), rebirth- (as in rebirth-station)
  • v-p.adVfrom birth; at birth 生而
  • vi+N{PLACE}be born in N; be reborn in
  • viactreproduce, have offspring; give birth to things
  • vimiddle voicebe born
  • vimiddle voiceget born; be born
  • virebirthbe reborn
  • vt(+N[INDEF])give birth to indefinite and omitted N
  • vt(oN)give birth to the contextually determinate N
  • vt+prep+Nbe born in N; get reborn in N
  • vtoNgive birth to; cause to come into existence
  • vtoNcausativecause to be born; engender
  • vtoNfigurativegive birth to (oneself)
  • vtoNsubject=maleprocreate
  • vt prep Nbe born at the time N
  • vt prep Nbe born from, originate from
  • vtoNmiddle voicederived: begin to grow, begin to sprout
出世   chū shì OC: khljud lʰebs MC: tɕhʷit ɕiɛi 8 Attributions
  • VPimiddle voiceBUDDH: be born into the world, appear in the world (in Buddhist texts often specifically referring to a Bodhisattva or a saint)
  • VPtoNBUDDH: be born in, appear in the world at (in Buddhist texts often specifically referring to a Bodhisattva or a saint)
   chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 5 Attributions
  • vi+N{PLACE}be born in
  • vichangecome into existence, be born
  • vtoNcause to arise> give rise to, bring into existence
   chǎn OC: sqreenʔ MC: ʂɣɛn 5 Attributions

Chǎn 產 can focus on the physical process of birth alone, but the word can connote the act of rearing or even breeding. See REAR. [LITERAL], [PROCESS]; [[COMMON]]

  • vadNbelonging to the stage of birth, childbirth- 產褥
  • viactgive birth; produce
  • viprocessbe born 陳良楚產也 [NB: the distinction with 屈產之乘 is unclear: does 產 really involve breading?]
  • vt+N{PLACE}middle voicebe born in N, hail from N
  • vtoNbe delivered of, give birth to
生而   shēng ér OC: sraaŋ njɯ MC: ʂɣaŋ ȵɨ 4 Attributions
  • VPadVfrom birth, innately
   yù OC: luɡ MC: juk 3 Attributions

Zì 字, yù 育, and rǔ 乳 view the act of giving birth as immediately preceding and linked to the fostering up of what one has given birth to.

  • viactgive birth to a child YI: 婦孕不育 if women get pregnant but do not get to give birth and bring up children
  • vtoNmiddle voice: be born
   rǔ OC: njoʔ MC: ȵi̯o 2 Attributions

Zì 字, yù 育, and rǔ 乳 view the act of giving birth as immediately preceding and linked to the fostering up of what one has given birth to.

  • viactgive birth to a child
  • vt(oN)give birth to (and foster up) the contextually determinate creature
  • vtoNgive birth to
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNinchoativebeget (a child), engender, procreate
出自   chū zì OC: khljud sblids MC: tɕhʷit dzi 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNbe born from; be descended from
   duò OC: ɡ-loolʔ MC: dʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcome to be reborn as (a hungry ghost etc)
   zǐ OC: sklɯʔ MC: tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgive birth to as a child
   zì OC: sɡlɯs MC: dzɨ 1 Attribution

Zì 字, yù 育, and rǔ 乳 view the act of giving birth as immediately preceding and linked to the fostering up of what one has given birth to.

  • vihave children
   dàn OC: laanʔ MC: dɑn 1 Attribution
  • nabbirth, the process of giving birth
  • viprocessbe born
   jiàng OC: kruums MC: kɣɔŋ 1 Attribution
  • videscend into this world (and be born)
出生   chū shēng OC: khljud sraaŋ MC: tɕhʷit ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPsubjectwhat is born, what is alive
  • NPabeventbirth
  • VPichangebe born
分身   fēn shēn OC: pɯn qhjin MC: pi̯un ɕin 1 Attribution
  • VPiactgive birth to a child; be delivered of a child
生來   shēng lái OC: sraaŋ m-rɯɯ MC: ʂɣaŋ ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadNthe N from the time of birth
產生   chǎn shēng OC: sqreenʔ sraaŋ MC: ʂɣɛn ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNengender
興世   xīng shì OC: qhɯŋ lʰebs MC: hɨŋ ɕiɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPieventbe born into this world
誕生   dàn shēng OC: laanʔ sraaŋ MC: dɑn ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPimiddle voicebe born
載誕   zài dàn OC: sɡlɯɯs laanʔ MC: dzəi dɑn 1 Attribution
  • NPprocessbirth
  • VPimiddle voicebe born
  • VPtoNgive birth to
轉身   zhuǎn shēn OC: tonʔ qhjin MC: ʈiɛn ɕin 1 Attribution
  • VPieventbe reborn
   zuò MC: tsuH OC: tsaaɡ 1 Attribution
  • viprocessbe born; come into existence as a group; arise
   lái MC: loj OC: m-rɯɯ 1 Attribution
  • viprocessemerge in this world: be born
   miǎn OC: mronʔ MC: miɛn 0 Attributions
  • viprocessgive birth to a child
   dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vibe born into this world
   yù OC: luɡ MC: juk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNgive birth to
   sū OC: sɡlaa MC: suo̝ 0 Attributions

Sū 穌 "be born again" belongs to the realm of religious discourse. See RESURRECTION

    生下   shēng xià OC: sraaŋ ɢraaʔ MC: ʂɣaŋ ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)give birth to a contextually determinate N
    降生   jiàng shēng OC: kruums sraaŋ MC: kɣɔŋ ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNgive birth to from above
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • viprocessbe born; come into existence as a group; arise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • viprocessemerge in this world: be born

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: