BECAUSE  因為

SENTENCE-CONNECTIVE to the effect that S1 is the CAUSE:reason for S2 being TRUE. [GRAMMAR]
FORSINCEASIN VIEW OF THE FACT THATINASMUCH ASOWING TO THE FACT THAT
Taxonoymy

WHY

Antonymy

NONETHELESS

See also

FROMTHEREFORE

Kind Of

CAUSE

Old Chinese Criteria

Giving reasons for a statements made, by a single appended clause giving an explanation, motivation, justification, or demonstration, turns out to be not as common as one might have thought. Yīnwéi 因為 "because" is not classical Chinese. "Brutus killed Caesar because he hated him" would become in classical Chinese "Brutus hated Caesar and accordingly/therefore he killed him." The current conceptual fields are THEREFORE and "in order to" under INTEND. The only word that "feels" anything like the English "because" is the final particle yě 也 "this was because, this is because".

1. The standard word is yǐ 以 "by reason of" which can refer to objective causes as well as subjective motivation, but never logical reasoning, and the reason adduced by this word may even be a pretext.

[GENERAL]; [[vt+N.adV, vt+N.postV]]

2. Yīn 因 "on the basis of" typically refers to the basis on which something is done, and sometimes to some kind of deliberate and strategic accommodation to objective conditions.

[[vtadV]]

3. Yóu 由 "be because of" emphasises the "wherefrom" of something, the objective reason from which something flows. It is rare in early texts meaning "be because", but became common at later stages of the language.

[OBJECTIVE]; [[RARE]], [[vtadV]]

4. Wéi 為 sometimes introduces a reason for something that is then introduced by gù 故 "therefore" or by yīn 因 "therefore".

[OBJECTIVE]; [vt+N.postS]

5. Sentence-final yě 也 often marks because-clauses, and the reason given is rarely psychological, sometimes objective, quite often logical: S 也 meaning "it is/was because of S".

[[ppostS]]

6. Wéi 為 sometimes introduces a reason for something that is then introduced by gù 故 "therefore" or by yīn 因 "therefore".

Modern Chinese Criteria

因為

惟其

由於

鑒於

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 285

479. Inter Quoniam et quia. Quoniam praeponitur, et sic sequentem sensum alligat, ut: quoniam dicis [ Al., dicit], dico. Quia postponitur, et superiorem sensum confirmat, ut: Scias quia didici.

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.902

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 514

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • ppostadS : 63
  • vtoN.adV : 41
  • vt(oN.)adV : 21
  • vtoN : 18
  • vt0oS1.adS2 : 17
  • ppostadN{PRED} : 16
  • vtoNPab{S} : 11
  • vt0oN.adV : 8
  • vtoS : 6
  • PPadV.postN{SUBJ} : 5
  • nab.post-S : 5
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 5
  • nabpost-S1.post-S2 : 5
  • VPadS : 5
  • vtoS1.adS2 : 5
  • vt Nab.adV : 4
  • vtoS.adV : 4
  • npro : 4
  • vt0oN1.adN2 : 3
  • VPt+N.adS : 3
  • PP{DISCONT}adS : 3
  • vt0+V.adS : 3
  • npost-N : 3
  • PPadS1.adS2 : 2
  • vtoN.postadV : 2
  • vtoN(.adV) : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • nab : 2
  • npro.post-S1:adS2 : 1
  • vt+V[0].adV : 1
  • npost-V : 1
  • PP{DISCONT}postS : 1
  • padS1.post-S2 : 1
  • padS1.adS2 : 1
  • DELETE : 1
  • vtoS1.postadS2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 66
  • 韓非子 : 30
  • 孟子 : 26
  • 說苑 : 22
  • 春秋左傳 : 22
  • 賢愚經 : 17
  • 百喻經 : 15
  • 祖堂集 : 11
  • 六祖壇經 : 9
  • 論語 : 8
  • 晏子春秋 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 6
  • 臨濟錄 : 6
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 記纂淵海 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 周生烈子一卷 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 79 Attributions

Sentence-final yě 也 often marks because-clauses: S也 meaning "it was because of S".

  • ppostadSbe a matter of S, depend on S, be because of S
  • ppostadN{PRED}be because of N
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 59 Attributions

The standard word is yǐ 以 "by reason of" which can refer to objective causes as well as subjective motivation.

  • vt(oN.)adVe.g. 楚國以安 "Chu was safe because of this": because of this contextually determinate factor
  • vt[0]oN.postadVpretexte.g. 違我以禮 "offends me on the pretext of ritual propriety: on the pretext of
  • vt0oS1.adS2以有功見疑,"was held in suspicion because he had achievements": objective reason: because of S1 S2 occurred/will occur/occurs
  • DELETEobjectivebecause of (an objective factor N)
  • vtoN.adVsubjectiveon the grounds of; because of
  • vtoNe.g. 以尊也 "it was because he was distinguished": be because of N
  • vt0oS1.adS2subjectivee.g. 以晏短為小們"because Yan was short they built a small gate": on the (subjective) grounds that S
  • vt Nab.adVe.g. 以誹死 "die because of slander" to V because of Nab
  • vtoN.postadVsubjective reasonto V on the grounds of N, reasoning in terms of N, on the pretexts of N
  • vt+V[0].adVbecause of V-ing; because one V-ed
   wèi OC: ɢʷals MC: ɦiɛ 39 Attributions

Wéi 為 sometimes introduces a reason for something that is then introduced by gù 故"therefore" or by yīn 因 "therefore".

  • vt0+V.adSbecause of, on account of V-ing
  • vt0oN.adVbecause of N; on N's behalf
  • vt0oN1.adN2because of 為母之故
  • vt0oS1.adS2because 為。。。所以
  • vtoNPab{S}stativebe because
  • vtoNPab{S}that is whythat is why S
  • vtoSbe because
  • v[0]adNPab{S}it was because of S
  • vt(oN.)adVbecause of this
   yóu OC: liw MC: jɨu 19 Attributions

Yóu 由 "be because of" emphasises the "wherefrom" of something, is rare in early texts meaning "be because" but became very common at later stages of the language.

  • vt+prep+N.adVV because of N
  • vt+prep+Sbe because of S
  • vtoN.adV(to V) because of Nab
  • vtoN.postadSbecause of N
  • vtoNbe because of, follow as a result of
  • vtoNPab{S}socialbe because of S
  • vtoS.adVbecause of S
  • nablogicalwhat one conforms to/follows: subjective reason, reason followed in action 各有由
  • nabphysical
  • nabpsychological
   yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 18 Attributions

Yīn 因 "on the basis of" always refers to some kind of deliberate accommodation to objective conditions.

  • vt+prep+Nbe because of N
  • vtoN.adVon the basis of 因之(以), because of
  • vtoNPab{S}because of the state of affairs described in NPab[S]
  • vtoS1.adS2on the occasion of S1, S2 (expressing both cause and time); sometimes in the construction 因。。。次
  • vtoS1.adS2subjectivebecause
  • vt(oN.)adVbecause of the contextually determinate N
  • vt(oN.)adVbecause of that; under these conditions
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 11 Attributions
  • nab.post-Sobjective(denominal verb?) be objectively because (of the preceding S) NB: the 故 is predicative: "the reason being that"
  • nab.post-Ssubjectivethe subjective reason that S NB: the 故 is predicative: "the reason being that"
  • nabpost-S1.adS2objectivebecause of
  • nabpost-S1.post-S2subjectiveS2 is because of S1
  • nabpost-S1.post-S2objectiveS2 is true for the objective reason S1
  • npost-Vsubjectivebecause of V-ing
   yuàn OC: k-lons MC: jiɛn 10 Attributions
  • vt(oN.)adVbecause of this
  • vtoN.adVbecause of N, on the occasion of N; conditioned by N,
  • vtoNbe beause of N
  • vtoS.adVbecause of/ conditioned by S (therefore V)
  • vtoSbecause 緣有x故
  • vtoS1.postadS2because
所以   suǒ yǐ OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ jɨ 5 Attributions
  • PPadV.postN{SUBJ}reason why N V-ed
   shì OC: ɡljeʔ MC: dʑiɛ 4 Attributions
  • nproanaphoricbe because of such reasons 不知問是也"It is all because they do not know how to ask questions"
   zì OC: sblids MC: dzi 4 Attributions
  • vt0oS1.adS2since S1, therefore S2
  • vtoNstativebe because of N
  • vt+prep+Nbe because of N
以故   yǐ gù OC: k-lɯʔ kaas MC: jɨ kuo̝ 4 Attributions
  • PP{DISCONT}adSobjectivefor the objective reason X
  • PP{DISCONT}adSsubjectivefor the subjective reason X
  • PP{DISCONT}postSobjectivebecause of X
  • PP{DISCONT}postSsubjectivefor the subjective reason X
為故   wèi gù OC: ɢʷals kaas MC: ɦiɛ kuo̝ 4 Attributions
  • VPadSbecause of the reason X
   xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • npost-Nfigurativeunder the influence of> because of
   cóng OC: dzoŋ MC: dzi̯oŋ 3 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVbecause of
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN.)adVand because of this; so as to
   tōng OC: kh-looŋ MC: thuŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoN(.adV)because of
夫唯   fú wéi OC: ba k-lul MC: bi̯o ji 2 Attributions
  • PPadS1.adS2exactly because LAO
由其   yóu qí OC: liw ɡɯ MC: jɨu gɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+N.adSbecause of N
   jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 1 Attribution
  • padS1.adS2there was no other reason than, it was exactly because
   fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • padS1.post-S2to V only because S
因由   yīn yóu OC: qin liw MC: ʔin jɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPt+N.adSbecause of
因故   yīn gù OC: qin kaas MC: ʔin kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPadSdiscontinuousbecause
   zài MC: dzojX OC: sɡɯɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNrelationalbe because of N
   zhě MC: tsyaeX OC: kljaʔ 1 Attribution
  • npro.post-S1:adS2Since
   wéi OC: k-lul MC: ji 0 Attributions
  • vt0oS1.adS2only because
以其   yǐ qí OC: k-lɯʔ ɡɯ MC: jɨ gɨ 0 Attributions

because

  • PPadS1.postS2the reason for S2 is caused by S1
  • PPadS1.adS2it was because S1 that S2
因為   yīn wèi OC: qin ɢʷals MC: ʔin ɦiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPpost-Sbecause
由於   yóu yú OC: liw qa MC: jɨu ʔi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPt+N.adVbecause
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNrelationalbe because of N

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: