IF  如果

RELATION between sentences S1 and S2 such that it is NOT TRUE that S1 AND NOT S2.
Antonym

THENASSUMING FOR ARGUMENT that the PRECEDING SENTENCE IS TRUE. Contrast THEREUPON.

Hypernym

CONDITIONSITUATION which is NECESSARY for something to be ABLE to HAPPEN. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • COUNTERFACTUAL IF-RELATION BETWEEN A SENTENCE S1 PRESUPPOSED to be NOT TRUE AND A SENTENCE S2 SPEAK:said TO BE TRUE IF S1 IS:were TRUE.
    • EVEN IF IF S1, NONETHELESS S2
      • IF NOT IF NOT.
        • UNLESS EXCEPT IF.
          Modern Chinese Criteria

          如果

          如其

          如若

          設或

          倘或

          倘若

          要是

          若是

          倘然

          比方

          萬一

          使

          rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

          Old Chinese Contrasts

          BROWN 2005: CONDITIONALS is very good.

          • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 583

          • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 12.538

            WENN-DANN-SATZ

          • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 315

          • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

            CONDITIONALS

          • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition ( BROWN 2005) p.

          Attributions by syntactic funtion

          • padS1.adS2 : 50
          • npro.post-S1:adS2 : 39
          • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postS : 29
          • vt0oS1.adS2 : 21
          • PPadS1.adS2 : 20
          • nadS1.adS2 : 20
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 14
          • padV{PRED}.postN{SUB} : 7
          • ppostadS1.adS2 : 7
          • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 6
          • VPt0oS1.adS2 : 5
          • npro.adS1:adS2 : 4
          • v0adS1.adS2 : 4
          • ppostN{SUBJ} V.adS : 3
          • npro.adV:adS : 3
          • VPtoS1.adS2 : 3
          • VPadS1.adS2 : 3
          • npro.post-NPab[S1]:adS2 : 2
          • vadV1.adV2 : 2
          • p1adV1+.p1adV2 : 2
          • VPi(0)adS1.postS2 : 1
          • npost-S1.adS2 : 1
          • PPadS1.postS2 : 1
          • vt+S1.adS2 : 1

          Attributions by text

          • 孟子 : 42
          • 說苑 : 33
          • 賢愚經 : 29
          • 戰國策 : 16
          • 莊子 : 13
          • 百喻經 : 13
          • 荀子 : 12
          • 韓詩外傳 : 10
          • 禮記 : 7
          • 祖堂集 : 6
          • 呂氏春秋 : 6
          • 毛詩 : 6
          • 臨濟錄 : 5
          • 墨子 : 4
          • 春秋左傳 : 4
          • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
          • 史記 : 4
          • 論衡 : 4
          • 尹文子 : 3
          • 列子 : 3
          • 晏子春秋 : 3
          • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
          • 法集要頌經 : 3
          • 公孫龍子 : 2
          • 韓非子 : 2
          • 孝經 : 2
          • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全後魏文) : 1
          • 鹽鐵論 : 1
          • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
          • 楚辭 : 1
          • 法句經 : 1
          • 長短經 : 1
          • 管子 : 1
          • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
          • 朱子語類 : 1

          Words

             zhě OC: kljaʔ MC: tɕɣɛ 41 Attributions
          • npro.post-NPab[S1]:adS2irrealisin the hypothetical/non-real case of>if
          • npro.post-S1:adS2e.g. 如此者 "if one acts like that": if;  in all cases when
          • npro.post-S1:adS2quasi-conditionalif ( as in English "if you are hungry there is something in the fridge")
             ér OC: njɯ MC: ȵɨ 28 Attributions
          • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postSe.g. 人臣而仁 "if a minister is kind-hearted": if
          • padV{PRED}.postN{OBJ}:adSif
             ruò OC: njaɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk 27 Attributions
          • p1adV1+.p1adV2no matter whether
          • padS1.adS2if; or if (often with implicit subject and without 則 in main clause, and note 若...是 as in 若晉常先,是楚弱也 which has many parallels. Apodosis often )
          • padS1.adS2pseudo-conditionalif (as in If you are hungry there are some eggs in the fridge)
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSif
             jīn OC: krɯm MC: kim 20 Attributions
          • nadS1.adS2conditionalnow if for example; suppose
          • DELETEnow if at this point S1, then S2
          • DELETEif now S1, then S2
             rú OC: nja MC: ȵi̯ɤ 15 Attributions
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSirrealisif (unreal condition)
          • padS1.adS2generalif in general
          • padS1.adS2postposed?only if (subordinated clause comes after the main clause)
          • padS1.adS2specificif by any chance
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSsupposing that it is so; if
          • ppostN{SUBJ} V.adSif N V-s then S
          使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 12 Attributions
          • vt0oS1.adS2supposing as a purely hypothetical and theoretical, or at least remote, possibility
          苟 / 茍   gǒu OC: kooʔ MC: ku jì OC: kɯɡ MC: kɨk 11 Attributions
          • padS1.adS2THERE IS A MESS-UP WITH THE GRAPHS, READ gǒu: if really; as long as really
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSTHERE IS A MESS-UP WITH THE GRAPHS, READ gǒu: if
             shè OC: qhjed MC: ɕiɛt 9 Attributions
          • vt0oS1.adS2to suppose hypothetically, let us suppose hypothetically(sometimes correlating with 亦 in S2)
          • vt0oS1.adS2mathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
             zhī OC: kljɯ MC: tɕɨ 7 Attributions
          • padV{PRED}.postN{SUB}if
             yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 7 Attributions
          • ppostadS1.adS2if ever S; even if ever
             qí OC: ɡɯ MC: gɨ 7 Attributions
          • npro.adV:adSindefiniteif someone 其言之不怍, "If in making public commitments one is not shy..."
          • npro.adV:adSOBI 2: if (e.g. it rains)
          • npro.adS1:adS2if (with non-referential subject or indefinite subject)
          若其   ruò qí OC: njaɡ ɡɯ MC: ȵi̯ɐk gɨ 7 Attributions
          • PPadS1.adS2if by any chance; if on the other hand GY: 若其予之  若其有知 "if they have awareness"
          苟為   gǒu wéi OC: kooʔ ɢʷal MC: ku ɦiɛ 7 Attributions
          • PPadS1.adS2conditionalif really, if in fact
             chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 6 Attributions
          • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adSconditionalif really, if truly
             yī OC: qliɡ MC: ʔit 4 Attributions
          • padS1.adS2if only, as long as, when
             hū OC: hmɯɯd MC: huot 4 Attributions
          • padS1.adS2Tang: if, in case, assuming
          假令   jiǎ lìng OC: kraaʔ ɡ-reŋ MC: kɣɛ liɛŋ 4 Attributions
          • PPadS1.adS2mathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
          • VPt0oS1.adS2suppose S1 then S2
          若苟   ruò gǒu OC: njaɡ kooʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐk ku 4 Attributions

          If really

          • PPadS1.adS2if really
          • PPadV.postN{SUBJ}:adSif
             suǒ OC: sqraʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
          • padS1.adS2if ever 所不與舅氏同心者, "Uncle, if from now on I fail to be of one heart with you..."
          • padVi:post.N{SUBJ}+npro{GEN}人之所忌 "When men are full of fear..."
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSif ever 予所否者 "If I have have done something wrong..."
          • npro Vt.adVgeneralisedwhenever Vt-ing anything
             wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 3 Attributions
          • vadS1.adS2if
          • vadV.postN:adSif ZGC: 秦為知之,必不救也。
          如今   rú jīn OC: nja krɯm MC: ȵi̯ɤ kim 3 Attributions
          • VPadS1.adS2supposing theoretically that
             yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 3 Attributions
          • padS1.adS2
             zì OC: sblids MC: dzi 2 Attributions
          • vadV1.adV2if HS: 自京師不曉,況於遠方 "If this is not known n the capital, how much less in distant parts"
             lìng OC: ɡ-reŋs MC: liɛŋ 1 Attribution
          • vt+S1.adS2if, supposing that
             wéi OC: k-lul MC: ji 1 Attribution
          • padS1.adS2only if
             jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 1 Attribution
          • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSif
             shí OC: ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ 1 Attribution
          • npost-S1.adS2as in the formula (若)。。。時
          不然   bù rán OC: pɯʔ njen MC: pi̯ut ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
          • VPi(0)adS1.postS2or else, sinon; otherwise
          即使   jí shǐ OC: tsɯɡ srɯʔ MC: tsɨk ʂɨ 1 Attribution
          • PPadS1.adS2if
          如有   rú yǒu OC: nja ɢʷɯʔ MC: ȵi̯ɤ ɦɨu 1 Attribution
          • VPtoS1.adS2if
          若令   ruò lìng OC: njaɡ ɡ-reŋ MC: ȵi̯ɐk liɛŋ 1 Attribution
          • PPadS1.postS2if
          若使   ruò shǐ OC: njaɡ srɯʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐk ʂɨ 1 Attribution
          • VPtoS1.adS2if
          若續   ruò xù OC: njaɡ sɢloɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk zi̯ok 1 Attribution
          • PPadS1.adS2if [CHECK OTHER EXAMPLES]
          誠使   chéng shǐ OC: djeŋ srɯʔ MC: dʑiɛŋ ʂɨ 1 Attribution
          • VPt0oS1.adS2If it were really to happen that...
             zé OC: skɯɯɡ MC: tsək 1 Attribution
          • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postSif
          既使   jì shǐ MC: kj+jH sriX OC: kɯds srɯʔ 1 Attribution
          • VPtoS1.adS2supposing that;
             bì MC: pjit OC: piɡ 1 Attribution
          • v0adS1.adS2必...乃 if it it needed that S1 then S2
             dàn OC: daanʔ MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
          • padV.postN{SUBJ}if you just, as long as you
             tǎng OC: thaaŋʔ MC: thɑŋ 0 Attributions
          • padV.postN{SUBJ}:adSIF
             jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 0 Attributions
               fú OC: ba MC: bi̯o 0 Attributions
            • npro.adS1:adS2now if
               fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                 yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 0 Attributions
              • ppostadS1.adS2question particle functioning as a marker of what is in effect a subordinate sentence
                 jiè OC:  MC: dzɣɛ 0 Attributions
              • padS1.adS2if
                 shì OC: qljeɡ MC: ɕiɛk 0 Attributions
              • vt[0]+V[0].adSconditionalif by any chance
              今且   jīn qiě OC: krɯm MC: kim tshɣɛ 0 Attributions
              • PPSuppose now
              今有   jīn yǒu OC: krɯm ɢʷɯʔ MC: kim ɦɨu 0 Attributions
              • VPtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
              • VPtoSCHEMLA 2003:
              唯所   wéi suǒ OC: k-lul sqraʔ MC: ji ʂi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
              • PPadS1.adS2if only
              如或   rú huò OC: nja ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: ȵi̯ɤ ɦək 0 Attributions
              • PPadS1.adS2if by any chance???? (or: if anyone by any chance)
              於斯   yú sī OC: qa sqe MC: ʔi̯ɤ siɛ 0 Attributions
              • PPpostadShypotheticalmarker of purely hypothetical suppositions
              既若   jì ruò OC: kɯds njaɡ MC: kɨi ȵi̯ɐk 0 Attributions
              • PPadS1.adS2if indeed
              • PPadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}if N really V-s, then
              若或   ruò huò OC: njaɡ ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk ɦək 0 Attributions

              If by any chance

              • PPadS1.adS2if by any chance
              若果   ruò guǒ OC: njaɡ kloolʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐk kʷɑ 0 Attributions
              • PPadS1.adS2??? predecessor of current 如果???
                 huò OC: ɡʷɯɯɡ MC: ɦək 0 Attributions
              • padS1.adS2if by any chance, suppose by chance
              若夫   ruò fú  MC: nyae bju  OC: njaɡ ba  0 Attributions
              • PPadS1.postS2if

              Existing SW for

              Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: