COUNTERFACTUAL  反事實

IF-RELATION BETWEEN A SENTENCE S1 PRESUPPOSED to be NOT TRUE AND A SENTENCE S2 SPEAK:said TO BE TRUE IF S1 IS:were TRUE.
CONTRARY TO FACT
Kind Of

IF

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current particle indicating counterfactual or occasionally remotely hypothetical conditional clauses is shǐ 使.

2. Shè 設 is remotely hypothetical in its primary use, and only occasionally used to make counterfactual conditionals.

3. Jiǎ 假 is used to make counterfactual conditionals or remotely hypothetical conditionals indifferently.

Modern Chinese Criteria

反事實

假使

設使

若使

向使

假若

設若

假如

假設

假定

倘使

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.333

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 10.4

BROWN 2005 Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • padS1.adS2 : 20
  • vt0oS1.adS2 : 13
  • PPadS1.adS2 : 8
  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 7
  • vt+V[0].post-S : 3
  • VPt0oS1.adS2 : 2
  • vadV : 1
  • vtoN.adS : 1
  • VPtoS1.adS2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 29
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 法言 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   ruò OC: njaɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk 25 Attributions
  • padS1.adS2If contrary to fact
  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSif contrary to fact
使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 11 Attributions

The most current particle indicating counterfactual or occasionally remotely hypothetical conditional clauses is shǐ 使.

  • vt0oS1.adS2conditionalsupposing that, counter to fact; supposing that as a theoretical possibility
若使   ruò shǐ OC: njaɡ srɯʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐk ʂɨ 7 Attributions
  • PPadS1.adS2if, counter to fact
   jiāng OC: skaŋ MC: tsi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vt+V[0].post-Swould have; would (in that entirely hypothetical case)
  • vadVwould ever (in questions)?
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 1 Attribution

Jiǎ 假 is used to make counterfactual conditionals or remotely hypothetical conditionals indifferently.

  • vt0oS1.adS2supposing that
   fěi OC: pɯlʔ MC: pɨi 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adSIn the (counterfactual) absence of; without the existence of
   rú OC: nja MC: ȵi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • padS1.adS2if counter to fact
   gǒu OC: kooʔ MC: ku 1 Attribution
  • padS1.adS2if really (contrary to fact) S1, then S2
   shè OC: qhjed MC: ɕiɛt 1 Attribution

Shè 設 is remotely hypothetical in its primary use, and only occasionally used to make counterfactual conditionals.

  • vt0oS1.adS2conditionalassuming that, contrary to fact
嘗試   cháng shì OC: djaŋ lʰɯɡs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt0oS1.adS2conditionalsupposing that
正使   zhèng shǐ OC: tjeŋs srɯʔ MC: tɕiɛŋ ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt0oS1.adS2even supposing that (counter to fact)
若其   ruò qí OC: njaɡ ɡɯ MC: ȵi̯ɐk gɨ 1 Attribution
  • PPadS1.adS2if (contrary to fact) GY: 若其予之  若其有知 "if they have awareness"
設使   shè shǐ OC: qhjed srɯʔ MC: ɕiɛt ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoS1.adS2conditionalassuming that, even if, although it were the case that
假設   jiǎ shè OC: kraaʔ qhjed MC: kɣɛ ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
  • VPt0oS1.adS2supposing (counter to fact) that
早必 / 蚤必   zǎo bì OC: tsuuʔ piɡ MC: tsɑu pit zǎo bì OC: tsuuʔ piɡ MC: tsɑu pit 0 Attributions

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: