BLACK  黑色

INTENSELY DARK COLOUR of THINGS LACKING LIGHT.
DARKPITCH-BLACKJET-BLACKCOAL-BLACKEBONYSABLEINKY
Antonymy

WHITE

See also

DARK

Kind Of

COLOUR

Old Chinese Criteria

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[DRAMATIC/UNDRAMATIC]

[ELEVATED/FAMILIAR]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[IDIOMATIC/NON-IDIOMATIC]

[POETIC/PROSAIC]

1.The standard word is hēi 黑 (ant. bái 白 "white") which refers to anything very dark.

[GENERAL], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC]; [[COMMON]]

2. Xuán 玄 (ant. sù 素 "pristine unadorned white") refers to a redish mystifying black. SW: 黑而有赤色者

[ELEVATED], [+FIG], [POETIC!]

3. Àn 黯 (ant. hào 昊 "shining bright (of sky)") is rare and poetic, and the word refers to the threatening darkness of clouds in a thunderstorm.

[DRAMATIC], [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [POETIC]; [[RARE]]

4. Zī 淄/緇 (ant. sù 素 "plain white") refers to the glossy greyish black appearance of dark silk, like the colour of dark earth, and this word seems limited to the description of clothes.

[ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [SPECIFIC]

5. Dài 黛 (ant. hào 皓 "shining whie") refers specifically to the dust-glossy black of make-up.

[ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [POETIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

6. Lí 黎 / 黧 (ant. sù 素 "pristine white and un-suntanned") refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods.

[IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

7. Qián 黔 refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods, especially in qián mín 黔民 "the common people".

[IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

8. Méi 黴 refers to the facial complexion darkened either by exposure to the sun or by sorrow.

[ELEVATED], [+FIG], [IDIOMATIC], [POETIC!]; [[RARE]]

9. Zào 皂 (sù 素 "plain undyed white") is also very rare and refers to the appearance of coarse dyed black non-silken textiles, the original reference of the word being to the plant used to produce the black effect.

[LITERAL], [PROSAIC]

10. Mò 墨 is basically ink, and by extension the word can come to refer to a dark black colour.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 ART 13.

黑,火熏之色,黑色的總稱。

皂,皂斗,可提取黑色染料;多用來形容布帛及其製品。

玄,黑中帶赤,經由六遍漬染而成;泛指黑色。

緇,經由七遍漬染而成,主要指稱布帛及其製品;黑色深於涅。

涅,黑泥,又指黑礬石,可染黑;黑色次於緇。

烏,烏鴉;以羽毛喻稱黑色。

驪,深黑色馬,多形容馬黑色。

墨,書寫所用之石墨、松煙墨;黑色最深。

黎,黑中帶黃,多形容膚色、面色。

黔,多用於 “ 黔首 ” 一詞,指代平民百姓。

Modern Chinese Criteria

黑色

黑乎乎

黝黑 refers to a very dark blackish colour of skin, and is marginal.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.65

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BLACK

ater refers to black as the absence of any visible colour.

niger refers to black as being itself a characteristic colour.

pullus refers to the dirty black colour of dirt.

fuscus refers to browning black.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 346

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.973

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 48

UNGER 2009 Kleine Schriften Deutsche Ostasienstudien 1-9

ZHANG YONGYAN 1992 語言學論集 100-135

Zhang lists 98 terms and compares adjacent languages.

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

ater, -tra, -trum 'black' [adj. o/a] (P1.+)

Derivatives: atrium (P1.+) 'first main room in a Roman-style house'.

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 203

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadN : 32
  • vi : 16
  • VPi : 6
  • nab : 5
  • vtoN : 5
  • n : 4
  • v[adN] : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • nm : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 14
  • 禮記 : 13
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 列子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1

Words

   hēi OC: hmɯɯɡ MC: hək 24 Attributions

The standard word is hēi 黑 (ant. bái 白 "white") which refers to anything very dark. [LITERAL], [PROSAIC]; [[COMMON]]

  • nsubjectwhat is black> black things
  • nabfeatureblack
  • vadNblack; blackened
  • vibe black
  • vichangeturn black
   xuán OC: ɡʷeen MC: ɦen 16 Attributions

Xuán 玄 (ant. sù 素 "pristine unadorned white") refers to a redish mystifying black. SW: 黑而有赤色者 [ELEVATED], [+FIG], [POETIC]

  • nsubjecta reddish black object
  • vadNreddish dark; generally: dark
  • vibe reddish dark; generally: dark
  • vtoNcausativemake black
緇 / 淄 / 緇淄玆   zī OC: tsrɯ MC: ʈʂɨ zī OC: tsrɯ MC: ʈʂɨ  OC:  MC:  9 Attributions

Zī 淄/緇 (ant. sù 素 "plain white") refers to the glossy greyish black appearance of dark silk, like the colour of dark earth, and this word seems limited to the description of clothes. [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [SPECIFIC] Zī 淄/緇 (ant. sù 素 "plain white") refers to the glossy greyish black appearance of dark silk, like the colour of dark earth, and this word seems limited to the description of clothes. [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [SPECIFIC] Zī 淄/緇 (ant. sù 素 "plain white") refers to the glossy greyish black appearance of dark silk, like the colour of dark earth, and this word seems limited to the description of clothes. [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [SPECIFIC]

  • vidark as black silk, generally: dark and black
  • vadNblack
  • vichangeturn black
  • vtoNcausativecause to be black; make black; dye black
   mò OC: mɯɯɡ MC: mək 5 Attributions

Mò 墨 is basically ink, and by extension the word can come to refer to a dark black colour.

  • nadNink black
  • vigradedbe dark in complexion; be black 深墨
  • vtoNcausativemake black, dye black
黧黑   lí hēi OC: riil hmɯɯɡ MC: lei hək 3 Attributions
  • VPistativebe dark and sunburnt
   lú OC: raa MC: luo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vadNlacquered black
   qián OC: ɡram MC: giɛm 2 Attributions

Qián 黔 typically refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods, especially in qián mín 黔民 "the common people". [IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

  • v[adN]what is black; the black things
  • vadNblack or brownish-black 黔首"black heads, i.e. the common people"
  • vibe black
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to become black; make (oneself) black
   lí OC: riil MC: lei 2 Attributions

Lí 黎/黧 (ant. sù 素 "pristine white and un-suntanned") refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods. [IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

  • vadNblack and sunburnt
  • vibe black and sunburnt; have a dark complexion
   lú OC: ɡ-raa MC: luo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vibe black
  • vadNblack
   jū OC: ska MC: tsi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • nadNdark-colored; black (LIJI)
   lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 1 Attribution
  • vibe black
  • vadNblack
   yǒu OC: qriwʔ MC: ʔi̯u 1 Attribution
  • vadNLUNHENG: greenish black
紺青   gàn qīng OC: kooms tsheeŋ MC: kəm tsheŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNglazed black; glazed very dark
青黑   qīng hēi OC: tsheeŋ hmɯɯɡ MC: tsheŋ hək 1 Attribution
  • VPibe greenish-black
黎黑   lí hēi OC: riil hmɯɯɡ MC: lei hək 1 Attribution
  • viresultativebe suntanned to the point of being black> be all blackened
  • VPichangeturn all dark
黛黛   dài dài OC: lɯɯɡs lɯɯs MC: dəi dəi 1 Attribution

Dài 黛 (ant. hào 皓 "shining whie") refers specifically to the dust-glossy black of make-up. [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [POETIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

  • nmblack make-up
  • vibe dark like eye-brow makeup, greenish/grey dark
黯黑   àn hēi OC: qrɯɯmʔ hmɯɯɡ MC: ʔɣɛm hək 1 Attribution
  • VPiintensitivebe all dark
   niè OC: m-liiɡ MC: net 0 Attributions
  • vibe black
   zī OC: tsrɯ MC: ʈʂɨ 0 Attributions
  • vadNblack
   lí OC: riil MC: lei 0 Attributions
       xuán OC: gʷeen MC: ɦen 0 Attributions
         zào OC: dzuuʔ MC: dzɑu 0 Attributions

      Zào 皂 (sù 素 "plain undyed white") is also very rare and refers to the appearance of coarse dyed black non-silken textiles, the original reference of the word being to the plant used to produce the black effect. [LITERAL], [PROSAIC]

      • nadNSHIJI: died black (of coarse, non silken clothes)
      • nmblack dye; mostly used in connection with clothing and other textiles; NB: the generalised meaning "black" is postHan (There are Sanguo examples of 皂白 )
         jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
      • vibe black ZUO, SHI
         qián OC: ɡren MC: giɛn 0 Attributions
      • vibe black (unattested in primary sources, only in a personal name, according to ZHANG YONGYAN 1992: 101)
         xuàn OC: ɡʷeens MC: ɦen 0 Attributions
      • viblack (of garmnts) 玉篇
      ��    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
      • nmblack (of grain)
         lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 0 Attributions
      • vibe black
         lí OC: riil MC: lei 0 Attributions

      Lí 黎/黧 (ant. sù 素 "pristine white and un-suntanned") refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods. [IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

      • vadNof the dark complexion of humans who have been exposed over long time to wind and sun (thus giving rise to the expression lí mín 黎民 for the common people)
         àn OC: qrɯɯmʔ MC: ʔɣɛm 0 Attributions

      Àn 黯 (ant. hào 昊"shining bright (of sky)") is rare and poetic, and the word refers to the threatening darkness of clouds in a thunderstorm. [DRAMATIC], [ELEVATED], [LITERAL], [POETIC]; [[RARE]]

      • viCai Yong, 述行賦: be deep black (as threatening clouds in a thunderstorm)
         méi OC: mrɯl MC: mi 0 Attributions

      Qián 黔 refers to the dark sunburnt complexion of those who work in the open for long periods, especially in qián mín 黔民 "the common people". [IDIOMATIC], [LITERAL], [PROSAIC], [SPECIFIC]

      • vibe of dark, ruddy complexion; have an ashen, dark complexion, as in HN méi hēi 黴黑 have the ruddy appearance of a common person: 舜黴黑

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: