OFFICIAL  官員

ADULT who WORKS IN a PUBLIC OFFICE OR IN A PUBLIC FUNCTION.
monastic officersOFFICEROFFICEHOLDERADMINISTRATOREXECUTIVEAPPOINTEEFUNCTIONARYBUREAUCRATMANDARINREPRESENTATIVEAGENTDEROGATORY APPARATCHIK
Old Chinese Criteria

1. Officials are referred to as shì 士 and daì fū 大夫. The word shì 士 can also include daì fū 大夫, therefore the term is often used for a whole body of officials.

2. Dà fū 大夫 "notables" is a general formal term for high officials.

3. Lì 吏 refers to officials in charge of concrete practical matters, often policing and the like.

4. Gōng 工 can be used as a general term for clerks.

5. Yǒu sī 有司 can refer to a person in charge of an office.

6. Guān 官 refers quite generally to the persons in charge of an office.

7. Shì zhě 仕者 refers to any person in public employment of any kind.

8. Lǎo 老 originally politely referred to higher officials (>gōng 公, >qīng 卿, >dài fū 大夫 ), therefore it came to be used as a general term referring to high officials.

9. Yuán 員 originally refers to officials as counted units, and the word came to be used as a general term for officials.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 5.

掾,諸曹事務的主掌者,佐官之通稱;

與屬相對時,掾為正,屬為副。

史,文書類佐助屬官的通稱;一般史、掾通用,當史與掾並置時,則史位於掾下,為掾下的文書。

Modern Chinese Criteria

公務員

勤務員

辦事員

官員

職員

幹部

員司

欽差大臣 refers to an imperial official on an official mission.

One could add a huge number of terms of this sort here, of course.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 140

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 307

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 1.110-128

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 46

SANBAITI 1987 中國文化史三百題 28-41

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

RICHTER

SE-FU 嗇夫

SHI 史

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 209ff

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 38

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 349

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 96
  • n : 76
  • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)} : 67
  • NP{vadN} : 26
  • vi : 15
  • NP=Npr : 15
  • NP(post-N) : 13
  • NP : 12
  • VP[adN] : 12
  • NPab : 8
  • npost-N : 5
  • NPpost=Npr : 3
  • NP{PRED} : 2
  • NPadV : 2
  • vt[oN1.adN2] : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • VPadN : 2
  • vtoN : 1
  • NP{vad.npro} : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • NPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 85
  • 韓非子 : 62
  • 禮記 : 43
  • 說苑 : 40
  • 管子 : 24
  • 論語 : 20
  • 孟子 : 14
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 淮南子 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 晏子春秋 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 史記 : 3
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 漢書 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 典論一卷 : 1
  • 新語 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1

Words

有司   yǒu sī OC: ɢʷɯʔ sqlɯ MC: ɦɨu sɨ 72 Attributions

Yǒu sī 有司 can refer to a person in charge of an office.

  • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)}pluralofficials in charge 有司皆曰 (usually the reference is definite and plural, when the word is not used predicatively)
  • NPsingularthe official in charge
大夫   dà fū OC: daads pa MC: dɑi pi̯o 65 Attributions

Dà fū 大夫 "notables" is a general formal term for high officials.

  • NP{vadN}dignitary; grand officer; notable; grandee
  • NP(post-N)definitethe dignitaries, the high dignitaries
  • NP=Nprtitledignitary, high dignitary Npr
  • NPabconcept"dignitary"
  • NPpost-N{PLACE}dignitary of Npl
  • VPiactcreate officials of high rank
  • NPnonreferentiala notable; a dignitary
  • NPpost=Nprdignitary Npr
  • NPindefinitea notable, a dignitary, a grandee (whose name is not given)
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 23 Attributions

Guān 官 refers quite generally to the persons in charge of an office.

  • nagentoffice-holder, officer, official
  • npositiveplural: suitable officials
   lì OC: rɯs MC: lɨ 21 Attributions

Lì 吏 refers to officials in charge of concrete practical matters, often policing and the like.

  • ngenerally an official of any undistinguished rank; executive officer, executive official ZUO Cheng 2: high official; military official; later: minor official
   shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 19 Attributions

Shì 仕 is a permanent employee of some status, normally a literate person.

  • v[adN]employed official, a person in a regular official capacity
  • viserve as an official; hold a public appointment
  • viinchoativeenter official employment; obtain an official position
  • vtoNcausativecause to become an official
  • nofficial
   shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 11 Attributions

Officials are referred to as shì 士 and daì fū 大夫. The word shì 士 can also include daì fū 大夫, therefore the term is often used for a whole body of officials.

  • nperson belonging to the official class, freeman; official; officer
執事   zhí shì OC: tjib dzrɯs MC: tɕip ɖʐɨ 11 Attributions

Zhí shì 執事 is a general term for each high official.

  • VP[adN]the officials in charge; the person in charge
大人   dà rén OC: daads njin MC: dɑi ȵin 9 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialmen of importance in public life
  • NPpluralimportant personalities
  • NP{PRED}be an important personality
百官   bǎi guān OC: praaɡ koon MC: pɣɛk kʷɑn 9 Attributions

Bǎi guān 百官 originally refers to the officials lower then ministers >qing 卿; later the term came to used as a general term for the whole body of ofiicials.

  • NPcollectivethe various officials
官職   guān zhí OC: koon kljɯɡ MC: kʷɑn tɕɨk 8 Attributions

Guān zhí 官職 generally refers to high officials.

  • NPabsocialofficials of any kind; officials of the various kinds; officials with their assigned duties
卿士   qīng shì OC: khraŋ dzrɯʔ MC: khɣaŋ ɖʐɨ 7 Attributions
  • NPpluralhigh official
官長   guān zhǎng OC: koon krlaŋʔ MC: kʷɑn ʈi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialhead of an administrative office> senior official
  • NPpluralheads of office
祝史   zhù shǐ OC: tjuɡ srɯʔ MC: tɕuk ʂɨ 7 Attributions
  • NPinvocator. prayer-maker; communicator with the spirits; ritual recorder; ritual officer
   zǎi OC: tsɯɯʔ MC: tsəi 6 Attributions

Zǎi 宰 refers to the position of the head of a senior household in early times, in charge of the various huàn 宦. The title was also used in the imperial hierarchy as a vague bureaucratic title, translatable perhaps as "political secretary".

  • nsteward; person in charge
  • nabactbeing a head butler
   zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 6 Attributions
  • npost-NN=objofficial in charge of (e.g. music); person in charge of (someone else)
  • nofficial
大夫   dà dài fū MC: dajH pju OC: daads pa 6 Attributions
  • NPpluralnotables; dignitaries
用事   yòng shì OC: k-loŋs dzrɯs MC: ji̯oŋ ɖʐɨ 4 Attributions
  • VP[adN]those who hold office
  • VPadN(person) in active official charge
  • VPiactbe in charge of official tasks
列士   liè shì MC: ljet dzriX OC: b-red dzrɯʔ 4 Attributions
  • NPpluralliling officials
人士   rén shì OC: njin dzrɯʔ MC: ȵin ɖʐɨ 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialperson of any kind (officials or non-officials)
  • NPreferentialofficials; "senior citizens"
右宰   yòu zǎi OC: ɢʷɯʔ tsɯɯʔ MC: ɦɨu tsəi 3 Attributions
  • NP=NprSteward of the Right by the name of Npr
士吏   shì lì OC: dzrɯʔ rɯs MC: ɖʐɨ lɨ 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialofficials
   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 2 Attributions

Shǐ 史 is an official in charge of records and documents.

  • nofficial (e.g. in charge of milfoil divination); diviner
   sī OC: sqlɯ MC: sɨ 2 Attributions

Sī 司 is a general term used in names of offices, and expressing responsility for something.

  • vt[oN1.adN2]one who takes official care of a some business> officer (SHU)
   lǎo OC: ɡ-ruuʔ MC: lɑu 2 Attributions

Lǎo 老 originally politely referred to higher officials (>gōng 公, >qīng 卿, >dài fū 大夫), therefore it came to be used as a general term referring to high officials.

  • nsenior local official; elders
典衣   diǎn yī OC: tɯɯnʔ qɯl MC: ten ʔɨi 2 Attributions
  • ntitleofficial in charge of garment
官僚   guān liáo OC: koon ɡ-reew MC: kʷɑn leu 2 Attributions
  • NPofficial
火正   huǒ zhèng OC: qphaalʔ tjeŋs MC: hʷɑ tɕiɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPofficial in charge of the fire brigade
  • NP=Nprofficial Npr
謀主   móu zhǔ OC: mɯ tjoʔ MC: mɨu tɕi̯o 2 Attributions
  • NPsenior advisor
中射之士   zhōng shè zhī shì OC: krluŋ ɢljaɡs kljɯ dzrɯʔ MC: ʈuŋ ʑɣɛ tɕɨ ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPguard
百吏   bǎi bó mò bǎi lì MC: paek liH OC: praaɡ rɯs 2 Attributions
  • NPpluraldefinite: all the various officials below the top level of the adminstration 臣,大夫
文吏   wén lì MC: mjun liH OC: mɯn rɯs 2 Attributions
  • NP(vulnerable) non-military official
  • NP{PRED}be a non-military official
朝士   cháo shì MC: dzriX OC: daw dzrɯʔ 2 Attributions
  • NPadVreference=objectlike a court official
  • NPadVreference=subjectas a court official
   shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • nSHI: functionary
   hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 1 Attribution
  • nagentofficial; patrol
僚 / 僚   liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: leu liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: leu 1 Attribution

Liáo 僚/寮 can also refer to the lesser officials. Liáo 僚/寮 can also refer to the lesser officials.

  • nofficial; ERYA: colleague, person working in the same guān 官 "office"
   bīn OC: pin MC: pin 1 Attribution
  • nagentguest receiver (LIJI)
   shǔ OC: djoɡ MC: dʑi̯ok 1 Attribution

Shǔ 屬 refers to the assistant of a leading official.

  • nsupporting officer, official belonging to a faction or party
   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 1 Attribution

Gōng 工 can be used as a general term for clerks.

  • nofficer (SHI)
   wén OC: mɯn MC: mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • nnonreferentialcivil (as opposed to military) official
   zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 1 Attribution
  • ndignitary (in 公族 "dignitary in the ducal clan")
   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • ndirector of ceremonies (ZUO)
  • viactmaster of ceremonies
   zhì OC: rliɡ MC: ɖit 1 Attribution
  • nadNofficial
   láng OC: ɡ-raaŋ MC: lɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • nHAN: official with direct access to the court, official of a certain rank
三揖   sān yī OC: saam qib MC: sɑm ʔip 1 Attribution
  • NPthe various officials 卿,大夫,士
令正   lìng zhèng OC: ɡ-reŋ tjeŋs MC: liɛŋ tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPofficial in charge of public orders and decrees
仕者   shì zhě OC: dzrɯʔ kljaʔ MC: ɖʐɨ tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution

6. Shì zhě 仕者 refers to any person in public employment of any kind.

  • NP{vad.npro}public employee of any rank; often specifically: public official of lower rank
兵家   bīng jiā OC: praŋ kraa MC: pɣaŋ kɣɛ 1 Attribution

Bīng jiā 兵家 refers to military expert(s).

  • NPhumanmilitary expert(s)
刀筆   dāo bǐ OC: k-laaw prud MC: tɑu pit 1 Attribution
  • NPadNscribal, clerk-like, characteristic of a minor official 刀筆(之)吏
卜士   bǔ shì OC: pooɡ dzrɯʔ MC: puk ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPdivining gentleman> diviner
員僚   yuán liáo OC: ɢon ɡ-reew MC: ɦiɛn leu 1 Attribution
  • NPofficial (of low rank), officer
士人   shì rén OC: dzrɯʔ njin MC: ɖʐɨ ȵin 1 Attribution

Shì rén 士人 can be also used as a general term referring to the whole body of officials.

  • NPgentlemen
官吏   guān lì OC: koon rɯs MC: kʷɑn lɨ 1 Attribution

Guān lì 官吏 is a general term for employes of various offices.

  • NPpluralofficials 群臣官吏
官員   guān yuán OC: koon ɢon MC: kʷɑn ɦiɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralofficials
宰人   zǎi rén OC: tsɯɯʔ njin MC: tsəi ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NPsenior official
宰旅   zǎi lǚ OC: tsɯɯʔ raʔ MC: tsəi li̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralsenior officials below the ministerial level
小相   xiǎo xiàng OC: smewʔ sqaŋs MC: siɛu si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPminor ceremonial official; minor ceremonial usher
工尹   gōng yǐn OC: kooŋ k-lunʔ MC: kuŋ jʷin 1 Attribution
  • NPdirector of the workmen
貳宗   èr zōng OC: njis tsuuŋ MC: ȵi tsuo̝ŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPofficials of the state who are relatives of the 大夫 dignitaries
遒人   qiú rén OC: sɡlu njin MC: dzɨu ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NPherald
縉紳   jìn shēn MC: tsinH syin OC: tsins lʰin 1 Attribution
  • n(retired) official; member of the gentry
豺虎   chái hǔ  MC: dzreaj xuX  OC: sɡrɯɯ qhlaaʔ  1 Attribution
  • NPfigurativethe officials (of an age of decline)
儐者   bīn zhě MC: -- tsyaeX OC: pin kljaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPtitle: Receiver of Guests
諸大夫   zhū dà dài fū MC: tsyo dajH pju OC: klja daads pa 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralthe senior officials; all the senior officials
田疇   tián chóu MC: den drjuw OC: ɡ-liiŋ du 1 Attribution
  • NPSupervisor of the Fields
元士   yuán shì MC: ngjwon dzriX OC: ŋɡon dzrɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPBasic Officers
令史   lìng líng shǐ MC: ljeng sriX OC: ɡ-reŋ srɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPCommanding Archivist, Chief Librarian
廷掾   tíng yuàn MC: deng ywenH OC: deeŋ -- 1 Attribution
  • NPsenior official at the 縣 level: District Officials
車右   chē yòu yǒu MC: tsyhae hjuwX OC: khlja ɢʷɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPofficial travel companion; travel official on the right
官人   guān rén MC: kwan nyin OC: koon njin 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialhigher official
   zūn OC: skun MC: tsʷin 0 Attributions
  • nLIJI: ceremonial assistant
   yuán OC: ɢon MC: ɦiɛn 0 Attributions

Yuán 員 originally refers to officials as counted units, and the word came to be used as a general term for officials.

  • nmcollectivepersonel
   qiáng OC: sɡaŋ MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

Qiáng 嬙 was a court female officer.

  • nagentfemale court officer (ZUO)
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • ndistrict prefect
   jùn OC: skluns MC: tsʷin 0 Attributions

Jùn 畯 was in antiquity an official in charge of agriculture.

  • nagentinspector of fields (SHI)
   qiú OC: sɡlu MC: dzɨu 0 Attributions
  • nagentmaster of wine (LI)
史官   shǐ guān OC: srɯʔ koon MC: ʂɨ kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • NPtitlearchivist; "historian"
司歷   sī lì OC: sqlɯ reeɡ MC: sɨ lek 0 Attributions
  • NPofficial in charge of the calendar
宦官   huàn guān OC: ɢʷraans koon MC: ɦɣan kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralofficials
甸人   diàn rén OC: ɡ-liiŋs njin MC: den ȵin 0 Attributions
  • NPhead gardener; superintendant of ruler’s own garden & fields; head of the hunting expedition in a park ZUO: : 使甸人獻麥 He made his head gardener present some barley.
百工   bǎi gōng OC: praaɡ kooŋ MC: pɣɛk kuŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPcollectivethe various officials
署史   shǔ shǐ OC: ɡljas srɯʔ MC: dʑi̯ɤ ʂɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPoffice archivist
舍人   shè rén OC: lʰas njin MC: ɕɣɛ ȵin 0 Attributions
  • NPpost=NprtitleSecretary Npr
諸司   zhū sī OC: klja sqlɯ MC: tɕi̯ɤ sɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPdefinitethe various officials
用事者   yòng shì zhě OC: k-loŋs dzrɯs kljaʔ MC: ji̯oŋ ɖʐɨ tɕɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NP{vtoN.adnpro}person in charge
   zhòng OC: tjuŋs MC: tɕuŋ 0 Attributions
  • npluralthe many officials
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPtitle: Receiver of Guests
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPpluraldefinite: all the various officials below the top level of the adminstration 臣,大夫
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPSupervisor of the Fields
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPBasic Officers
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPsenior official at the 縣 level: District Officials

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: