OFFICIAL  官員

ADULT who WORKS IN a PUBLIC OFFICE OR IN A PUBLIC FUNCTION.
monastic officersOFFICEROFFICEHOLDERADMINISTRATOREXECUTIVEAPPOINTEEFUNCTIONARYBUREAUCRATMANDARINREPRESENTATIVEAGENTDEROGATORY APPARATCHIK
Antonym

RECLUSEGENTLEMAN REFUSING to WORK as an OFFICIAL.

Hypernym

ADULTHUMAN who is SUFFICIENTLY OLD to ESTABLISH his/her SEPARATE HOME. -> HUMANANIMAL which HAS TWO LEGS AND LACKS FEATHERS. -> ANIMALCREATURE ABLE to FEEL AND MOVE. -> CREATURELIVING THING. -> THINGCONCRETE OBJECT. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

RANKFORMAL PUBLIC STATUS.OFFICERLEADING SOLDIER in an ARMY.OFFICEBUILDING OR social INSTITUTION in which PUBLIC DUTIES are ACTED:performed BY OFFICIALS.

Hyponym
  • ASSISTANT OFFICIAL who is EMPLOYED TO SERVE OR HELP ANOTHER MORE SENIOR OFFICIAL.
    • SERVANT HUMBLE ASSISTANT in a HOME or OFFICE.
      • SLAVE INTENSELY HUMBLE SERVANT POSSESSED by a HOST.
      • SAILOR SERVANT who WORKS on SHIPS.
      • RETAINER SERVANT who is PAID FOR SUPPORTING HIS EMPLOYER AND DWELLING NEAR HIS EMPLOYER.
  • GROOM OFFICIAL whose DUTY it is to REAR HORSES.
    • MINISTER A OFFICIAL who acts as as ASSISTANT to a RULER.
      • ENVOY OFFICIAL who is SENT by the GOVERNMENT to ACT:perform a TASK.
        • GATEKEEPER OFFICIAL GUARDING a GATE.
          • MAGISTRATE OFFICIAL who MANAGES AND JUDGES LAWSUITS.
            • LAWYER OFFICIAL WORKING IN a LAW-COURT, WHO IS NOT a JUDGE.
              • MONASTIC OFFICER OFFICIALS WORKING IN a MONASTERY.
                • EXECUTIONER OFFICIAL who EXECUTES.
                  • JUDGE-OFFICIAL 
                    • EUNUCH CASTRATED MALE OFFICIAL GOVERNING A HAREM.
                      • MESSENGER OFFICIAL SENT TO TRAVEL AND TRANSMIT A LETTER OR A REPORT.
                        Old Chinese Criteria

                        1. Officials are referred to as shì 士 and daì fū 大夫. The word shì 士 can also include daì fū 大夫, therefore the term is often used for a whole body of officials.

                        2. Dà fū 大夫 "notables" is a general formal term for high officials.

                        3. Lì 吏 refers to officials in charge of concrete practical matters, often policing and the like.

                        4. Gōng 工 can be used as a general term for clerks.

                        5. Yǒu sī 有司 can refer to a person in charge of an office.

                        6. Guān 官 refers quite generally to the persons in charge of an office.

                        7. Shì zhě 仕者 refers to any person in public employment of any kind.

                        8. Lǎo 老 originally politely referred to higher officials (>gōng 公, >qīng 卿, >dài fū 大夫 ), therefore it came to be used as a general term referring to high officials.

                        9. Yuán 員 originally refers to officials as counted units, and the word came to be used as a general term for officials.

                        黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

                        HUANG JINGUI 2006

                        GOVERNMENT/LAW 5.

                        掾,諸曹事務的主掌者,佐官之通稱;

                        與屬相對時,掾為正,屬為副。

                        史,文書類佐助屬官的通稱;一般史、掾通用,當史與掾並置時,則史位於掾下,為掾下的文書。

                        Modern Chinese Criteria

                        公務員

                        勤務員

                        辦事員

                        官員

                        職員

                        幹部

                        員司

                        欽差大臣 refers to an imperial official on an official mission.

                        One could add a huge number of terms of this sort here, of course.

                        rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                        • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 140

                        • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 307

                        • Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe ( KOSELLECK 1972-97) p. 1.110-128

                        • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 46

                        • 中國文化史三百題 ( SANBAITI 1987) p. 28-41

                        • "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China" ( UNGER SACH) p.

                          RICHTER

                          SE-FU 嗇夫

                          SHI 史

                        • 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci ( WU SANXING 2008) p. 209ff

                        • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 38

                        • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 349

                        Attributions by syntactic funtion

                        • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)} : 61
                        • NP : 55
                        • n : 31
                        • NP : 12
                        • NP{vadN} : 12
                        • vi : 6
                        • NP(post-N) : 5
                        • NP{PRED} : 2
                        • VP[adN] : 2
                        • NPadV : 2
                        • NP=Npr : 2
                        • NPpost=Npr : 1
                        • NPadN : 1
                        • NPab : 1
                        • NP{vad.npro} : 1
                        • VPi : 1

                        Attributions by text

                        • 禮記 : 43
                        • 說苑 : 40
                        • 管子 : 24
                        • 孟子 : 14
                        • 論衡 : 7
                        • 淮南子 : 6
                        • 韓詩外傳 : 5
                        • 呂氏春秋 : 5
                        • 晏子春秋 : 4
                        • 孝經 : 4
                        • 戰國策 : 4
                        • 墨子 : 3
                        • 荀子 : 3
                        • 莊子 : 3
                        • 祖堂集 : 3
                        • 臨濟錄 : 3
                        • 毛詩 : 3
                        • 漢書 : 2
                        • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
                        • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
                        • 史記 : 2
                        • 法言 : 2
                        • 六祖壇經 : 2
                        • 孫子 : 2
                        • 尹文子 : 1
                        • 典論一卷 : 1
                        • 新語 : 1
                        • 老子 : 1
                        • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
                        • 尚書 : 1
                        • 賢愚經 : 1

                        Words

                        有司   yǒu sī OC: ɢʷɯʔ sqlɯ MC: ɦɨu sɨ 65 Attributions

                        Yǒu sī 有司 can refer to a person in charge of an office.

                        • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)}pluralofficials in charge 有司皆曰 (usually the reference is definite and plural, when the word is not used predicatively)
                        • NPsingularthe official in charge
                        大夫   dà fū OC: daads pa MC: dɑi pi̯o 25 Attributions

                        Dà fū 大夫 "notables" is a general formal term for high officials.

                        • NP{vadN}dignitary; grand officer; notable; grandee
                        • NP(post-N)definitethe dignitaries, the high dignitaries
                        • NP=Nprtitledignitary, high dignitary Npr
                        • NPabconcept"dignitary"
                        • NPpost-N{PLACE}dignitary of Npl
                        • VPiactcreate officials of high rank
                        • NPnonreferentiala notable; a dignitary
                        • NPpost=Nprdignitary Npr
                        • NPindefinitea notable, a dignitary, a grandee (whose name is not given)
                           guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 14 Attributions

                        Guān 官 refers quite generally to the persons in charge of an office.

                        • nagentoffice-holder, officer, official
                        • npositiveplural: suitable officials
                           shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 10 Attributions

                        Officials are referred to as shì 士 and daì fū 大夫. The word shì 士 can also include daì fū 大夫, therefore the term is often used for a whole body of officials.

                        • nperson belonging to the official class, freeman; official; officer
                           shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 8 Attributions

                        Shì 仕 is a permanent employee of some status, normally a literate person.

                        • v[adN]employed official, a person in a regular official capacity
                        • viserve as an official; hold a public appointment
                        • viinchoativeenter official employment; obtain an official position
                        • vtoNcausativecause to become an official
                        • nofficial
                        大人   dà rén OC: daads njin MC: dɑi ȵin 7 Attributions
                        • NP{vadN}nonreferentialmen of importance in public life
                        • NPpluralimportant personalities
                        • NP{PRED}be an important personality
                        官長   guān zhǎng OC: koon krlaŋʔ MC: kʷɑn ʈi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
                        • NPnonreferentialhead of an administrative office> senior official
                        • NPpluralheads of office
                        祝史   zhù shǐ OC: tjuɡ srɯʔ MC: tɕuk ʂɨ 7 Attributions
                        • NPinvocator. prayer-maker; communicator with the spirits; ritual recorder; ritual officer
                        大夫   dà dài fū MC: dajH pju OC: daads pa 6 Attributions
                        • NPpluralnotables; dignitaries
                        列士   liè shì MC: ljet dzriX OC: b-red dzrɯʔ 4 Attributions
                        • NPpluralliling officials
                        人士   rén shì OC: njin dzrɯʔ MC: ȵin ɖʐɨ 3 Attributions
                        • NPnonreferentialperson of any kind (officials or non-officials)
                        • NPreferentialofficials; "senior citizens"
                           lì OC: rɯs MC: lɨ 2 Attributions

                        Lì 吏 refers to officials in charge of concrete practical matters, often policing and the like.

                        • ngenerally an official of any undistinguished rank; executive officer, executive official ZUO Cheng 2: high official; military official; later: minor official
                        執事   zhí shì OC: tjib dzrɯs MC: tɕip ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions

                        Zhí shì 執事 is a general term for each high official.

                        • VP[adN]the officials in charge; the person in charge
                        士吏   shì lì OC: dzrɯʔ rɯs MC: ɖʐɨ lɨ 2 Attributions
                        • NPnonreferentialofficials
                        官僚   guān liáo OC: koon ɡ-reew MC: kʷɑn leu 2 Attributions
                        • NPofficial
                        百官   bǎi guān OC: praaɡ koon MC: pɣɛk kʷɑn 2 Attributions

                        Bǎi guān 百官 originally refers to the officials lower then ministers >qing 卿; later the term came to used as a general term for the whole body of ofiicials.

                        • NPcollectivethe various officials
                        百吏   bǎi bó mò bǎi lì MC: paek liH OC: praaɡ rɯs 2 Attributions
                        • NPpluraldefinite: all the various officials below the top level of the adminstration 臣,大夫
                        文吏   wén lì MC: mjun liH OC: mɯn rɯs 2 Attributions
                        • NP(vulnerable) non-military official
                        • NP{PRED}be a non-military official
                        朝士   cháo shì MC: dzriX OC: daw dzrɯʔ 2 Attributions
                        • NPadVreference=objectlike a court official
                        • NPadVreference=subjectas a court official
                        僚 / 僚   liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: leu liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: leu 1 Attribution

                        Liáo 僚/寮 can also refer to the lesser officials. Liáo 僚/寮 can also refer to the lesser officials.

                        • nofficial; ERYA: colleague, person working in the same guān 官 "office"
                           bīn OC: pin MC: pin 1 Attribution
                        • nagentguest receiver (LIJI)
                           shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 1 Attribution

                        Shǐ 史 is an official in charge of records and documents.

                        • nofficial (e.g. in charge of milfoil divination); diviner
                           zǎi OC: tsɯɯʔ MC: tsəi 1 Attribution

                        Zǎi 宰 refers to the position of the head of a senior household in early times, in charge of the various huàn 宦. The title was also used in the imperial hierarchy as a vague bureaucratic title, translatable perhaps as "political secretary".

                        • nsteward; person in charge
                        • nabactbeing a head butler
                           gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 1 Attribution

                        Gōng 工 can be used as a general term for clerks.

                        • nofficer (SHI)
                           wén OC: mɯn MC: mi̯un 1 Attribution
                        • nnonreferentialcivil (as opposed to military) official
                           láng OC: ɡ-raaŋ MC: lɑŋ 1 Attribution
                        • nHAN: official with direct access to the court, official of a certain rank
                        仕者   shì zhě OC: dzrɯʔ kljaʔ MC: ɖʐɨ tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution

                        6. Shì zhě 仕者 refers to any person in public employment of any kind.

                        • NP{vad.npro}public employee of any rank; often specifically: public official of lower rank
                        兵家   bīng jiā OC: praŋ kraa MC: pɣaŋ kɣɛ 1 Attribution

                        Bīng jiā 兵家 refers to military expert(s).

                        • NPhumanmilitary expert(s)
                        刀筆   dāo bǐ OC: k-laaw prud MC: tɑu pit 1 Attribution
                        • NPadNscribal, clerk-like, characteristic of a minor official 刀筆(之)吏
                        卿士   qīng shì OC: khraŋ dzrɯʔ MC: khɣaŋ ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
                        • NPpluralhigh official
                        員僚   yuán liáo OC: ɢon ɡ-reew MC: ɦiɛn leu 1 Attribution
                        • NPofficial (of low rank), officer
                        官員   guān yuán OC: koon ɢon MC: kʷɑn ɦiɛn 1 Attribution
                        • NPpluralofficials
                        官職   guān zhí OC: koon kljɯɡ MC: kʷɑn tɕɨk 1 Attribution

                        Guān zhí 官職 generally refers to high officials.

                        • NPabsocialofficials of any kind; officials of the various kinds; officials with their assigned duties
                        縉紳   jìn shēn MC: tsinH syin OC: tsins lʰin 1 Attribution
                        • n(retired) official; member of the gentry
                        豺虎   chái hǔ  MC: dzreaj xuX  OC: sɡrɯɯ qhlaaʔ  1 Attribution
                        • NPfigurativethe officials (of an age of decline)
                        儐者   bīn zhě MC: -- tsyaeX OC: pin kljaʔ 1 Attribution
                        • NPtitle: Receiver of Guests
                        諸大夫   zhū dà dài fū MC: tsyo dajH pju OC: klja daads pa 1 Attribution
                        • NPpluralthe senior officials; all the senior officials
                        田疇   tián chóu MC: den drjuw OC: ɡ-liiŋ du 1 Attribution
                        • NPSupervisor of the Fields
                        元士   yuán shì MC: ngjwon dzriX OC: ŋɡon dzrɯʔ 1 Attribution
                        • NPBasic Officers
                        令史   lìng líng shǐ MC: ljeng sriX OC: ɡ-reŋ srɯʔ 1 Attribution
                        • NPCommanding Archivist, Chief Librarian
                        車右   chē yòu yǒu MC: tsyhae hjuwX OC: khlja ɢʷɯʔ 1 Attribution
                        • NPofficial travel companion; travel official on the right
                        官人   guān rén MC: kwan nyin OC: koon njin 1 Attribution
                        • NPnonreferentialhigher official
                           shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
                        • nSHI: functionary
                           hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 0 Attributions
                        • nagentofficial; patrol
                           zūn OC: skun MC: tsʷin 0 Attributions
                        • nLIJI: ceremonial assistant
                           sī OC: sqlɯ MC: sɨ 0 Attributions

                        Sī 司 is a general term used in names of offices, and expressing responsility for something.

                        • vt[oN1.adN2]one who takes official care of a some business> officer (SHU)
                           yuán OC: ɢon MC: ɦiɛn 0 Attributions

                        Yuán 員 originally refers to officials as counted units, and the word came to be used as a general term for officials.

                        • nmcollectivepersonel
                           qiáng OC: sɡaŋ MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

                        Qiáng 嬙 was a court female officer.

                        • nagentfemale court officer (ZUO)
                           shǔ OC: djoɡ MC: dʑi̯ok 0 Attributions

                        Shǔ 屬 refers to the assistant of a leading official.

                        • nsupporting officer, official belonging to a faction or party
                            OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
                        • ndistrict prefect
                           zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 0 Attributions
                        • ndignitary (in 公族 "dignitary in the ducal clan")
                           zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
                        • npost-NN=objofficial in charge of (e.g. music); person in charge of (someone else)
                        • nofficial
                           jùn OC: skluns MC: tsʷin 0 Attributions

                        Jùn 畯 was in antiquity an official in charge of agriculture.

                        • nagentinspector of fields (SHI)
                           xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                        • ndirector of ceremonies (ZUO)
                        • viactmaster of ceremonies
                           zhì OC: rliɡ MC: ɖit 0 Attributions
                        • nadNofficial
                           lǎo OC: ɡ-ruuʔ MC: lɑu 0 Attributions

                        Lǎo 老 originally politely referred to higher officials (>gōng 公, >qīng 卿, >dài fū 大夫), therefore it came to be used as a general term referring to high officials.

                        • nsenior local official; elders
                           qiú OC: sɡlu MC: dzɨu 0 Attributions
                        • nagentmaster of wine (LI)
                        三揖   sān yī OC: saam qib MC: sɑm ʔip 0 Attributions
                        • NPthe various officials 卿,大夫,士
                        令正   lìng zhèng OC: ɡ-reŋ tjeŋs MC: liɛŋ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
                        • NPofficial in charge of public orders and decrees
                        典衣   diǎn yī OC: tɯɯnʔ qɯl MC: ten ʔɨi 0 Attributions
                        • ntitleofficial in charge of garment
                        卜士   bǔ shì OC: pooɡ dzrɯʔ MC: puk ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
                        • NPdivining gentleman> diviner
                        右宰   yòu zǎi OC: ɢʷɯʔ tsɯɯʔ MC: ɦɨu tsəi 0 Attributions
                        • NP=NprSteward of the Right by the name of Npr
                        史官   shǐ guān OC: srɯʔ koon MC: ʂɨ kʷɑn 0 Attributions
                        • NPtitlearchivist; "historian"
                        司歷   sī lì OC: sqlɯ reeɡ MC: sɨ lek 0 Attributions
                        • NPofficial in charge of the calendar
                        士人   shì rén OC: dzrɯʔ njin MC: ɖʐɨ ȵin 0 Attributions

                        Shì rén 士人 can be also used as a general term referring to the whole body of officials.

                        • NPgentlemen
                        官吏   guān lì OC: koon rɯs MC: kʷɑn lɨ 0 Attributions

                        Guān lì 官吏 is a general term for employes of various offices.

                        • NPpluralofficials 群臣官吏
                        宦官   huàn guān OC: ɢʷraans koon MC: ɦɣan kʷɑn 0 Attributions
                        • NPpluralofficials
                        宰人   zǎi rén OC: tsɯɯʔ njin MC: tsəi ȵin 0 Attributions
                        • NPsenior official
                        宰旅   zǎi lǚ OC: tsɯɯʔ raʔ MC: tsəi li̯ɤ 0 Attributions
                        • NPpluralsenior officials below the ministerial level
                        小相   xiǎo xiàng OC: smewʔ sqaŋs MC: siɛu si̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                        • NPminor ceremonial official; minor ceremonial usher
                        工尹   gōng yǐn OC: kooŋ k-lunʔ MC: kuŋ jʷin 0 Attributions
                        • NPdirector of the workmen
                        火正   huǒ zhèng OC: qphaalʔ tjeŋs MC: hʷɑ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
                        • NPofficial in charge of the fire brigade
                        • NP=Nprofficial Npr
                        用事   yòng shì OC: k-loŋs dzrɯs MC: ji̯oŋ ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
                        • VP[adN]those who hold office
                        • VPadN(person) in active official charge
                        • VPiactbe in charge of official tasks
                        甸人   diàn rén OC: ɡ-liiŋs njin MC: den ȵin 0 Attributions
                        • NPhead gardener; superintendant of ruler’s own garden & fields; head of the hunting expedition in a park ZUO: : 使甸人獻麥 He made his head gardener present some barley.
                        百工   bǎi gōng OC: praaɡ kooŋ MC: pɣɛk kuŋ 0 Attributions
                        • NPcollectivethe various officials
                        署史   shǔ shǐ OC: ɡljas srɯʔ MC: dʑi̯ɤ ʂɨ 0 Attributions
                        • NPoffice archivist
                        舍人   shè rén OC: lʰas njin MC: ɕɣɛ ȵin 0 Attributions
                        • NPpost=NprtitleSecretary Npr
                        諸司   zhū sī OC: klja sqlɯ MC: tɕi̯ɤ sɨ 0 Attributions
                        • NPdefinitethe various officials
                        謀主   móu zhǔ OC: mɯ tjoʔ MC: mɨu tɕi̯o 0 Attributions
                        • NPsenior advisor
                        貳宗   èr zōng OC: njis tsuuŋ MC: ȵi tsuo̝ŋ 0 Attributions
                        • NPofficials of the state who are relatives of the 大夫 dignitaries
                        遒人   qiú rén OC: sɡlu njin MC: dzɨu ȵin 0 Attributions
                        • NPherald
                        用事者   yòng shì zhě OC: k-loŋs dzrɯs kljaʔ MC: ji̯oŋ ɖʐɨ tɕɣɛ 0 Attributions
                        • NP{vtoN.adnpro}person in charge
                        中射之士   zhōng shè zhī shì OC: krluŋ ɢljaɡs kljɯ dzrɯʔ MC: ʈuŋ ʑɣɛ tɕɨ ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
                        • NPguard
                           zhòng OC: tjuŋs MC: tɕuŋ 0 Attributions
                        • npluralthe many officials
                            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                        • NPtitle: Receiver of Guests
                            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                        • NPpluraldefinite: all the various officials below the top level of the adminstration 臣,大夫
                            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                        • NPSupervisor of the Fields
                            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                        • NPBasic Officers
                            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                        • NPsenior official at the 縣 level: District Officials
                        廷掾   tíng yuàn MC: deng ywenH OC: deeŋ -- 0 Attributions
                        • NPsenior official at the 縣 level: District Officials

                        Existing SW for

                        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: