AND  並列連詞

ALL of TWO THINGS OR ACTIONS OR FEATURES.
Taxonoymy

NONETHELESSWITHBUTMOREOVER

Antonymy

NONE

See also

ALSO

Kind Of

ALL

Old Chinese Criteria

[VERBAL-SCOPE/NOMINAL-SCOPE]

[PREDICATE-SCOPE/SENTENCE-SCOPE/SUBJECT-SCOPE]

1. Yǔ 與 "and" is the general all-purpose coordinating particle between NPs which, in ZUO, is equally common in subject and object position, and which coordinates both with concrete and abstract items, often topics, sometimes even pivots.

[NOMINAL-SCOPE]

2. Jí 及 "and" is between NPs, and at least in ZUO the conjunction is predominantly between concrete (also multiple) objects and occasionally between non-abstract subjects.

[NOMINAL-SCOPE]

3. E@r 而 is between VPs or sentences (and can occasionally occur between subject/topic nouns and the predicate in subordinate sentences, but in usage it does not belong into the present synonym group).

[SENTENCE-SCOPE], [VERBAL SCOPE]

4. Yǐ 以 is normally between a non-main and a main VP but may occasionally be purely coordinating and equivalent to ér 而.

[VERBAL-SCOPE]

5. Jì 既... ér 而 is between coordinates and equally weighted VPs.

[VERBAL-SCOPE]

6. Qiě 且 is between coordinate VPs, but the word also functions as a sentence connective.

[VERBAL-SCOPE], [SENTENCE-SCOPE]

Modern Chinese Criteria

以及

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

AND

et is the general connective.

-que connects opposites: "but also".

et... et emphasises surprising cooccurrence.

ac and atque connect near synonyms.

MOREOVER

praeterea refers to something supplementing and completing significantly what has gone before.

insuper refers to something just coming in addition to what has gone before.

ultro refers to something which goes beyond and exceeds what has gone before in such a striking way that it casts everything else into the background.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 177

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • padV1.postV2 : 209
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVt : 209
  • vtoN1.postN2:+V : 81
  • padS1.post-S2 : 44
  • padV.post-S : 32
  • vtoN1.postN2:+S : 21
  • nadS1.postS2 : 19
  • VPt+N1.postN2 : 14
  • VPt0oN1.postN2 : 12
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVt:.+V : 12
  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 11
  • padS1.postS2 : 10
  • vtoN1.postN2:adN3 : 7
  • vt+V1.postadV2 : 7
  • padN1.postN2 : 5
  • VPt0+prep+N1.post-:vtoN2:.+V : 5
  • vtoN1.postN2 : 4
  • vadV1.adV2 : 4
  • vadV1.postV2 : 4
  • vadV1.adV2:postN : 3
  • vtoN.postNpro:postVt : 3
  • vadV1.postV2 : 2
  • vt[0]+V[0].adS : 2
  • PPadS1.adS2 : 1
  • p1adV1+.p1adV2 : 1
  • nab : 1
  • PP{DISCONT} : 1
  • VPt+V1.postV2 : 1
  • padV : 1
  • PPadV1.postV2 : 1
  • padv{NUM}.post-v{NUM} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 260
  • 荀子 : 148
  • 論語 : 75
  • 說苑 : 35
  • 孟子 : 30
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 莊子 : 23
  • 百喻經 : 16
  • 孝經 : 15
  • 呂氏春秋 : 11
  • 管子 : 10
  • 戰國策 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 8
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 7
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 晏子春秋 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 列子 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 周易 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 新序 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   ér OC: njɯ MC: ȵɨ 262 Attributions

Ér 而 is between VPs or sentences (and can occasionally occur between subject/topic nouns and the predicate in subordinate sentences, but in usage it does not belong into the present synonym group). [SENTENCE-SCOPE], [VERBAL SCOPE]

  • padN1.postN2internominal "and": rare and problematic usage...
  • padS1.post-S2logicand 任重而道遠"his burden is heavy and the way is far"
  • padS1.post-S2and
  • padV.post-Scontemporarye.g. 之市而忘操之 "when he went to the market he forgot to take it along": and at the same time, and on that occasion; (when S) at that time
  • padV1.postV2logice.g. 謹而信"be diligent and trustworthy": and 
  • padV1.postV2modale.g. 不遠千里而來 "not regard 1000 leagues far and thus come along": and in that way, and thus, and as a result, and consequently
  • padV1.postV2sequencee.g. 拜而受之 "bow and accept it" and then, and thereupon;  (often coordinates two verbal predicates with the same subject)
  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adSrelative clausee.g. 人而無信吾不知其可也"If a person lacks good faith..." (one who is N) and/but (does not V)
  • padS1.postS2modaland in that way, and thus, and as a result, and consequently
   yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 203 Attributions

Yǔ 與 "and" is the general all-purpose coordinating particle between NPs which, in ZUO, is equally common in subject and object position, and which coordinates both with concrete and abstract items, often topics, sometimes even pivots. [NOMINAL-SCOPE]

  • vtoN.postNpro:postVtand also, and in addition
  • vtoN1.postN2:+Vand 吾與汝俱不如也
  • vtoN1.postN2:+Stopicand 父與夫孰親
  • vtoN1.postN2:+Vmultipleas well as, and in addition
  • vtoN1.postN2:adN3adnominaland 非我與吾子之罪
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtN=multipleand (conjoining objects) 。
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtobjectand 衛侯逐公叔戍與其黨,
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtN=abstractand (conjoining abstract N) 禮與信
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVt:.+Vpivotand (conjoining pivots) 使公子燮與子儀守
   jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 136 Attributions

Jí 及 "and" is between NPs, and at least in ZUO the conjunction is predominantly between concrete (also multiple) objects and occasionally between non-abstract subjects. [NOMINAL-SCOPE]

  • nabautonymthe word 及 "and"
  • vt+V1.postadV2and
  • vtoN.postNpro:postVtand also, and in addition
  • vtoN1.postN2:+Vand
  • vtoN1.postN2:+VN=multipleand
  • vtoN1.postN2:+VrelatedN1 including also N2 (which belong together with N1)
  • vtoN1.postN2:adN3adnominaland (between adnominal nominals)
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtobjectand [no examples in LY]
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtN=multipleand in addition; and even, and including even; and along with that (often: contrary to what one might have assumed) 殺陽令終與其弟完及佗與晉陳及其子弟。
  • vtoN1.postN2:postVtN1 and N2 non-homogeneousand
   qiě OC:  MC: tshɣɛ 44 Attributions

Qiě 且 is between coordinate VPs, but the word also functions as a sentence connective. [VERBAL-SCOPE], [SENTENCE-SCOPE]

  • padV1.postV2and moreover V1且V2 富且貴 "get rich and even noble"
  • padV1.postV2repeatedboth V1ed and V2ed
  • padV1.postV2sequenceand then also, in addition
   gù  MC: kuH  OC: kaas  18 Attributions
  • nadS1.postS2and so, so, thus; signalling another step in argumentation, with a hardly perceivable causal meaning or without any at all
以及   yǐ jí OC: k-lɯʔ ɡrɯb MC: jɨ gip 12 Attributions

>>NOMINAL SCOPE

  • VPt0oN1.postN2evenand even; and thus also
及以   jí yǐ OC: ɡrɯb k-lɯʔ MC: gip jɨ 7 Attributions
  • VPt+N1.postN2and
  • VPt+V1.postV2and (linking verbal expressions)
   fǔ OC: poʔ MC: pi̯o 5 Attributions
  • vadV1.postV2and also 仰...俯
  • vadV1.+V2俯...仰 on the one hand ... and on the other hand
以至   yǐ zhì OC: k-lɯʔ kljiɡs MC: jɨ tɕi 5 Attributions
  • VPt0+prep+N1.post-:vtoN2:.+V(from the X-kind) down to (the Y-kind of people)
   yǎng OC: ŋaŋʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vadV1.adV2one the one hand (and on the other) 仰...俯
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋʔ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • vadV1.adV2:postNon the one hand (上。。。下 on the one hand... on the other hand)
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 3 Attributions

Yǐ 以 is normally between a non-main and a main VP but may occasionally be purely coordinating and equivalent to ér 而. [VERBAL-SCOPE]

  • padV.post-Sin in that connection, and in that capacity
及與   jí yǔ OC: ɡrɯb k-laʔ MC: gip ji̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • VPt+N1.postN2along with
并及   bìng jí OC: peŋs ɡrɯb MC: piɛŋ gip 3 Attributions
  • VPt+N1.postN2objectand
   xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • vadV1.postV2and on the other hand
   bìng OC: beeŋʔ MC: beŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoN1.postN2OBI: and, with; and, as well as (the N1 can consist of several persons or items)
有 / 又   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoN1.postN2and 一身有半 (loan for yòu 又)
  • padv{NUM}.post-v{NUM}and in addition
   bìng OC: peŋs MC: piɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt+V1.postadV2and (between verbal expressions)
  • vtoN1.postN2and, with
   jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 2 Attributions
  • vt[0]+V[0].adSboth (... and) 既...又
乃至   nǎi zhì OC: nɯɯʔ kljiɡs MC: nəi tɕi 2 Attributions
  • VPt+N1.postN2and even
   rú OC: nja MC: ȵi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • padV1.postV2and (contrary to expectations)
   yì OC: k-laɡ MC: jiɛk 1 Attribution

MOVE TO "ALSO"

  • padVquestionAnd N 亦如何 "and how is N"
   jiān OC: kleem MC: kem 1 Attribution
  • vt+V1.postadV2and, and in addition, and in combination
   zài OC: tsɯɯs MC: tsəi 1 Attribution
  • p1adV1+.p1adV2both... and 再欲殺之,再欲活之 "wanted both to kill the tortoise and let it live"
一則   yī zé OC: qliɡ skɯɯɡ MC: ʔit tsək 1 Attribution
  • PPadS1.adS2on the one hand... on the other hand
而且   ér qiě OC: njɯ MC: ȵɨ tshɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • PPadV1.postV2and
既復   jì fù OC: kɯds buɡs MC: kɨi bɨu 1 Attribution
  • PP{DISCONT}both x and y, not only x but also y
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • padN1.postN2OBI 5: and in addition (between two noun phrases)
   jì OC: ɡrɯds MC: gi 0 Attributions
  • padN1.postN2and
既又   jì yòu OC: kɯds ɢʷɯs MC: kɨi ɦɨu 0 Attributions
    既而   jì ér OC: kɯds njɯ MC: kɨi ȵɨ 0 Attributions

    Jì 既 ... ér 而 is between coordinates and equally weighted VPs. [VERBAL-SCOPE] VERBAL-SCOPE

      終且   zhōng qiě OC: tjuŋ MC: tɕuŋ tshɣɛ 0 Attributions

        Existing SW for

        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: